341 Works

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Intergroup aggression in meerkats

Mark Dyble, Thomas Houslay, Marta Manser & Tim Clutton-Brock
Violent conflicts between groups have been observed among many species of group living mammals and can have important fitness consequences, with individuals being injured or killed and with losing groups surrendering territory. Here, we explore between-group conflict among meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a highly social and cooperatively breeding mongoose. We show that interactions between meerkat groups are frequently 18 aggressive and sometimes escalate to fighting and lethal violence and that these interactions have consequences for group...

The impact of genetic adaptation on chimpanzee subspecies differentiation

Joshua Schmidt, Sergi Castellano, Marc De Manuel, Aida Andrés & Tomas Marques-Bonet
Chimpanzees, humans’ closest relatives, are in danger of extinction. Aside from direct human impacts such as hunting and habitat destruction, a key threat is transmissible disease. As humans continue to encroach upon their habitats, which shrink in size and grow in density, the risk of inter-population and cross-species viral transmission increases, a point dramatically made in the reverse with the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Inhabiting central Africa, the four subspecies of chimpanzees differ in demographic history...

Borane Catalyzed Stereoselective C–H insertion, Cyclopropanation, and Ring-Opening Reactions - data

Ayan Dasgupta, Rasool Babaahmadi, Ben Slater, Brian F Yates, Alireza Ariafard & Rebecca L Melen
Lewis acidic boranes have been shown to be an effective metal-free catalyst for highly selective reactions of donor-acceptor diazo compounds to a range of substrates. The reactions of α-aryl α-diazoesters with nitrogen heterocycles indole or pyrrole selectively generates C3 and C2 C–H insertion products respectively in good to excellent yields even when using unprotected indoles. Alternatively, benzofuran, indene, and alkene substrates give exclusively cyclopropanated products with α-aryl α-diazoesters, whereas the reactions with furans leads to...

Data from: The complexity of mating decisions in stalk-eyed flies

Nadine C. Chapman, Penthai Siriwat, James Howie, Aaron Towlson, Lawrence Bellamy, Kevin Fowler & Andrew Pomiankowski
All too often, studies of sexual selection focus exclusively on the responses in one sex, on single traits, typically those that are exaggerated and strongly sexually dimorphic. They ignore a range of less obvious traits and behavior, in both sexes, involved in the interactions leading to mate choice. To remedy this imbalance, we analyze a textbook example of sexual selection in the stalk-eyed fly (Diasemopsis meigenii). We studied several traits in a novel, insightful, and...

Data from: Completeness of the eutherian mammal fossil record and implications for reconstructing mammal evolution through the Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction

Thomas W. Davies, Mark A. Bell, Anjali Goswami & Thomas J.D. Halliday
There is a well-established discrepancy between paleontological and molecular data regarding the timing of the origin and diversification of placental mammals. Molecular estimates place interordinal diversification dates in the Cretaceous, whilst no unambiguous crown placental fossils have been found prior to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Here, the completeness of the eutherian fossil record through geological time is evaluated in order to assess the suggestion that a poor fossil record is largely responsible for the difference...

Data from: A prioritised list of invasive alien species to assist the effective implementation of EU legislation

Carles Carboneras, Piero Genovesi, Montserrat Vila, Tim Blackburn, Martina Carrete, Miguel Clavero, Bram D'hondt, Jorge F. Orueta, Belinda Gallardo, Pedro Geraldes, Pablo González-Moreno, Richard D. Gregory, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jean-Yves Paquet, Petr Pysek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Iván Ramírez, Riccardo Scalera, Jose Tella, Paul Walton, Robin Wynde & Tim M. Blackburn
1. Effective prevention and control of invasive species generally relies on a comprehensive, coherent and representative list of species that enables resources to be used optimally. European Union (EU) Regulation 1143/2014 on invasive alien species (IAS) aims to control or eradicate priority species, and to manage pathways to prevent the introduction and establishment of new IAS; it applies to species considered of Union concern and subject to formal risk assessment. So far, 49 species have...

