179 Works

Data from: Predator-prey trophic relationships in response to organic management practices

Jason M. Schmidt, Sarah K. Barney, Mark A. Williams, Ricardo T. Bessin, Timothy W. Coolong & James D. Harwood
A broad range of environmental conditions likely regulate predator-prey population dynamics and impact the structure of these communities. Central to understanding the interplay between predator and prey populations and their importance is characterizing the corresponding trophic interactions. Here we use a well-documented molecular approach to examine the structure of the community of natural enemies preying upon the squash bug, Anasa tristis, a herbivorous cucurbit pest that severely hinders organic squash and pumpkin production in the...

Data from: A population genetic signature of human releases in an invasive ladybeetle

Yukie Kajita, Eric M. O'Neill, Yanbing Zheng, John J. Obrycki & David W. Weisrock
Biological invasions have been accelerated by a variety of human activities. Propagule pressure, the number of introduced individuals and independent introductions, is likely to be influenced by these human activities and may be an important factor for successful range expansion in new environments. We tested whether the current distribution of the predatory ladybeetle Coccinella septempunctata in the introduced range (USA) is the result of multiple historical human introductions or natural range expansion from the first...

Data from: Multiple endosymbiont infections and reproductive manipulations in a linyphiid spider population

Meghan Curry, Leocadia Paliulis, Kelton Welch, James Harwood & Jennifer White
In many arthropods, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria can increase infection frequency by manipulating host reproduction. Multiple infections of different bacteria in a single host population are common, yet few studies have documented concurrent endosymbiont phenotypes or explored their potential interactions. We hypothesized that spiders might be a particularly useful taxon for investigating endosymbiont interactions, because they are host to a plethora of endosymbiotic bacteria and frequently exhibit multiple infections. We established two matrilines from the...

Data from: Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach

David J. Gonthier, Katherine K. Ennis, Serge Farinas, Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Aaron L. Iverson, Péter Batáry, Jörgen Rudolphi, Teja Tscharntke, Bradley J. Cardinale, Ivette Perfecto, H.-Y. Hsieh & P. Batary
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...

Data from: Inbreeding depression increases with environmental stress: an experimental study and meta-analysis

Charles W Fox & David H Reed
Inbreeding-environment interactions occur when inbreeding leads to differential fitness loss in different environments. Inbred individuals are often more sensitive to environmental stress than are outbred individuals, presumably because stress increases the expression of deleterious recessive alleles or cellular safeguards against stress are pushed beyond the organism's physiological limits. We examined inbreeding-environment interactions, along two environmental axes (temperature and rearing host) that differ in the amount of developmental stress they impose, in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus...

Data from: Concatenation and concordance in the reconstruction of mouse lemur phylogeny: an empirical demonstration of the effect of allele sampling in phylogenetics.

David W. Weisrock, Stacey D. Smith, Lauren M. Chan, Karla Biebouw, Peter M. Kappeler & Anne D. Yoder
The systematics and speciation literature is rich with discussion relating to the potential for gene tree/species tree discordance. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to generate discordance, including differential selection, long-branch attraction, gene duplication, genetic introgression, and/or incomplete lineage sorting. For speciose clades in which divergence has occurred recently and rapidly, recovering the true species tree can be particularly problematic due to incomplete lineage sorting. Unfortunately, the availability of multi-locus or “phylogenomic” data sets does not...

Data from: Impact of sublethal exposure to a pyrethroid-neonicotinoid insecticide on mating, fecundity and development in the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

Sydney E. Crawley, Jennifer R. Gordon, Katelyn A. Kowles, Michael F. Potter & Kenneth F. Haynes
Sublethal exposure to an insecticide may alter insect feeding, mating, oviposition, fecundity, development, and many other life history parameters. Such effects may have population-level consequences that are not apparent in traditional dose-mortality evaluations. Earlier, we found that a routinely used combination insecticide that includes a pyrethroid and a neonicotinoid (Temprid® SC) had deleterious effects on multiple bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that sublethal exposure impacts physiology and reproduction as well. We...

Data from: Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

Thomas R. Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, Katherine L. Thompson, Shishir K. Biswas, Zak Clare-Salzler, John M. Kimani, Stephen G. Kiama, Jeramiah J. Smith, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Ashley W. Seifert
Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer’ mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size,...

