340 Works

Data from: Feeding specialisation and longer generation time are associated with relatively larger brains in bees

Ferran Sayol, Miguel Á. Collado, Joan Garcia-Porta, Marc A. Seid, Jason Gibbs, Ainhoa Agorreta, Diego San Mauro, Ivo Raemakers, Daniel Sol & Ignasi Bartomeus
Despite their miniature brains, insects exhibit substantial variation in brain size. Although the functional significance of this variation is increasingly recognized, research on whether differences in insect brain sizes are mainly the result of constraints or selective pressures has hardly been performed. Here, we address this gap by combining prospective and retrospective phylogenetic-based analyses of brain size for a major insect group, bees (superfamily Apoidea). Using a brain dataset of 93 species from North America...

National bat monitoring programme roost counts dataset

Lea Dambly, Kate Jones, Katherine Boughey & Nick Isaac
Many long-term wildlife population monitoring programmes rely on citizen scientists for data collection. This can offer several benefits over traditional monitoring practices as it is a cost-effective, large-scale approach capable of providing long time series data and raising public environmental awareness. Whilst there is a debate about the quality of citizen science data, a standardised sampling design can allow citizen science data to be of a similar quality to those collected by professionals. However, many...

Higher sociability leads to lower reproductive success in female kangaroos

Alecia Carter, Clementine Menz, Best Emily, Natalie Freeman, Ross Dwyer, Simone Blomberg & Anne Goldizen
In social mammals, social integration is generally assumed to improve females’ reproductive success. Most species demonstrating this relationship exhibit complex forms of social bonds and interactions. However, female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) exhibit social preferences, yet do not appear to cooperate directly. It is unclear what the fitness consequences of sociability could be in species that do not exhibit obvious forms of cooperation. Using four years of life history, spatial, and social data from...

Structural brain network abnormalities and the probability of seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery: supplementary material

Nishant Sinha, Yujiang Wang, Nádia Moreira Da Silva, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew McEvoy, Jane De Tisi, Sjoerd Vos, Gavin Winston, John Duncan & Peter Taylor
Objective: We assessed pre-operative structural brain networks and clinical characteristics of patients with drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify correlates of post-surgical seizure recurrences. Methods: We examined data from 51 TLE patients who underwent anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) and 29 healthy controls. For each patient, using the preoperative structural, diffusion, and post-operative structural MRI, we generated two networks: ‘pre-surgery’ network and ‘surgically-spared’ network. Standardising these networks with respect to controls, we determined...

Religious celibacy brings inclusive fitness benefits

Alberto J. C. Micheletti, Erhao Ge, Liqiong Zhou, Yuan Chen, Hanzhi Zhang, Juan Du & Ruth Mace
The influence of inclusive fitness interests on the evolution of human institutions remains unclear. Religious celibacy constitutes an especially puzzling institution, often deemed maladaptive. Here, we present sociodemographic data from an agropastoralist Buddhist population in western China, where parents sometimes sent a son to the monastery. We find that men with a monk brother father more children, and grandparents with a monk son have more grandchildren, suggesting that the practice is adaptive. We develop a...

Intermittent bulk release of human cytomegalovirus: associated data

Felix Flomm, Timothy K Soh, Carola Schneider, Linda Wedemann, Hannah M Britt, Konstantinos Thalassinos, Soeren Pfitzner, Rudolph Reimer, Kay Grünewald & Jens Bernhard Bosse
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can infect a variety of cell types by using virions of varying glycoprotein compositions. It is still unclear how this diversity is generated, but spatio-temporally separated envelopment and egress pathways might play a role. So far, one egress pathway has been described in which HCMV particles are individually enveloped into small vesicles and are subsequently exocytosed continuously. However, some studies have also found enveloped virus particles inside multivesicular structures but could not...

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Nutrient chemistry of Arctic Lakes in Greenland, Norway, Russia and Alaska

E. J. Whiteford, M. Van Hardenbroek, S. McGowan, V. J. Jones, M.E. Edwards, P. G. Langdon & N. J. Anderson
This dataset contains nutrient chemistry data from 14 lakes in the Arctic region: 4 in Russia and Alaska and 3 in Greenland and Norway. Nutrient chemistry was measured on one occasion only at each lake, with date of collection ranging from 01/04/2011 to 14/03/2014. The following nutrients were measured: total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, chlorophyll a, silicate, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulphate, chloride and dissolved organic carbon. All nutrients were measured...