Data from: Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight

Richard J. Bomphrey, Toshiyuki Nakata, Nathan Phillips & Simon M. Walker
Mosquitoes exhibit unusual wing kinematics; their long, slender wings flap at remarkably high frequencies for their size (>800 Hz)and with lower stroke amplitudes than any other insect group1. This shifts weight support away from the translation-dominated, aerodynamic mechanisms used by most insects2, as well as by helicopters and aeroplanes, towards poorly understood rotational mechanisms that occur when pitching at the end of each half-stroke. Here we report free-flight mosquito wing kinematics, solve the full Navier–Stokes...

Data from: Response repetition biases in human perceptual decisions are explained by activity decay in competitive attractor models

James J. Bonaiuto, Archy O. De Berker, Sven Bestmann & Archy De Berker
Animals and humans have a tendency to repeat recent choices, a phenomenon known as choice hysteresis. The mechanism for this choice bias remains unclear. Using an established, biophysically informed model of a competitive attractor network for decision making, we found that decaying tail activity from the previous trial caused choice hysteresis, especially during difficult trials, and accurately predicted human perceptual choices. In the model, choice variability could be directionally altered through amplification or dampening of...

Data from: Parental investment in a Tibetan population does not reflect stated cultural norms

Juan Du & Ruth Mace
In this paper, we examined both stated norms of gender preference and actual sex-biases in parental investment in a Tibetan pastoralist society. We collected detailed demographic data to examine how biased parental investment had an effect on infant mortality, infant feeding, the length of interbirth intervals and a decision when giving gifts. Our results indicate a mismatch between self-reported son preference and measures of actual parental investment that favour daughters. We interpret this female-biased parental...

Data from: Variation in the benefits of multiple mating on female fertility in wild stalk-eyed flies

Lara Meade, Elisabeth Harley, Alison Cotton, James Howie, Andrew Pomiankowski, Kevin Fowler & James M. Howie
Polyandry, female mating with multiple males, is widespread across many taxa and almost ubiquitous in insects. This conflicts with the traditional idea that females are constrained by their comparatively large investment in each offspring, and so should only need to mate once or a few times. Females may need to mate multiply to gain sufficient sperm supplies to maintain their fertility, especially in species in which male promiscuity results in division of their ejaculate amongst...

Data from: Sex and genotype effects on nutrient-dependent fitness landscapes in Drosophila melanogaster

M. Florencia Camus, Kevin Fowler, Matthew W.D. Piper, Max Reuter & Matthew W. D. Piper
The sexes perform different reproductive roles and have evolved sometimes strikingly different phenotypes. One focal point of adaptive divergence occurs in the context of diet and metabolism, and males and females of a range of species have been shown to require different nutrients to maximize their fitness. Biochemical analyses in Drosophila melanogaster have confirmed that dimorphism in dietary requirements is associated with molecular sex differences in metabolite titres. In addition, they also showed significant within-sex...

Data from: Using phylogenomic data to explore the effects of relaxed clocks and calibration strategies on divergence time estimation: primates as a test case

Mario Dos Reis, Gregg F. Gunnell, Jose Barba-Montoya, Alex Wilkins, Ziheng Yang & Anne D. Yoder
Primates have long been a test case for the development of phylogenetic methods for divergence time estimation. Despite a large number of studies, however, the timing of origination of crown Primates relative to the K-Pg boundary and the timing of diversification of the main crown groups remain controversial. Here we analysed a dataset of 372 taxa (367 Primates and 5 outgroups, 3.4 million aligned base pairs) that includes nine primate genomes. We systematically explore the...

