Data from: Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loadingChavaunne T. Thorpe, Graham P. Riley, Helen L. Birch, Peter D. Clegg & Hazel R. C. Screen
Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess...
We develop a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating divergence times using sequentially sampled molecular sequences. This type of data is commonly collected during viral epidemics and is sometimes available from different species in ancient DNA studies. We derive the distribution of ages of nodes in the tree under a birth–death-sequential-sampling (BDSS) model and use it as the prior for divergence times in the dating analysis. We implement the prior in the...
Data from: Estimation of the dispersal of a major pest of maize by cline analysis of a temporary contact zone between two invasive outbreaksGérald Bermond, Aurélie Blin, Elodie Vercken, Virginie Ravigné, Adrien Rieux, Sophie Mallez, Thibaut Morel-Journel, Thomas Guilllemaud & Thomas Guillemaud
Dispersal is a key factor in invasion, and in the persistence and evolution of species. Despite the importance of estimates of dispersal distance, dispersal measurement remains a real methodological challenge. In this study, we characterized dispersal by exploiting a specific case of biological invasion, in which multiple introductions in disconnected areas lead to secondary contact between two differentiated expanding outbreaks. By applying cline theory to this ecological setting, we estimated σ, the standard deviation of...
Despite African rivers containing high species diversity, continental-scale studies investigating the mechanisms generating biological diversity of African riverine faunas are limited compared to lacustrine systems.To investigate the build up of diversity in a tropical aquatic continental radiation, we test different models of lineage diversification and reconstruct the biogeographic history in a species-rich siluriform genus, Synodontis (~130 species), with a broad distribution across all major tropical African drainage basins. The resulting robust species-level phylogeny (~60% complete,...
Data from: The plover neurotranscriptome assembly: transcriptomic analysis in an ecological model species without a reference genomeHooman K. Moghadam, Peter W. Harrison, Gergely Zachar, Tamás Székely & Judith E. Mank
We assembled a de novo transcriptome of short-read Illumina RNA-Seq data generated from telencephalon and diencephalon tissue samples from the Kentish plover, Charadrius alexandrinus. This is a species of considerable interest in behavioural ecology for its highly variable mating system and parental behaviour, but it lacks genomic resources and is evolutionarily distant from the few available avian draft genome sequences. We assembled and identified over 21 000 transcript contigs with significant expression in our samples,...
Data from: Sexual traits are sensitive to genetic stress and predict extinction risk in the stalk-eyed fly, Diasemopsis meigeniiLawrence Bellamy, Nadine Chapman, Kevin Fowler & Andrew Pomiankowski
The handicap principle predicts that sexual traits are more susceptible to inbreeding depression than nonsexual traits. However, this hypothesis has received little testing and results are inconsistent. We used 11 generations of full-sibling mating to test the effect of inbreeding on sexual and nonsexual traits in the stalk-eyed fly Diasemopsis meigenii. Consistent with the theoretical predictions, the male sexual trait (eyespan) decreased more than nonsexual traits (female eyespan and male wing length), even after controlling...
Data from: The influence of fledgling location on adult provisioning: a test of the blackmail hypothesisAlex M. Thompson, Nichola J. Raihani, Philip A. R. Hockey, Adam Britton, Fiona M. Finch & Amanda R. Ridley
One theory to explain the existence of conspicuous solicitation is that it is a way for young to ‘blackmail’ care-givers into provisioning them, by threatening their own destruction. Fledgling birds offer a unique opportunity to investigate the ‘blackmail theory’, as their mobility enables them to influence the predation risk they face. We investigated a novel solicitation behaviour in fledgling pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), where fledglings use their location to influence provisioning rates. We show that...
Data from: Polymorphism in the neurofibromin gene, Nf1, is associated with antagonistic selection on wing size and development time in Drosophila melanogasterSiu Fai Lee, Ying Chen Eyre-Walker, Caroline Reuter, Giovanna Vinti, Rahul V. Rane, Lea Rako, Linda Partridge & Ary A. Hoffmann
In many invertebrates, body size shows genetically based clines, with size increasing in colder climates. Large body size is typically associated with prolonged development times. We consider variation in the CNS-specific gene neurofibromin 1 (Nf1) and its association with body size and development time. We identified two major Nf1 haplotypes in natural populations, Nf1-insertion-A and Nf1-deletion-G. These haplotypes are characterized by a 45-base insertion/deletion (INDEL) in Nf1 intron 2 and an A/G synonymous substitution (locus...
Szechuan pepper, a widely used ingredient in the cuisine of many Asian countries, is known for the tingling sensation it induces on the tongue and lips. While the molecular mechanism by which Szechuan pepper activates tactile afferent fibres has been clarified, the tingling sensation itself has been less studied, and it remains unclear which fibres are responsible. We investigated the somatosensory perception of tingling in humans to identify the characteristic temporal frequency and compare this...
Data from: Male eyespan size is associated with meiotic drive in wild stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni)Andrew Pomiankowski, Alison J. Cotton, Mihály Földvári & Samuel Cotton
This study provides the first direct evidence from wild populations of stalk-eyed flies to support the hypothesis that male eyespan is a signal of meiotic drive. Several stalk-eyed fly species are known to exhibit X-linked meiotic drive. A recent QTL analysis in Teleopsis dalmanni, found a potential link between variation in male eyespan, a sexually selected ornamental trait, and the presence of meiotic drive. This was based on laboratory populations subject to artificial selection for...
Gene flow among populations or species and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) are two evolutionary processes responsible for generating gene tree discordance and therefore hindering species tree estimation. Numerous studies have evaluated the impacts of ILS on species tree inference, yet the ramifications of gene flow on species trees remain less studied. Here, we simulate and analyze multilocus sequence data generated with ILS and gene flow to quantify their impacts on species tree inference. We characterize...
Data from: Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)Marc E. H. Jones, Cajsa Lisa Anderson, Christy A. Hipsley, Johannes Müller, Susan E. Evans & Rainer R. Schoch
Background: Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, tuatara) is a globally distributed and ecologically important group of over 9,000 reptile species. The earliest fossil records are currently restricted to the Late Triassic and often dated to 227 million years ago (Mya). As these early records include taxa that are relatively derived in their morphology (e.g. Brachyrhinodon), an earlier unknown history of Lepidosauria is implied. However, molecular age estimates for Lepidosauria have been problematic; dates for the most recent...
University College London12
University of Bath1
Norwich Research Park1
University of Washington1
University of Melbourne1
University of Gothenburg1
French National Institute for Agricultural Research1
French National Centre for Scientific Research1
University of Cape Town1