40 Works

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

Data from: A circuit mechanism for decision making biases and NMDA receptor hypofunction

Sean Cavanagh, Norman Lam, John Murray, Laurence Hunt & Steven Kennerley
Decision-making biases can be features of normal behaviour, or deficits underlying neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used behavioural psychophysics, spiking-circuit modelling and pharmacological manipulations to explore decision-making biases during evidence integration. Monkeys showed a pro-variance bias (PVB): a preference to choose options with more variable evidence. The PVB was also present in a spiking circuit model, revealing a potential neural mechanism for this behaviour. To model possible effects of NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism on this behaviour, we...

Tuning cell behavior with nanoparticle shape

Loris Rizzello, Alessandro Poma, Eva Liatsi-Douvitsa, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria De Matteis, Cesare De Pace, Adrian Joseph, Claudia Contini, Edoardo Scarpa, Josep Martí, Loris Rizzello & Senio De Souza
We investigated how the shape of polymeric vesicles, made by the exact same material, impacts the replication activity and metabolic state of both cancer and non-cancer cell types. First, we isolated discrete geometrical structures (spheres and tubes) from a heterogeneous sample using density-gradient centrifugation. Then, we characterized the cellular internalization and the kinetics of uptake of both types of polymersomes in different cell types (either cancer or non-cancer cells). We also investigated the cellular metabolic...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds

Ferran Sayol, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Tim M. Blackburn, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Human-driven extinctions can affect our understanding of evolution, through the nonrandom loss of certain types of species. Here, we explore how knowledge of a major evolutionary transition—the evolution of flightlessness in birds—is biased by anthropogenic extinctions. Adding data on 581 known anthropogenic extinctions to the extant avifauna increases the number of species by 5%, but quadruples the number of flightless species. The evolution of flightlessness in birds is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in more than...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu, Paschalia Kapli, Carola Greve, James E. Jepson, Xingyue Liu, Xin Zhou, Horst Aspöck & Ulrike Aspöck
Background The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to...

Data from: Contrasting trajectories of morphological diversification on continents and islands in the Afrotropical white-eye radiation

Julia J. Day, Frederico C. Martins, Joseph A. Tobias & David J. Murrell
Aim Morphological and lineage evolution are predicted to follow different patterns in island and mainland radiations. However, the extent to which these geographical contexts influence evolutionary trajectories remains poorly understood, in part because few studies have focused on species-rich clades colonising continents and archipelagos over comparable timeframes. Focusing on a diverse songbird clade radiating on the African continent and adjacent islands, we tested whether morphological evolution is best explained by adaptive or non-adaptive processes, and...

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Evolution of the speech‐ready brain: The voice/jaw connection in the human motor cortex

Steven Brown, Ye Yuan & Michel Belyk
A prominent model of the origins of speech, known as the “frame/content” theory, posits that oscillatory lowering and raising of the jaw provided an evolutionary scaffold for the development of syllable structure in speech. Because such oscillations are non‐vocal in most non‐human primates, the evolution of speech required the addition of vocalization onto this scaffold in order to turn such jaw oscillations into vocalized syllables. In the present functional MRI study, we demonstrate overlapping somatotopic...

A total-evidence dated phylogeny of Echinoidea combining phylogenomic and paleontological data

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch & Jeffrey Thompson
Phylogenomic and paleontological data constitute complementary resources for unravelling the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of lineages, yet few studies have attempted to fully integrate them. Several unique properties of echinoids (sea urchins) make them especially useful for such synthetizing approaches, including a remarkable fossil record that can be incorporated into explicit phylogenetic hypotheses. We revisit the phylogeny of crown group Echinoidea using a total-evidence dating approach that combines the largest phylogenomic dataset for the...

Data from: Increased dystrophin production with golodirsen in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Diane E. Frank, Frederick J. Schnell, Cody Akana, Saleh H. El-Husayni, Cody A. Desjardins, Jennifer Morgan, Jay S. Charleston, Valentina Sardone, Joana Domingos, George Dickson, Volker Straub, Michela Guglieri, Eugenio Mercuri, Laurent Servais & Francesco Muntoni
Objective To report safety, pharmacokinetics, exon 53 skipping, and dystrophin expression in golodirsen-treated patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) amenable to exon 53 skipping. Methods Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week dose titration of once-weekly golodirsen; Part 2 is an ongoing, open-label evaluation. Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary and secondary objectives of Part 1. Primary biological outcome measures of part 2 were blinded exon skipping and dystrophin protein production on muscle biopsies (baseline,...