Data from: Geographic clines in wing morphology relate to colonization history in New World but not Old World populations of yellow dung flies

Martin A. Schaefer, David Berger, Patrick T. Rohner, Anders Kjaersgaard, Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Frédéric Guillaume, Charles W. Fox, Wolf Blanckenhorn & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Geographic clines offer insights about putative targets and agents of natural selection as well as tempo and mode of adaptation. However, demographic processes can lead to clines that are indistinguishable from adaptive divergence. Using the widespread yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), we examine quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) of wing shape across North America, Europe and Japan, and compare this differentiation with that of ten microsatellites (FST). Morphometric analyses of 28 populations reared at...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Oviposition traits generate extrinsic postzygotic isolation between two pine sawfly species

Emily E. Bendall, Kim L. Vertacnik & Catherine R. Linnen
Background: Although empirical data indicate that ecological speciation is prevalent in nature, the relative importance of different forms of reproductive isolation and the traits generating reproductive isolation remain unclear. To address these questions, we examined a pair of ecologically divergent pine-sawfly species: while Neodiprion pinetum specializes on a thin-needled pine (Pinus strobus), N. lecontei utilizes thicker-needled pines. We hypothesized that extrinsic postzygotic isolation is generated by oviposition traits. To test this hypothesis, we assayed ovipositor...

Autotomy does not affect reproductive success of adult red swamp crayfish and regeneration can be a continuous process in juvenile crayfish.

Luc Dunoyer, Zoe Dapore, Jeremy Van Cleve & Ashley Seifert
This work explores the fitness consequences of autotomy and regeneration in adult crayfish and shows how measuring potential fitness costs of regeneration can be complicated by likely compensatory changes that buffer these costs. Furthermore, this chapter also details the process of chelae regeneration in juvenile crayfish and reveals that molting and limb regeneration can be de-coupled; an unexpected finding.

A spatial genomic approach identifies time lags and historic barriers to gene flow in a rapidly fragmenting Appalachian landscape

Thomas Maigret, John Cox & David Weisrock
The resolution offered by genomic data sets coupled with recently developed spatially informed analyses are allowing researchers to quantify population structure at increasingly fine temporal and spatial scales. However, both empirical research and conservation measures have been limited by questions regarding the impacts of data set size, data quality thresholds, and the time scale at which barriers to gene flow become detectable. Here, we used restriction site associated DNA sequencing to generate a 2,140 SNP...

Genomics confirms surprising ecological divergence and isolation in an endangered butterfly

Julian Dupuis, Scott Geib, Kendall Osborne & Daniel Rubinoff
Phylogeographic patterns in phytophagous organisms are often contextualized in light of geographic isolation and ecological (host, habitat) specialization. However, assessing the relative impact of these phenomena is not straightforward, even in areas where phylogeography is well-studied, such as the California Floristic Province. Here, we use genome-wide markers to elucidate population genomic and phylgeographic patterns for a group of monophytophagous butterflies in southern California. This group is of high conservation interest because it includes the El...

Data from: Comparative genomic analysis of the pheromone receptor Class 1 family (V1R) reveals extreme complexity in mouse lemurs (genus, Microcebus) and a chromosomal hotspot across mammals

Kelsie E Hunnicutt, George P Tiley, Rachel C Williams, Peter A Larsen, Marina B Blanco, Rodin M Rasoloarison, Christopher Ryan Campbell, Kevin Zhu, David W Weisrock, Hiroaki Matsunami & Anne D Yoder
Sensory gene families are of special interest, both for what they can tell us about molecular evolution, and for what they imply as mediators of social communication. The vomeronasal type-1 receptors (V1Rs) have often been hypothesized as playing a fundamental role in driving or maintaining species boundaries given their likely function as mediators of intraspecific mate choice, particularly in nocturnal mammals. Here, we employ a comparative genomic approach for revealing patterns of V1R evolution within...

Data from: Patterns of authorship in ecology and evolution: first, last and corresponding authorship vary with gender and geography

Charles W. Fox, Josiah P. Ritchey, C.E. Timothy Paine & C. E. Timothy Paine
The position of an author on the byline of a paper affects the inferences readers make about their contributions to the research. We examine gender differences in authorship in the ecology literature using two datasets: submissions to six journals between 2010 and 2015 (regardless of whether they were accepted), and manuscripts published by 151 journals between 2009 and 2015. Women were less likely to be last (i.e., ‘senior’) authors (averaging ~23% across journals, years and...

Effects of snake fungal disease on short-term survival, behavior, and movement in free-ranging snakes

Steven Price, Jennifer McKenzie, Grant Connette, Simon Bonner & Jeffrey Lorch
Pathogenic fungi are increasingly associated with epidemics in wildlife populations. Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snakes, taxa that are elusive and difficult to sample. Thus, assessments of the impacts of SFD on populations have rarely occurred. We used a field technique to enhance detection, Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) telemetry, and a multistate capture-mark-recapture model to assess SFD effects on short-term (within-season) survival, movement, and surface activity of two wild snake species,...