Data from: Shotgun mitogenomics across body size classes in a local assemblage of tropical Diptera: phylogeny, species diversity and mitochondrial abundance spectrum

Le Qin Choo, Alex Crampton-Platt & Alfried P. Vogler
Mitochondrial genomes can be assembled readily from shotgun-sequenced DNA mixtures of mass-trapped arthropods (“mitochondrial metagenomics”), speeding up the taxonomic characterization. Bulk sequencing was conducted on some 800 individuals of Diptera obtained by canopy fogging of a single tree in Borneo dominated by small (<1.5 mm) individuals. Specimens were split into five body size classes for DNA extraction, to equalize read numbers across specimens and to study how body size, a key ecological trait, interacts with...

Data from: The spectre of too many species

Adam D. Leache, Tianqi Zhu, Bruce Rannala & Ziheng Yang
Recent simulation studies examining the performance of Bayesian species delimitation as implemented in the BPP program have suggested that BPP may detect population splits but not species divergences and that it tends to over-split when data of many loci are analyzed. Here we confirm these results and provide the mathematical justifications. We point out that the distinction between population and species splits made in the protracted speciation model has no influence on the generation of...

Data from: An assessment of the role of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli in the cranium of the cat (Felis silvestris catus)

Víctor Sellés De Lucas, Hugo Dutel, Susan E. Evans, Flora Gröning, Alana C. Sharp, Peter J. Watson & Michael J. Fagan
The falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli are two projections of the dura mater in the cranial cavity which ossify to varying degrees in some mammalian species. The idea that the ossification of these structures may be necessary to support the loads arising during feeding has been proposed and dismissed in the past, but never tested quantitatively. To address this, a biomechanical model of a domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) skull was created and the...

Data from: Non-invasive imaging of CSF-mediated brain clearance pathways via assessment of perivascular fluid movement with DTI MRI

Ian F. Harrison, Bernard Siow, Aisha B. Akilo, Phoebe G. Evans, Ozama Ismail, Yolanda Ohene, Payam Nahavandi, David L. Thomas, Mark F. Lythgoe & Jack A. Wells
The glymphatics system describes a CSF-mediated clearance pathway for the removal of potentially harmful molecules, such as amyloid beta, from the brain. As such, its components may represent new therapeutic targets to alleviate aberrant protein accumulation that defines the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions. Currently, however, the absence of any non-invasive measurement technique prohibits detailed understanding of glymphatic function in the human brain and in turn, it's role in pathology. Here, we present the first non-invasive...

Data from: Decision and navigation in mouse parietal cortex

Michael Krumin, Julie J. Lee, Kenneth D. Harris & Matteo Carandini
Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has been implicated in navigation, in the control of movement, and in visually-guided decisions. To relate these views, we measured activity in PPC while mice performed a virtual navigation task driven by visual decisions. PPC neurons were selective for specific combinations of the animal's spatial position and heading angle. This selectivity closely predicted both the activity of individual PPC neurons, and the arrangement of their collective firing patterns in choice-selective sequences....

Data from: Is it possible to reconstruct an accurate cell lineage using CRISPR recorders?

Irepan Salvador-Martínez, Marco Grillo, Michalis Averof & Maximilian J. Telford
Cell lineages provide the framework for understanding how multicellular organisms are built and how cell fates are decided during development. Describing cell lineages in most organisms is challenging, given the number of cells involved; even a fruit fly larva has ~50,000 cells and a small mammal has more than 1 billion cells. Recently, the idea of using CRISPR to induce mutations during development as heritable markers for lineage reconstruction has been proposed and trialled by...

Data from: Sporadic sampling not climatic forcing drives observed early hominin diversity

Simon J. Maxwell, Philip J. Hopley, Paul Upchurch & Christophe Soligo
The role of climate change in the origin and diversification of early hominins is hotly debated. Most accounts of early hominin evolution link observed fluctuations in species diversity to directional shifts in climate or periods of intense climatic instability. None of these hypotheses, however, have tested whether observed diversity patterns are distorted by variation in the quality of the hominin fossil record. Here, we present a detailed examination of early hominin diversity dynamics, including both...