Data from: Feeding specialisation and longer generation time are associated with relatively larger brains in bees

Ferran Sayol, Miguel Á. Collado, Joan Garcia-Porta, Marc A. Seid, Jason Gibbs, Ainhoa Agorreta, Diego San Mauro, Ivo Raemakers, Daniel Sol & Ignasi Bartomeus
Despite their miniature brains, insects exhibit substantial variation in brain size. Although the functional significance of this variation is increasingly recognized, research on whether differences in insect brain sizes are mainly the result of constraints or selective pressures has hardly been performed. Here, we address this gap by combining prospective and retrospective phylogenetic-based analyses of brain size for a major insect group, bees (superfamily Apoidea). Using a brain dataset of 93 species from North America...

Data from: Ten more years of discovery: revisiting the quality of the sauropodomorph dinosaur fossil record

Daniel Cashmore, Philip Mannion, Paul Upchurch & Richard Butler
Spatiotemporal changes in fossil specimen completeness can bias our understanding of a group’s evolutionary history. The quality of the sauropodomorph fossil record was assessed a decade ago, but the number of valid species has since increased by 60%, and 17% of the taxa from that study have since undergone taxonomic revision. Here, we assess how 10 years of additional research has changed our outlook on the group’s fossil record. We quantified the completeness of all...

Data from: Late Cretaceous bird from Madagascar reveals unique development of beaks

Patrick O'Connor, Alan Turner, Joseph Groenke, Ryan Felice, Raymond Rogers, David Krause & Lydia Rahantarisoa
Mesozoic birds display considerable diversity in size, flight adaptations and feather organization, but exhibit relatively conserved patterns of beak shape and development. Although Neornithine (that is, crown group) birds also exhibit constraint on facial development, they have comparatively diverse beak morphologies associated with a range of feeding and behavioural ecologies, in contrast to Mesozoic birds. Here we describe a crow-sized stem bird, Falcatakely forsterae gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous epoch of Madagascar...

Data From: Analysing social media forums to discover potential causes of phasic shifts in cryptocurrency price series

Andrew Burnie, Emine Yilmaz & Tomaso Aste
The recent extreme volatility in cryptocurrency prices occurred in the setting of popular social media forums devoted to the discussion of cryptocurrencies. We develop a framework that discovers potential causes of phasic shifts in the price movement captured by social media discussions. This draws on principles developed in healthcare epidemiology where, similarly, only observational data are available. Such causes may have a major, one-off effect or recurring effects on the trend in the price series....

Higher sociability leads to lower reproductive success in female kangaroos

Alecia Carter, Clementine Menz, Best Emily, Natalie Freeman, Ross Dwyer, Simone Blomberg & Anne Goldizen
In social mammals, social integration is generally assumed to improve females’ reproductive success. Most species demonstrating this relationship exhibit complex forms of social bonds and interactions. However, female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) exhibit social preferences, yet do not appear to cooperate directly. It is unclear what the fitness consequences of sociability could be in species that do not exhibit obvious forms of cooperation. Using four years of life history, spatial, and social data from...

National bat monitoring programme roost counts dataset

Lea Dambly, Kate Jones, Katherine Boughey & Nick Isaac
Many long-term wildlife population monitoring programmes rely on citizen scientists for data collection. This can offer several benefits over traditional monitoring practices as it is a cost-effective, large-scale approach capable of providing long time series data and raising public environmental awareness. Whilst there is a debate about the quality of citizen science data, a standardised sampling design can allow citizen science data to be of a similar quality to those collected by professionals. However, many...

Linking socioeconomic inequalities and type 2 diabetes through obesity and lifestyle factors among Mexican adults: a structural equations modeling approach

Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Delfino Vargas-Chanes, Sheyla Hernández, David Napier, Simón Barquera & Paloma Muñoz-Aguirre
Objective. To assess the association between type 2 dia­betes (DM2) and socioeconomic inequalities, mediated by the contribution of body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), and diet (diet-DII). Materials and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data of adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey of Mexico City. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as height and weight, dietary intake, leisure time activity and the presence of DM2 were measured. We fitted a structural...