Annual estimates of occupancy for bryophytes, lichens and invertebrates in the UK (1970-2015)

C.L. Outhwaite, G.D. Powney, T.A. August, R.E. Chandler, S. Rorke, O. Pescott, M. Harvey, H.E. Roy, R. Fox, K. Walker, D.B. Roy, K. Alexander, S. Ball, T. Bantock, T. Barber, B.C. Beckmann, T. Cook, J. Flanagan, A. Fowles, P. Hammond, P. Harvey, D. Hepper, D. Hubble, J. Kramer, P. Lee … & N.J.B. Isaac
This dataset provides annual estimates of species occupancy and species trend estimates in the form of growth rates for 5,293 UK invertebrate, bryophyte and lichen species for the period 1970 to 2015. Estimates are provided at the country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland as well as for the UK and Great Britain (GB) where possible. These data were generated using observations of species collated by UK recording schemes and societies as the...

Ku- and Ka-band polarimetric radar backscatter of Arctic sea ice between October 2019 and September 2020 - VERSION 2.0

Julienne Stroeve, Vishnu Nandan, Rasmus Tonboe, Stefan Hendricks, Robert Ricker & Gunnar Spreen
This data set provides processed Ku- and Ka-band fully-polarimetric backscatter and derived polarimetric parameters from hourly scans, acquired using the KuKa radar, during Legs 1, 2, 4 and 5 of the 2019-2020 MOSAiC International Arctic Drift Expedition. Scans were acquired during winter (Legs 1 and 2), advanced melt (Leg 4) and freeze-up (Leg 5) seasons, from various Remote Sensing (RS) sites, located in the MOSAiC ice floe. The first deployment of the KuKa radar was...

UCL CPOM CryoSat2 derived Dynamic Ocean Topography 2011-2021

Harold Heorton
The ocean surface height is constantly varying under the effects of gravity, density and the Earth's rotation. Information on the Ocean surface elevation in polar regions is available from the CryoSat2 Radar instrument. We compare ocean surface elevation to a static geoid product (GOCO03s) to give the part of the ocean surface elevation accountable due to surface currents, the Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT). This measurement is smoothed over 100 km and gives monthly surface currents....

UCL CPOM CryoSat2 Polar Ocean Significant Wave Height 2011-2019

Harold Heorton
We present the significant ocean surface wave heights in the Arctic and Southern Oceans from CryoSat-2 data. We use a semi-analytical model for an idealised synthetic aperture satellite radar or pulse-limited radar altimeter echo power. We develop a processing methodology that specifically considers both the Synthetic Aperture and Pulse Limited modes of the radar that change close to the sea ice edge within the Arctic Ocean. All CryoSat-2 echoes to date were matched by our...

Sizing up DNA nanostructure assembly with native mass spectrometry and ion mobility

Jeroen F. Van Dyck, Jonathan R. Burns, Kyle Le Huray, Albert Konijnenberg, Stefan Howorka & Frank Sobott

Data from: Binding space and time through action

Nicola Binetti, Nobuhiro Hagura, Charles Fadipe, Alessandro Tomassini, Vincent Walsh & Sven Bestmann
Space and time are intimately coupled dimensions in the human brain. Several lines of evidence suggest that space and time are processed by a shared analogue magnitude system. It has been proposed that actions are instrumental in establishing this shared magnitude system. Here we provide evidence in support of this hypothesis, by showing that the interaction between space and time is enhanced when magnitude information is acquired through action. Participants observed increases or decreases in...

Data from: Silenced rRNA genes are activated and substitute for partially eliminated active homoelogs in the recently formed allotetraploid, Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae)

Ales Kovařík, Eva Dobešová, Roman Matyášek, Andrew R. Leitch, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis & Hana Malinska
To study the relationship between uniparental rDNA (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal RNA) silencing (nucleolar dominance) and rRNA gene dosage, we studied a recently emerged (within the last 80 years) allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (2n=24), formed from the diploid progenitors T. dubius (2n=12, D-genome donor) and T. porrifolius (2n=12, P-genome donor). Here, we used molecular, cytogenetic and genomic approaches to analyse rRNA gene activity in two sibling T. mirus plants (33A and 33B) with widely...

Data from: Midbrain adaptation may set the stage for the perception of musical beat

Vani Gurusamy Rajendran, Nicol S. Harper, Jose Alberto Garcia-Lazaro, Nicholas A. Lesica, Jan W.H. Schnupp & Jan W. H. Schnupp
The ability to spontaneously feel a beat in music is a phenomenon widely believed to be unique to humans. Though beat perception involves the coordinated engagement of sensory, motor, and cognitive processes in humans, the contribution of low-level auditory processing to the activation of these networks in a beat-specific manner is poorly understood. Here, we present evidence from a rodent model that midbrain pre-processing of sounds may already be shaping where the beat is ultimately...