Data from: Dietary choices are influenced by genotype, mating status, and sex in Drosophila melanogaster

M. Florencia Camus, Chun-Chen Huang, Max Reuter, Kevin Fowler & Chun-Cheng Huang
Mating causes many changes in physiology, behaviour and gene expression in a wide range of organisms. These changes are predicted to be sex-specific, influenced by the divergent reproductive roles of the sexes. In female insects, mating is associated with an increase in egg production which requires high levels of nutritional input with direct consequences for the physiological needs of individual females. Consequently, females alter their nutritional acquisition in line with the physiological demands imposed by...

Data from: Early consequences of allopolyploidy alter floral evolution in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)

Elizabeth W. McCarthy, Jacob B. Landis, Amelda Kurti, Amber J. Lawhorn, Mark W. Chase, Sandra Knapp, Steven C. Le Comber, Andrew R. Leitch & Amy Litt
Background: Polyploidy has played a major role in angiosperm evolution. Previous studies have examined polyploid phenotypes in comparison to their extant progenitors, but not in context of predicted progenitor phenotypes at allopolyploid origin. In addition, differences in the trends of polyploid versus diploid evolution have not been investigated. We use ancestral character-state reconstructions to estimate progenitor phenotype at allopolyploid origin to determine patterns of polyploid evolution leading to morphology of the extant species. We also...

Data from: The induction of the fibroblast extracellular senescence metabolome is a dynamic process

Emma N.L. James, Mark H. Bennett & Eric K. Parkinson
Cellular senescence is often associated with irreparable DNA double strand breaks (IrrDSBs) which accumulate with chronological age (IrrDSBsen). The removal of senescent cells ameliorates several age-related diseases in mice but the translation of these findings into a clinical setting would be aided by the characterisation of non-invasive biomarkers of senescent cells. Several serum metabolites are independent indicators of chronological age and some of these accumulate outside senescent fibroblasts independently of cell cycle arrest, repairable DNA...

Data from: Natural history of limb girdle muscular dystrophy R9 over 6 years: searching for trial endpoints

Alexander P. Murphy, Jasper Morrow, Julia R. Dahlqvist, Tanya Stojkovic, Tracey A. Willis, Christopher D. J. Sinclair, Stephen Wastling, Tarek Yousry, Michael S. Hanna, Meredith K. James, Anna Mayhew, Michelle Eagle, Laurence E. Lee, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Pierre G. Carlier, John S. Thornton, John Vissing, Kieren G. Hollingsworth & Volker Straub
Objective: Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type R9 (LGMD R9) is an autosomal recessive muscle disease for which there is currently no causative treatment. The development of putative therapies requires sensitive outcome measures for clinical trials in this slowly progressing condition. This study extends functional assessments and MRI muscle fat fraction measurements in an LGMD R9 cohort across 6 years. Methods: Twenty‐three participants with LGMD R9, previously assessed over a 1‐year period, were re‐enrolled at 6...

Climate drives community-wide divergence within species over a limited spatial scale: evidence from an oceanic island

Antonia Salces-Castellano, Jairo Patiño, Nadir Alvarez, Carmelo Andújar, Paula Arribas, Juan J. Braojos-Ruiz, Marcelino Del Arco-Aguilar, Víctor García-Olivares, Dirk Karger, Heriberto López, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Pedro Oromí, Antonio J. Pérez-Delgado, William W. Peterman, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk & Brent C. Emerson
Geographic isolation substantially contributes to species endemism on oceanic islands when speciation involves the colonisation of a new island. However, less is understood about the drivers of speciation within islands. What is lacking is a general understanding of the geographic scale of gene flow limitation within islands, and thus the geographic scale and drivers of geographical speciation within insular contexts. Using a community of beetle species, we show that when dispersal ability and climate tolerance...

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