Data from: Spatiotemporal variation in completeness of the early cynodont fossil record and its implications for mammalian evolutionary history

Grace Varnham, Philip Mannion & Christian Kammerer
Mammals are the only surviving group of Cynodontia, a synapsid clade that first appears in the fossil record in the late Permian, ~260 million years ago. Here, using three metrics that capture skeletal completeness, we quantify the quality of the early cynodont fossil record in time and space to evaluate the impact of sampling and preservational biases on our understanding of the group’s evolutionary history. There is no consistent global sampling signal for early cynodonts....

Defining species when there is gene flow

Ziheng Yang & Xiyun Jiao
Whatever one’s definition of species, it is generally expected that individuals of the same species should be genetically more similar to each other than they are to individuals of another species. Here we show that in the presence of cross-species gene flow, this expectation may be incorrect. We use the multispecies coalescent model with migration or introgression to study the impact of gene flow on genetic differences within and between species and highlight a surprising...

The apparent exponential radiation of Phanerozoic land vertebrates is an artefact of spatial sampling biases

Roger Close, Roger Benson, John Alroy, Matthew Carrano, Terri Cleary, Emma Dunne, Philip Mannion, Mark Uhen & Richard Butler
There is no consensus about how terrestrial biodiversity was assembled through deep time, and in particular whether it has risen exponentially over the Phanerozoic. Using a database of 38,711 fossil occurrences, we show that the spatial extent of the ‘global’ terrestrial tetrapod fossil record itself expands exponentially through the Phanerozoic, and that this spatial variation explains around 75% of the variation in known fossil species counts. Controlling for this bias, we find that regional-scale terrestrial...

Data from: Nutritional geometry of mitochondrial genetic effects on male fertility

M. Florencia Camus, James Moore & Max Reuter
Organismal fitness is partly determined by how well the nutritional intake matches sex-specific metabolic requirements. Metabolism itself is underpinned by complex genomic interactions involving products from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Products from these two genomes must coordinate how nutrients are extracted, utilised and recycled; processes vital for fuelling reproduction. Given the complicated nature of metabolism, it is not well understood how the functioning of these two genomes is modulated by nutrients. Here we use...

Data from: A unified rheological model for cells and cellularised materials

Alessandra Bonfanti, Jonathan Fouchard, Nargess Khalilgharibi, Guillaume Charras & Alexandre Kabla
The mechanical response of single cells and tissues exhibits a broad distribution of time scales that gives often rise to a distinctive power-law rheology. Such complex behaviour cannot be easily captured by traditional rheological approaches, making material characterisation and predictive modelling very challenging. Here, we present a novel model combining conventional viscoelastic elements with fractional calculus that successfully captures the macroscopic relaxation response of epithelial monolayers. The parameters extracted from the fitting of the relaxation...

Joining a group diverts regret and responsibility away from the individual

Marwa El Zein & Bahador Bahrami
It has recently been proposed that a key motivation for joining groups is the protection from negative consequences of undesirable outcomes. To test this claim we investigated how experienced outcomes triggering loss and regret impacted people’s tendency to decide alone or join a group, and how decisions differed when voluntarily made alone vs in group. Replicated across two experiments, participants (N=125 and N=496) selected whether to play alone or contribute their vote to a group...

Data from: Queen succession conflict in the paper wasp Polistes dominula is mitigated by age-based convention

Benjamin Aaron Taylor, Alessandro Cini, Rita Cervo, Max Reuter & Seirian Sumner
Reproduction in cooperative animal groups is often dominated by one or a few individuals, with the remaining group members relegated to non-reproductive helping roles. This reproductive skew can evolve if helpers receive fitness benefits such as potential future inheritance of the breeding position, but the mechanisms by which inheritance is determined are not well resolved. Polistes paper wasps form highly reproductively skewed groups and inheritance of the breeding position is likely to play a key...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40

Affiliations

  • University College London
    40
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Birmingham
    2
  • Yale University
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology
    1
  • Royal Museum for Central Africa
    1
  • Denver Museum of Nature and Science
    1
  • Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics
    1
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    1