234 Works

Data from: Bird services and disservices to strawberry farming in Californian agricultural landscapes

David J. Gonthier, Amber R. Sciligo, Daniel S. Karp, Adrian Lu, Karina Garcia, Gila Juarez, Taiki Chiba, Sasha Gennet & Claire Kremen
1.Bird conservation in agricultural settings can be controversial. While some bird species damage some crops, others suppress insect pests. Few studies have simultaneously compared bird services and disservices to assess their net impact. 2.Using an exclusion experiment in six California strawberry farms, we show that bird suppression of berry damage by insect pests (about 3.8% of berries) is similar in magnitude to the damage birds inflict on strawberries (about 3.2% of berries). 3.Across 27 farms,...

Data from: Cross-biome patterns in soil microbial respiration predictable from evolutionary theory on thermal adaptation

Mark A. Bradford, Rebecca L. McCulley, Thomas W. Crowther, Emily E. Oldfield, Stephen A. Wood & Noah Fierer
Climate warming may stimulate microbial metabolism of soil carbon, causing a carbon cycle-climate feedback whereby carbon is redistributed from soil to atmospheric CO2. The magnitude of this feedback is uncertain, in part because warming-induced shifts in microbial physiology and/or community composition could retard or accelerate soil carbon losses. Here, we measure microbial respiration rates for soils collected from 22 sites in each of three years, at locations spanning boreal to tropical climates. Respiration was measured...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Parasitoid Host Acceptance and Suitability for Sugarcane Aphid

Nathan Mercer
Commercially available parasitoids were tested for their host acceptance and suitability on the sugarcane aphid, recent pest of sorghum.

Data from: Shifts in species interactions and farming contexts mediate net effects of birds in agroecosystems

Elissa Olimpi, Karina Garcia, Daniel Karp & David Gonthier
Some birds are viewed as pests and vectors of foodborne pathogens in farmlands, yet birds also benefit growers by consuming pests. While many growers seek to prevent birds from accessing their farms, few studies have attempted to quantify the net effects of bird services and disservices, let alone how net effects shift across farm management strategies. We quantified the net effect of birds on crop production across 20 California strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) farms that...

Speciation and gene flow in two sympatric small mammals from Madagascar, Microgale fotsifotsy and M. soricoides (Mammalia: Tenrecidae)

Kathryn M Everson, Link E Olson & Steven M Goodman
Madagascar’s shrew tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae: Microgale, Nesogale) form an excellent system for studying speciation. Most species are endemic to the island’s eastern moist evergreen forest, a region renowned for high levels of biodiversity and a high rate of in situ diversification. We set out to understand the speciation dynamics in a clade of recently described taxa: Microgale fotsifotsy and M. soricoides, which have nearly identical distributions in the moist evergreen forest, and M. nasoloi, which...

Altering Planting Date to Manage Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in Sweet Sorghum

Nathan Mercer
This study was conducted to determine if altering sweet sorghum planting date from the recommended (mid) could reduce yield loss from the aphid pest, Melanaphis sacchari.

Plant-animal interactions between carnivorous plants, sheet-web spiders, and ground-running spiders as guild predators in a wet meadow community

James Krupa, Kevin Hopper, Samuel Gruber, Jason Schmidt & James Harwood
Plant-animal interactions are diverse and wide-spread shaping ecology, evolution and biodiversity of most ecological communities. Carnivorous plants are unusual in that they can be simultaneously engaged with animals in multiple mutualistic and antagonistic interactions including reversed plant-animal interactions where they are the predator. Competition with animals is a potential antagonistic plant-animal interaction unique to carnivorous plants when they and animal predators consume the same prey. The goal of this field study was to test the...

Data from: Gender diversity of editorial boards and gender differences in the peer review process at six journals of ecology and evolution.

Charles Fox, Meghan Duffy, Daphne Fairbairn & Jennifer Meyer
Despite substantial progress for women in science, women remain underrepresented in many aspects of the scholarly publication process. We examined how the gender diversity of editors and reviewers changed over time for six journals in ecology and evolution (2003-2015 for four journals, 2007-2015 or 2009-2015 for the other two), and how several aspects of the peer review process differed between female and male editors and reviewers. We found that, for five of the six journals,...

