281 Works

Data from: Blinded by the load: attention, awareness and the role of perceptual load

Nilli Lavie, Diane M. Beck & Nikos Konstantinou
What is the relationship between attention and conscious awareness? Awareness sometimes appears to be restricted to the contents of focused attention, yet at other times irrelevant distractors will dominate awareness. This contradictory relationship has also been reflected in an abundance of discrepant research findings leading to an enduring controversy in cognitive psychology. Lavie's load theory of attention suggests that the puzzle can be solved by considering the role of perceptual load. Although distractors will intrude...

Mg/Ca ratios from multiple species of planktonic foraminifera from the Middle Miocene to modern from multiple sites in the global ocean

E.M. Mawbey, F. Boscolo-Galazzo, B.S. Wade & P.N. Pearson
Mg/Ca in multiple species of planktonic foraminifera from five time slices since the Middle Miocene to present (target ages 15, 12.5, 10, 7.5, 4.5, 2.5 and 0 Ma). These samples are from a range of globally and latitudinally distributed DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Program), ODP (Ocean Drilling Program), IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) open ocean sites. From low to high latitudes these are: Site U1338, U1489 (Eastern and Western Equatorial Pacific), Sites 871, 872, and...

Data from: Contrasting trajectories of morphological diversification on continents and islands in the Afrotropical white-eye radiation

Julia J. Day, Frederico C. Martins, Joseph A. Tobias & David J. Murrell
Aim Morphological and lineage evolution are predicted to follow different patterns in island and mainland radiations. However, the extent to which these geographical contexts influence evolutionary trajectories remains poorly understood, in part because few studies have focused on species-rich clades colonising continents and archipelagos over comparable timeframes. Focusing on a diverse songbird clade radiating on the African continent and adjacent islands, we tested whether morphological evolution is best explained by adaptive or non-adaptive processes, and...

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

Data from: Near-infrared dual bioluminescence imaging in mouse models of cancer using infraluciferin

James Anderson & Martin Pule
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is ubiquitous in scientific research for the sensitive tracking of biological processes in small animal models. However, due to the attenuation of visible light by tissue, and the limited set of near-infrared bioluminescent enzymes, BLI is largely restricted to monitoring single processes in vivo. Here we show, that by combining stabilised colour mutants of firefly luciferase (FLuc) with the luciferin (LH2) analogue infraluciferin (iLH2), near-infrared dual BLI can be achievedin vivo. The...

Data from: Current ecology, not ancestral dispersal patterns, influences menopause symptom severity

Yuping Yang, Megan Arnot & Ruth Mace
All human females who reach midlife experience menopause, however, it is currently unclear why women experience this period of infertility, and why it is accompanied by many unpleasant symptoms. Using primary data from four ethnic groups in China, we test an existing theory that age of menopause and its symptoms are the result of intragenomic conflict between maternally and paternally inherited genes, with the outcome of such conflict predicted to be contingent on the ancestral...

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu, Paschalia Kapli, Carola Greve, James E. Jepson, Xingyue Liu, Xin Zhou, Horst Aspöck & Ulrike Aspöck
Background The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Data from: Visual and non-visual navigation in blind patients with a retinal prosthesis

Sara Garcia, Karin Petrini, Gary S. Rubin, Lyndon Da Cruz & Marko Nardini
Human adults with normal vision can combine visual landmark and non-visual self-motion cues to improve their navigational precision. Here we asked whether blind individuals treated with a retinal prosthesis could also benefit from using the resultant new visual signal together with non-visual information when navigating. Four patients (blind for 15-52 years) implanted with the Argus II retinal prosthesis (Second Sight Medical Products Inc. Sylmar, CA), and five age-matched and six younger controls, participated. Participants completed...