Data from: Major improvements to the Heliconius melpomene genome assembly used to confirm 10 chromosome fusion events in 6 million years of butterfly evolution

John W. Davey, Mathieu Chouteau, Sarah L. Barker, Luana Maroja, Simon W. Baxter, Fraser Simpson, Mathieu Joron, James Mallet, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Chris D. Jiggins & Richard M. Merrill
The Heliconius butterflies are a widely studied adaptive radiation of 46 species spread across Central and South America, several of which are known to hybridize in the wild. Here, we present a substantially improved assembly of the Heliconius melpomene genome, developed using novel methods that should be applicable to improving other genome assemblies produced using short read sequencing. First, we whole-genome-sequenced a pedigree to produce a linkage map incorporating 99% of the genome. Second, we...

Data from: Splicing repression allows the gradual emergence of new Alu-exons in primate evolution

Jan Attig, Igor Ruiz De Los Mozos, Nejc Haberman, Zhen Wang, Warren Emmett, Kathi Zarnack, Julian König & Jernej Ule
Alu elements are retrotransposons that frequently form new exons during primate evolution. Here, we assess the interplay of splicing repression by hnRNPC and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in the quality control and evolution of new Alu-exons. We identify 3100 new Alu-exons and show that NMD more efficiently recognises transcripts with Alu-exons compared to other exons with premature termination codons. However, some Alu-exons escape NMD, especially when an adjacent intron is retained, highlighting the importance of...

Data from: Genome-wide patterns of divergence and gene flow across a butterfly radiation

Nicola J. Nadeau, Simon H. Martin, Krzysztof M. Kozak, Camilo Salazar, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, John W. Davey, Simon W. Baxter, Mark L. Blaxter, James Mallet & Chris D. Jiggins
The Heliconius butterflies are a diverse recent radiation comprising multiple levels of divergence with on-going gene flow between species. The recently sequenced genome of Heliconius melpomene allowed us to investigate the genomic evolution of this group using dense RAD marker sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 54 individuals robustly supported reciprocal monophyly of H. melpomene and H. cydno and refuted previous phylogenetic hypotheses that H. melpomene may be paraphylectic with respect to H. cydno. H. timareta also...

Data from: Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

Chavaunne T. Thorpe, Graham P. Riley, Helen L. Birch, Peter D. Clegg & Hazel R. C. Screen
Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess...

Data from: Anxiety-like behavioural inhibition is normative under environmental threat-reward correlations

Dominik R. Bach
Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying...

Data from: Resilience of self-organised and top-down planned cities—a case study on London and Beijing street networks

Jiaqiu Wang
The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street...

Data from: Investigating the association between social interactions and personality states dynamics

Didem Gundogdu, Ailbhe N. Finnerty, Jacopo Staiano, Stefano Teso, Andrea Passerini, Fabio Pianesi & Bruno Lepri
The recent personality psychology literature has coined the name of personality states to refer to states having the same behavioural, affective and cognitive content (described by adjectives) as the corresponding trait, but for a shorter duration. The variability in personality states may be the reaction to specific characteristics of situations. The aim of our study is to investigate whether specific situational factors, that is, different configurations of face-to-face interactions, are predictors of variability of personality...

Data from: Negative biotic interactions drive predictions of distributions for species from a grassland community

Phillip P.A. Staniczenko, Kenwyn Blake Suttle, Richard G. Pearson & Phillip P. A. Staniczenko
Understanding the factors that determine species’ geographic distributions is important for addressing a wide range of biological questions, including where species will be able to maintain populations following environmental change. New methods for modelling species distributions include the effects of biotic interactions alongside more commonly used abiotic variables such as temperature and precipitation; however, it is not clear which types of interspecific relationship contribute to shaping species distributions and should therefore be prioritised in models....

Data from: Long-distance dispersal suppresses introgression of local alleles during range expansions

C. E. G. Amorim, T Hofer, N Ray, M Foll, A Ruiz-Linares & L Excoffier
During range expansions, even low levels of interbreeding can lead to massive introgression of local alleles into an invader's genome. Nonetheless, this pattern is not always observed in human populations. For instance, European Americans in North America are barely introgressed by Amerindian genes in spite of known contact and admixture. With coalescent spatially explicit simulations, we examined the impact of long-distance dispersal (LDD) events on introgression of local alleles into the invading population using a...

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