307 Works

Immigrant males’ memory acts to reduce ranging overlap and mating competition in wild baboons

Julien Collet, Nathalie Pettorelli, Alice Baniel, Alecia Carter, Elise Huchard, Andrew King, Alexander Lee, Harry Marshall & Guy Cowlishaw
Mechanistic models suggest that information acquired by animals (“knowledge”) could shape home range patterns and dynamics, and how neighbours share space. In social species this would suggest that immigrants could bring new knowledge into social groups, potentially affecting the dynamics of home range overlap. We tested this “immigrant knowledge hypothesis” in a wild population of chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We used data collected between 2005 and 2013 on two neighbouring troops in Namibia, comprising GPS...

Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) Impact Evaluation Survey 2009

Arianna Legovini, Pedro Carneiro &

How bulk and surface properties of Ti4SiC3, V4SiC3, Nb4SiC3 and Zr4SiC3 tune reactivity: a computational study - data

Matthew Quesne, Nora H De Leeuw & C Richard A Catlow
The bulk and surface properties of early transition metal silicon carbides as well as their activity towards the reduction of CO2 is examined in this first principles DFT study. Data for basal (0001) planes of Ti4C3Si, V4C3Si, Nb4C3Si & Zr4C3Si is stored in one .xlsx file. The first sheet gives formation energies for each silicon carbide as related to the parent monocarbide material. Sheet 2 gives the density of states for each material. Sheet 3...

Data from: Sex differences in costly signalling in rural Western China

Dongzhi Cairang, Erhao Ge & Ruth Mace
Numerous empirical studies suggest that individuals convey their commitment to communities and impart the qualities of being a reliable partner through costly behaviours. We collected religious practices data ranging from daily trivial practices to infrequent grand distant pilgrimages in an agricultural Tibetan village. We predict that 1) villagers who invest more in religious practices are more likely to be nominated as having various prosocial qualities. 2) Investment in grand distant pilgrimages has more efficacy than...

Design of a custom-made device for real-time optical measurement of differential mineral concentrations in 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Joseph Lovecchio, Valentina Betti, Marilisa Cortesi, Enrico Ravagli, Stefano Severi & Emanuele Giordano
Monitoring bone tissue engineered constructs during their maturation is important to ensure the quality of applied protocols. Several destructive, mainly histochemical, methods are conventionally used to this aim, requiring the sacrifice of the investigated samples. This implies i) to plan several scaffold replicates, ii) expensive and time consuming procedures and iii) to infer the maturity level of a given tissue construct from a cognate replica. To solve these issues, non-destructive techniques such as light spectroscopy-based...

Iron-Nickel-Sulfide Characterisation and Catalytic Testing Data

Claire Mitchell, David Santos-Carballal, Andrew M Beale, Wilm Jones, Sankar Meenakshisundaram & Nora H De Leeuw
Catalytic data describing the production of formate from the hydrogenation of CO2 using iron-sulfide, iron-nickel-sulphide and nickel-sulfide catalysts prepared with different heat treatments under a range of reaction conditions. Catalyst characterisation of these materials include XRD analysis, giving an understanding of the violarite phase and crystallinity. XPS analysis gains understanding of the iron, nickel and sulphur species, and how sulphide and oxide species change under thermal oxidation. XAS analysis employed is vital to gain more...

Free energy calculations of noble-gas containing liquid iron and silicate melt

Y Li
Free energy calculations of noble-gas containing liquid iron and silicate melts at 50 GPa (3500 K) and 135 GPa (4200 K). The chemical potentials of noble gases can be obtained from these calculations. The Gibbs free energy of a series of iron and silicate melts with different concentrations of He were calculated. Then the chemical potentials of He can be derived from the concentration dependent Gibbs free energies. The chemical potentials of Ne, Ar, Kr...

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Nutrient chemistry of Arctic Lakes in Greenland, Norway, Russia and Alaska

E. J. Whiteford, M. Van Hardenbroek, S. McGowan, V. J. Jones, M.E. Edwards, P. G. Langdon & N. J. Anderson
This dataset contains nutrient chemistry data from 14 lakes in the Arctic region: 4 in Russia and Alaska and 3 in Greenland and Norway. Nutrient chemistry was measured on one occasion only at each lake, with date of collection ranging from 01/04/2011 to 14/03/2014. The following nutrients were measured: total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, chlorophyll a, silicate, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulphate, chloride and dissolved organic carbon. All nutrients were measured...