Data from: Cross-species hybridization and the origin of North African date palms

Jonathan M. Flowers, Khaled M. Hazzouri, Muriel Gros-Balthazard, Ziyi Mo, Konstantina Koutroumpa, Andreas Perrakis, Sylvie Ferrand, Hussam S. M. Khierallah, Dorian Q. Fuller, Frederique Aberlenc, Christini Fournaraki & Michael D. Purugganan
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a major fruit crop of arid regions that were domesticated 7,000 y ago in the Near or Middle East. This species is cultivated widely in the Middle East and North Africa, and previous population genetic studies have shown genetic differentiation between these regions. We investigated the evolutionary history of P. dactylifera and its wild relatives by resequencing the genomes of date palm varieties and five of its closest relatives....

Data from: Coupling of palaeontological and neontological reef coral data improves forecasts of biodiversity responses under global climatic change

Lewis A. Jones, Philip D. Mannion, Alexander Farnsworth, Paul J. Valdes, Sarah-Jane Kelland & Peter A. Allison
Reef corals are currently undergoing climatically-driven poleward range expansions, with some evidence for equatorial range retractions. Predicting their response to future climate scenarios is critical to their conservation, but ecological models are based only on short-term observations. The fossil record provides the only empirical evidence for the long-term response of organisms under perturbed climate states. The palaeontological record from the Last Interglacial (LIG; 125,000 years ago), a time of global warming, suggests that reef corals...

Data from: Is predictability salient? A study of attentional capture by auditory patterns

Rosy Southwell, Anna Baumann, Cécile Gal, Nicolas Barascud, Karl Friston & Maria Chait
In this series of behavioural and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments, we investigate the extent to which repeating patterns of sounds capture attention. Work in the visual domain has revealed attentional capture by statistically predictable stimuli, consistent with predictive coding accounts which suggest that attention is drawn to sensory regularities. Here, stimuli comprised rapid sequences of tone pips, arranged in regular (REG) or random (RAND) patterns. EEG data demonstrate that the brain rapidly recognizes predictable patterns manifested...

Data from: Divergence in brain composition during the early stages of ecological specialization in Heliconius butterflies

Stephen H. Montgomery & Richard M. Merrill
During speciation across ecological gradients diverging populations are exposed to contrasting sensory and spatial information that present new behavioural and perceptive challenges. These challenges may be met by heritable or environmentally-induced changes in brain function which mediate behaviour. However, few studies have investigated patterns of neural divergence at the early stages of speciation, inhibiting our understanding of the relative importance of these processes. Here, we provide a novel case study. The incipient species pair, Heliconius...

Data from: A circuit mechanism for decision making biases and NMDA receptor hypofunction

Sean Cavanagh, Norman Lam, John Murray, Laurence Hunt & Steven Kennerley
Decision-making biases can be features of normal behaviour, or deficits underlying neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used behavioural psychophysics, spiking-circuit modelling and pharmacological manipulations to explore decision-making biases during evidence integration. Monkeys showed a pro-variance bias (PVB): a preference to choose options with more variable evidence. The PVB was also present in a spiking circuit model, revealing a potential neural mechanism for this behaviour. To model possible effects of NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism on this behaviour, we...

Tuning cell behavior with nanoparticle shape

Loris Rizzello, Alessandro Poma, Eva Liatsi-Douvitsa, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria De Matteis, Cesare De Pace, Adrian Joseph, Claudia Contini, Edoardo Scarpa, Josep Martí, Loris Rizzello & Senio De Souza
We investigated how the shape of polymeric vesicles, made by the exact same material, impacts the replication activity and metabolic state of both cancer and non-cancer cell types. First, we isolated discrete geometrical structures (spheres and tubes) from a heterogeneous sample using density-gradient centrifugation. Then, we characterized the cellular internalization and the kinetics of uptake of both types of polymersomes in different cell types (either cancer or non-cancer cells). We also investigated the cellular metabolic...

Data from: Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

Adam J. Dobson, Joanne Purves & Jens Rolff
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a...