Three-dimensional surface models of hand bones (individual 15-06)

Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Hugo Reyes-Centeno, Michael Francken, Gerhard Hotz, Kurt Rademaker & Katerina Harvati
Objectives: Cuncaicha, a rockshelter site in the southern Peruvian Andes, has yielded archaeological evidence for human occupation at high elevation (4480 masl) during the Terminal Pleistocene (12,500 to 11,200 cal BP), Early Holocene (9500-9000 cal BP), and later periods. One of the excavated human burials (Feature 15-06), corresponding to a middle-aged female dated to ~8500 cal BP, exhibits skeletal osteoarthritic lesions previously proposed to reflect habitual loading and specialized crafting labor. Three small tools found...

The influence of the global COVID-19 pandemic on manuscript submissions and editor and reviewer performance at six ecology journals

Charles Fox & Jennifer Meyer
Government policies attempting to slow the spread of COVID-19 have reduced access to research laboratories and shifted many scholars to working from home. These disruptions will likely influence submissions to scholarly journals, and affect the time available for editors and reviewers to participate in peer review. In this editorial we examine how journal submissions, and editorial and peer review processes, have been influenced by the pandemic at six journals published by the British Ecological Society...

Modifying plant photosynthesis and growth via simultaneous chloroplast transformation of Rubisco large and small subunits

Elena Martin-Avila, Yi-Leen Lim, Rosemary Birch, Lynnette Dirk, Sally Buck, Timothy Rhodes, Robert Sharwood, Maxim Kapralov & Spencer Whitney
Engineering improved Rubisco poses a crucial strategy for enhancing photosynthesis but is challenged by the alternate locations of the plastome rbcL gene and nuclear RbcS genes. Here we develop a RNAi-RbcS Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) master-line, tobRrΔS, amenable to rbcL-rbcS co-engineering by chloroplast transformation. Four tobacco genotypes coding alternative rbcS genes and adjoining 5ˈ-intergenic sequences revealed Rubisco production was highest in the lines incorporating a rbcS gene whose codon use and 5ˈUTR matched rbcL. These lines...

Data for: PickMe: sample selection for species tree reconstruction using coalescent weighted quartets

Joseph Rusinko, Yu Cai, Allison Doherty, Katherine Thompson, Julien Boutte, Mark Fishbein & Shannon Straub
After collecting large data sets of many genes for many species for phylogenomics studies, researchers may make ad hoc decisions about which genes or samples to include in a species tree reconstruction analysis based on various parameters, including the amount of missing data. Optimally, sampling would be maximized, but it can be difficult for empiricists to determine where to draw the line for sample inclusion when data sets are incomplete. Under the multispecies coalescent model,...

Visceral organ growth in pigs from birth through 150 kg bodyweight

Merlin Lindemann
Visceral organs (VO) are essential for their role in the metabolism and distribution of consumed nutrients as well as other life functions in animals. Two experiments were conducted to assess the natural longitudinal changes that the VO undergo from birth through 150 kg body weight (BW). Results showed that both absolute and relative measurements (weight, volume, and length) of VO were dependent on the BW (age) of the pig.

The impact of life stage and pigment source on the evolution of novel warning signal traits

Carita Lindstedt, Robin Bagley, Sarah Calhim, Mackenzie Jones & Catherine Linnen
Our understanding of how novel warning color traits evolve in natural populations is largely based on studies of reproductive stages and organisms with endogenously produced pigmentation. In these systems, genetic drift is often required for novel alleles to overcome strong purifying selection stemming from frequency-dependent predation and positive assortative mating. Here, we integrate data from field surveys, predation experiments, population genomics, and phenotypic correlations to explain the origin and maintenance of geographic variation in a...

Seminatural habitat surrounding farms promotes multifunctionality in avian ecosystem services

Elissa Olimpi, Karina Garcia, David Gonthier, Claire Kremen, William Snyder, Erin Wilson-Rankin & Daniel Karp
Farmland birds can suppress insect pests, but may also consume beneficial insects, damage crops, and potentially carry foodborne pathogens. As bird communities shift in response to farming practices, so too do the benefits (services) and costs (disservices) from birds. Understanding how and why ecosystem services and disservices covary can inform management interventions that enhance synergies, avoid tradeoffs, and promote multifunctionality. We investigated how farmland diversification practices influence the services and disservices provided by wild birds...

Interactive effects of multiscale diversification practices on farmland bird stress

Elissa Olimpi, Hallie Daly, Karina Garcia, Victoria Glynn, David Gonthier, Claire Kremen & Leithen M'Gonigle
Farmland diversification practices (i.e., methods used to produce food sustainably by enhancing biodiversity in cropping systems) are sometimes considered beneficial to both agriculture and biodiversity, but most studies of these practices rely on species richness, diversity, or abundance as a proxy for habitat quality. Biodiversity assessments may miss early clues that populations are imperiled when species presence does not imply persistence. Physiological stress indicators may help identify low-quality habitats before population declines occur. We explored...

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