Annual estimates of occupancy for bryophytes, lichens and invertebrates in the UK (1970-2015)

C.L. Outhwaite, G.D. Powney, T.A. August, R.E. Chandler, S. Rorke, O. Pescott, M. Harvey, H.E. Roy, R. Fox, K. Walker, D.B. Roy, K. Alexander, S. Ball, T. Bantock, T. Barber, B.C. Beckmann, T. Cook, J. Flanagan, A. Fowles, P. Hammond, P. Harvey, D. Hepper, D. Hubble, J. Kramer, P. Lee … & N.J.B. Isaac
This dataset provides annual estimates of species occupancy and species trend estimates in the form of growth rates for 5,293 UK invertebrate, bryophyte and lichen species for the period 1970 to 2015. Estimates are provided at the country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland as well as for the UK and Great Britain (GB) where possible. These data were generated using observations of species collated by UK recording schemes and societies as the...

Data from: Genetic diversity maintained among fragmented populations of a tree undergoing range contraction

James S. Borrell, Nian Wang, Richard A. Nichols & Richard J. A. Buggs
Dwarf birch (Betula nana) has a widespread boreal distribution but has declined significantly in Britain where populations are now highly fragmented. We analysed the genetic diversity of these fragmented populations using markers that differ in mutation rate: conventional microsatellites markers (PCR-SSRs), RADseq generated transition and transversion SNPs (RAD-SNPs), and microsatellite markers mined from RADseq reads (RAD-SSRs). We estimated the current population sizes by census and indirectly, from the linkage disequilibrium found in the genetic surveys....

Data from: Reproductive trade-offs in extant hunter-gatherers suggest adaptive mechanism for the Neolithic expansion

Abigail E. Page, Sylvain Viguier, Mark Dyble, Daniel Smith, Nikhil Chaudhary, Gul Deniz Salali, James Thompson, Lucio Vinicius, Ruth Mace & Andrea Bamberg Migliano
The Neolithic demographic transition remains a paradox, because it is associated with both higher rates of population growth and increased morbidity and mortality rates. Here we reconcile the conflicting evidence by proposing that the spread of agriculture involved a life history quality–quantity trade-off whereby mothers traded offspring survival for increased fertility, achieving greater reproductive success despite deteriorating health. We test this hypothesis by investigating fertility, mortality, health, and overall reproductive success in Agta hunter-gatherers whose...

Data from: Rapid evolution of the inter-sexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster

Julie M. Collet, Sara Fuentes, Jack Hesketh, Mark S. Hill, Paolo Innocenti, Edward H. Morrow, Kevin Fowler & Max Reuter
Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution towards optimal sex-specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex-specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the 'LHM' population in which SA had previously been described. Both had...

Data from: Bumblebees show cognitive flexibility by improving on an observed complex behavior

Olli J. Loukola, Clint J. Perry, Louie Coscos & Lars Chittka
We explored bees’ behavioral flexibility in a task that required transporting a small ball to a defined location to gain a reward. Bees were pretrained to know the correct location of the ball. Subsequently, to obtain a reward, bees had to move a displaced ball to the defined location. Bees that observed demonstration of the technique from a live or model demonstrator learned the task more efficiently than did bees observing a “ghost” demonstration (ball...

Data from: Eutherians experienced elevated evolutionary rates in the immediate aftermath of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction

Thomas J.D. Halliday, Paul Upchurch, Anjali Goswami & Thomas John Dixon Halliday
The effect of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction on the evolution of many groups, including placental mammals, has been hotly debated. The fossil record suggests a sudden adaptive radiation of placentals immediately after the event, but several recent quantitative analyses have reconstructed no significant increase in either clade origination rates or rates of character evolution in the Palaeocene. Here we use stochastic methods to date a recent phylogenetic analysis of Cretaceous and Palaeocene mammals and...

Data from: The present and future effects of land use on ecological assemblages in tropical grasslands and savannas in Africa

Tim Newbold, Elizabeth H. Boakes, Samantha L.L. Hill, Michael B.J. Harfoot & Ben Collen
The world is currently experiencing a period of rapid, human-driven biodiversity loss. Over the past decade, numerous metrics for biodiversity have been used to create indicators to track change in biodiversity. However, our ability to predict future changes has been limited. In this study, we use two very different models to predict the status and possible futures for the composition and diversity of ecological assemblages in African tropical grasslands and savannas under land-use change. We...

Data from: Reprogramming the antigen specificity of B cells using genome-editing technologies

James E. Voss, Alicia Gonzalez-Martin, Raiees Andrabi, Roberta P. Fuller, Ben Murrell, Laura E. McCoy, Katelyn Porter, Deli Huang, Wenjuan Li, Devin Sok, Khoa Le, Bryan Briney, Morgan Chateau, Geoffrey Rogers, Lars Hangartner, Ann J. Feeney, David Nemazee, Paula Cannon & Dennis R. Burton
We have developed a method to introduce novel paratopes into the human antibody repertoire by modifying the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of mature B cells directly using genome editing technologies. We used CRISPR-Cas9 in a homology directed repair strategy, to replace the heavy chain (HC) variable region in B cell lines with that from an HIV broadly neutralizing antibody, PG9. Our strategy is designed to function in cells that have undergone VDJ recombination using any combination...