Data from: Palenque de San Basilio in Colombia: genetic data supports an oral history of a paternal ancestry in Congo

Naser Ansari-Pour, Yves Moñino, Constanza Duque, Natalia Gallego, Gabriel Bedoya, Mark G. Thomas & Neil Bradman
The Palenque, a black community in rural Colombia, have an oral history of fugitive African slaves founding a free village near Cartagena in the seventeenth century. Recently, linguists have identified some 200 words in regular use that originate in a Kikongo language, with Yombe, mainly spoken in the Congo region, being the most likely source. The non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA were analysed to establish whether there was greater similarity...

Data from: Patterns of mammalian population decline inform conservation action

Martina M. I. Di Fonzo, Ben Collen, Alienor L. M. Chauvenet & Georgina M. Mace
1. Evaluations of wildlife population dynamics have the potential to convey valuable information on the type of pressure affecting a population and could help predict future changes in the population's trajectory. Greater understanding of different patterns of population declines could provide a useful mechanism for assessing decline severity in the wild and identifying those populations that are more likely to exhibit severe declines. 2. We identified 93 incidences of decline within 75 populations of mammalian...

Data from: Enhanced flight performance by genetic manipulation of wing shape in Drosophila

Robert P. Ray, Toshiyuki Nakata, Per Henningsson & Richard J. Bomphrey
Insect wing shapes are remarkably diverse and the combination of shape and kinematics determines both aerial capabilities and power requirements. However, the contribution of any specific morphological feature to performance is not known. Using targeted RNA interference to modify wing shape far beyond the natural variation found within the population of a single species, we show a direct effect on flight performance that can be explained by physical modelling of the novel wing geometry. Our...

Data from: Social seeking declines in young adolescents

Indu Dubey, Danielle Ropar & Antonia F. De C. Hamilton
The desire to engage with others is an important motivational force throughout our lifespan. It is known that social behaviour and preferences change from childhood to adulthood, but whether this change is linked with any changes in social motivation is not known. We evaluated 255 typically developing participants from ages 4–20 years on a behavioural paradigm ‘Choose a Movie’ (CAM). On every trial, participants had a choice between viewing social or non-social movies presented with...

Data from: Oral microbiomes from hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers reveal shifts in commensal balance and pathogen load linked to diet

Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G. Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano & Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in...

Data from: Do rivers influence fine-scale population genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans?

M. Abdul Aziz, Olutolani Smith, Adam Barlow, Simon Tollington, & Jim J. Groombridge
Global tiger Panthera tigris populations mostly survive within the geographically fragmented forest patches, thereby limited genetic exchange between isolated populations. Assessing the genetic status of these populations can reveal the effects of dispersal barriers and provide critical insights to guide future conservation actions. Using non-invasively collected biological samples, we investigated fine-scale genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans mangrove forests intersected by the complex river systems, and which holds one of the largest global tiger...

Data from: Palaeontology meets metacommunity ecology: The Maastricthian dinosaur fossil record of North America as a case study

Jorge García-Girón, Jani Heino, Janne Alahuhta, Alfio Alessandro Chiarenza & Steve Brusatte
Documenting the patterns and potential associated processes of ancient biotas has always been a central challenge in palaeontology. Over the last decades, intense debate has focused on the organisation of dinosaur–dominated communities, yet no general consensus has been reached on how these communities were organised in a spatial context and if primarily affected by abiotic or biotic agents. Here, we used analytical routines typically applied in metacommunity ecology to provide novel insights into dinosaurian distributions...

Data from: Variation in promiscuity and sexual selection drives avian rate of Faster-Z evolution

Alison E. Wright, Peter W. Harrison, Fabian Zimmer, Stephen H. Montgomery, Marie A. Pointer & Judith E. Mank
Higher rates of coding sequence evolution have been observed on the Z chromosome relative to the autosomes across a wide range of species. However, despite a considerable body of theory, we lack empirical evidence explaining variation in the strength of the Faster-Z Effect. To assess the magnitude and drivers of Faster-Z Evolution, we assembled six de novo transcriptomes, spanning 90 million years of avian evolution. Our analysis combines expression, sequence and polymorphism data with measures...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

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