Data from: An auditory illusion reveals the role of streaming in the temporal misallocation of perceptual objects

Anahita H. Mehta, Nori Jacoby, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J. Oxenham & Shihab A. Shamma
This study investigates the neural correlates and processes underlying the ambiguous percept produced by a stimulus similar to Deutsch's ‘octave illusion’, in which each ear is presented with a sequence of alternating pure tones of low and high frequencies. The same sequence is presented to each ear, but in opposite phase, such that the left and right ears receive a high–low–high … and a low–high–low … pattern, respectively. Listeners generally report hearing the illusion of...

Data from: Investigating the association between social interactions and personality states dynamics

Didem Gundogdu, Ailbhe N. Finnerty, Jacopo Staiano, Stefano Teso, Andrea Passerini, Fabio Pianesi & Bruno Lepri
The recent personality psychology literature has coined the name of personality states to refer to states having the same behavioural, affective and cognitive content (described by adjectives) as the corresponding trait, but for a shorter duration. The variability in personality states may be the reaction to specific characteristics of situations. The aim of our study is to investigate whether specific situational factors, that is, different configurations of face-to-face interactions, are predictors of variability of personality...

Data from: Resilience of self-organised and top-down planned cities—a case study on London and Beijing street networks

Jiaqiu Wang
The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street...

Data from: Negative biotic interactions drive predictions of distributions for species from a grassland community

Phillip P.A. Staniczenko, Kenwyn Blake Suttle, Richard G. Pearson & Phillip P. A. Staniczenko
Understanding the factors that determine species’ geographic distributions is important for addressing a wide range of biological questions, including where species will be able to maintain populations following environmental change. New methods for modelling species distributions include the effects of biotic interactions alongside more commonly used abiotic variables such as temperature and precipitation; however, it is not clear which types of interspecific relationship contribute to shaping species distributions and should therefore be prioritised in models....

Data from: Validating the power of mitochondrial metagenomics for community ecology and phylogenetics of complex assemblages

Carola Gómez-Rodríguez, Alex Crampton-Platt, Martijn J. T. N. Timmermans, Andrés Baselga & Alfried P. Vogler
1. The biodiversity of mixed-species samples of arthropods can be characterized by shotgun sequencing of bulk genomic DNA and subsequent bioinformatics assembly of mitochondrial genomes. Here, we tested the power of mitochondrial metagenomics by conducting Illumina sequencing on mixtures of >2600 individuals of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) from 10 communities. 2. Patterns of species richness, community dissimilarity and biomass were assessed from matches of reads against three reference databases, including (i) a custom set of mitogenomes...

Data from: Lepidosaurian diversity in the Mesozoic–Paleogene: the potential roles of sampling biases and environmental drivers

Terri J. Cleary, Roger B.J. Benson, Susan E. Evans, Paul M. Barrett & Roger B. J. Benson
Lepidosauria is a speciose clade with a long evolutionary history, but there have been few attempts to explore its taxon-richness through time. Here we estimate patterns of terrestrial lepidosaur genus diversity for the Triassic–Paleogene (252–23 Ma), and compare observed and sampling-corrected richness curves generated using Shareholder Quorum Subsampling and classical rarefaction. Generalized least-squares regression (GLS) is used to investigate the relationships between richness, sampling and environmental proxies. We found low levels of richness from the...

Data from: Targeted next-generation sequencing panels in the diagnosis of Charcot Marie Tooth disease

Andrea Cortese, Janel Wilcox, James M. Polke, Roy Poh, Mariola Skorupinska, Alexader Rossor, Matilde Laura, Pedro J. Tomaselli, Henry Houlden, Michael E. Shy & Mary M. Reilly
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of targeted NGS panels in achieving a molecular diagnosis in CMT and related disorders in a clinical setting Methods: We prospectively enrolled 220 patients from two tertiary referral centres, one in London, UK (n=120) and one in Iowa, US (n=100) in whom a targeted CMT NGS panel had been requested as a diagnostic test. PMP22 duplication/deletion was previously excluded in demyelinating cases. We reviewed the genetic and clinical data upon...

Data from: Within- and between-group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder

Rosie Woodroffe, Helen O'Neill & Daniella Rabaiotti
1. Cooperative behaviour can have profound effects on demography. In many cooperative species, components of fitness (e.g. survival, reproductive success) are diminished in smaller social groups. These effects (termed group-level component Allee effects) may lead smaller groups to grow relatively slowly or fail to persist (termed group-level demographic Allee effects). 2. If these group-level effects were to propagate to the population level, small populations would grow slowly or decline to extinction (termed population-level demographic Allee...

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