Comparison of native and non-native predator consumption rates and prey avoidance behavior in North America and Europe

Ayse Gül Ünlü, John J. Obrycki & Roman Bucher
Novel predator-prey interactions can contribute to the invasion success of non-native predators. For example, native prey can fail to recognize and avoid non-native predators due to a lack of co-evolutionary history and cue dissimilarity with native predators. This might result in a competitive advantage for non-native predators. Numerous lady beetle species were globally redistributed as biological control agents against aphids, resulting in novel predator-prey interactions. Here, we investigated the strength of avoidance behavior of the...

Collision between biological process and statistical analysis revealed by mean-centering

David Westneat, Yimen Araya-Ajoy, Hassen Allegue, Barbara Class, Niels Dingemanse, Ned Dochtermann, Laszlo Garamszegi, Julien Martin, Shinichi Nakagawa, Denis Reale & Holger Schielzeth
1. Animal ecologists often collect hierarchically-structured data and analyze these with linear mixed-effects models. Specific complications arise when the effect sizes of covariates vary on multiple levels (e.g., within vs among subjects). Mean-centering of covariates within subjects offers a useful approach in such situations, but is not without problems. 2. A statistical model represents a hypothesis about the underlying biological process. Mean-centering within clusters assumes that the lower level responses (e.g. within subjects) depend on...

Data from: Cryptic patterns of speciation in cryptic primates: microendemic mouse lemurs and the multispecies coalescent

Jelmer Poelstra, Jordi Salmona, George Tiley, Dominik Schüßler, Marina Blanco, Jean Andriambeloson, Olivier Bouchez, C. Ryan Campbell, Paul Etter, Amaia Iribar-Pelozuelo, Paul Hohenlohe, Kelsie Hunnicutt, Eric Johnson, Peter Kappeler, Peter Larsen, Sophie Manzi, Jose Ralison, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Rodin Rasoloarison, David Rasolofoson, Amanda Stahlke, David Weisrock, Rachel Williams, Lounes Chikhi, Ed Louis … & Anne Yoder
Species delimitation is ever more critical for assessing biodiversity in threatened regions of the world, especially when undescribed lineages may be at risk from habitat loss. Mouse lemurs (Microcebus) are an example of a rapid radiation of morphologically cryptic species that are distributed throughout Madagascar in its rapidly vanishing forested habitats. Here, we focus on two pairs of sister lineages that occur in a region in northeastern Madagascar that shows high levels of microendemism. We...

Impacts of Larval Diet on Pre-Imaginal Development, Survival and Adult Size of Six Species of Coccinellidae

Nathan Mercer & John Obrycki
Compared larval development, survival, and adult size of six lady beetle species on a diet of aphids or moth eggs

Deepest Observed Fresh Groundwater Contour Lines for the Cumberland Plateau of Eastern Kentucky

Ethan Davis, Thomas Parris & Jerrad Grider
These contour lines detail the estimated depth of the base of fresh groundwater—i.e., deepest observed fresh water. These contours were created using the deepest domestic water well depths in each 11-digit HUC watershed of a 14-county study area in the Cumberland Plateau of eastern Kentucky.

Patterns of recent natural selection on genetic loci associated with sexually differentiated human body size and shape phenotypes

Audrey M. Arner, Kathleen E. Grogan, Mark Grabowski, Hugo Reyes-Centeno & George H. Perry
Levels of sex differences for human body size and shape phenotypes are hypothesized to have adaptively reduced following the agricultural transition as part of an evolutionary response to relatively more equal divisions of labor and new technology adoption. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by studying genetic variants associated with five sexually differentiated human phenotypes: height, body mass, hip circumference, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. We first analyzed genome-wide association (GWAS) results for...

Intraspecific genetic variation in Dendroctonus alters efficacy of molecular approaches to population suppression

Bethany Kyre & Lynne Rieske
Genetic variability among geographically distinct populations of widely distributed insect species is commonplace and, in the case of southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has been well documented. This genetic variability could have consequences for beetle susceptibility to an emerging molecular approach to population suppression: RNA interference (RNAi). The use of RNAi for gene silencing in forest pest management is in its infancy, but its effectiveness in SPB has been demonstrated. RNAi is a naturally...

sj-xlsx-4-tct-10.1177_15330338221124658 - Supplemental material for In Vitro and in Vivo Study of the Effect of Osteogenic Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast and Lung Cancer Cells

Mike Y. Chen, Jing Li, Nianli Zhang, Erik I. Waldorff, James T. Ryaby, Philip Fedor, Yongsheng Jia & Yujun Wang
Supplemental material, sj-xlsx-4-tct-10.1177_15330338221124658 for In Vitro and in Vivo Study of the Effect of Osteogenic Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast and Lung Cancer Cells by Mike Y. Chen, Jing Li, Nianli Zhang and Erik I. Waldorff, James T. Ryaby, Philip Fedor, Yongsheng Jia, Yujun Wang in Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment

Additional file 3 of Genetic diversity in the transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Plasmodium vivax gametocyte protein Pvs230 from the China–Myanmar border area and central Myanmar

Xin Zhao, Yubing Hu, Yan Zhao, Lin Wang, Zifang Wu, Myat Thu Soe, Myat Phone Kyaw, Liwang Cui, Xiaotong Zhu & Yaming Cao
Additional file 3: Table S3. Codon-based tests for selection on Pvs230 in China–Myanmar border and Myanmar isolates.

Temperature-mediated plasticity in incubation schedules is unlikely to evolve to buffer embryos from climatic challenges in a seasonal songbird

Alexandra Cones, Andrea Liebl, Thomas Houslay & Andrew Russell
Phenotypic plasticity is hypothesised to facilitate adaptive responses to challenging conditions, such as those resulting from climate change. However, the key predictions of this ‘rescue hypothesis’, that variation in plasticity exists and can evolve to buffer unfavourable conditions, remain rare. Here, we investigate among-female variation in temperature-mediated plasticity of incubation schedules and consequences for egg temperatures using the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) from temperate regions of inland south-eastern Australia. Given phenological advances in this seasonal...

Do tradeoffs govern plant species responses to different global change treatments?

J. Adam Langley, Emily Grman, Kevin Wilcox, Meghan Avolio, Kimberly Komatsu, Scott Collins, Sally Koerner, Melinda Smith, Andrew Baldwin, William Bowman, Nona Chiariello, Anu Eskelinen, Harry Harmens, Mark Hovenden, Kari Klanderud, Rebecca McCulley, Vladimir Onipchenko, Clare Robinson & Katharine Suding
Plants are subject to tradeoffs among growth strategies such that adaptations for optimal growth in one condition can preclude optimal growth in another. Thus, we hypothesized that the response of plant species abundance to one global change treatment would relate inversely to the response to a second treatment, particularly for treatment combinations that accentuate distinct traits. To address this hypothesis, we examined plant species abundances in 39 global change experiments manipulating CO2, nitrogen, phosphorus, water,...

A shift to shorter cuticular hydrocarbons accompanies sexual isolation among Drosophila americana group populations

Jeremy S Davis, Matthew Pearcy, Joanne Yew & Leonie Moyle
Because sensory signals often evolve rapidly, they could be instrumental in the emergence of reproductive isolation between species. However, pinpointing their specific contribution to isolating barriers, and the mechanisms underlying their divergence, remains challenging. Here we demonstrate sexual isolation due to divergence in chemical signals between two populations of Drosophila americana (SC and NE) and one population of D. novamexicana, and dissect its underlying phenotypic and genetic mechanisms. Mating trials revealed strong sexual isolation between...

Elastic Thickness and Crust-Mantle Interface Models of Tharsis Bulge on Mars and Surrounding Areas

Ratheesh Kumar R.T, Dhananjay Ravat & Paul morgan
The datasets contain the final models of spatial variation of elastic thickness (Te) and the depth to Moho or the Crust-Mantle Interface (CMI) of the Tharsis Bulge and the surrounding regions derived from the software package LithoFLEX. The models are based on the crustal density of 2900 kg/m3, which was selected from analyzing results of a range of densities, and other standard lithospheric parameters. The models are useful for understanding the nature and evolution of...

Which peer reviewers voluntarily reveal their identity to authors? Insights into the consequences of open-identities peer review

Charles Fox
Identifying reviewers is argued to improve quality and fairness of peer review, but is generally disfavored by reviewers. To gain some insight into the factors that influence when reviewers are willing to have their identity revealed, I examine which reviewers voluntarily reveal their identities to authors at the journal Functional Ecology, at which reviewer identities are confidential unless reviewers sign their comments to authors. 5.6% of reviewers signed their comments to authors. This proportion increased...

GeoDatabase and Modeling Code used for Landslide Hazard and Susceptibility Mapping in Eastern and Northern Kentucky

Lindsey Bryson, batmyagmar dashbold & Matt Crawford
We created a landslide susceptibility map using spatial soil property features extracted from the NRCS WSS that include percent sand, percent silt, percent clay, saturated hydraulic conductivity, available water capacity, one third bar water content, plasticity index, and liquid limit, all of which were used as features in the logistic regression analysis. We also used satellite soil moisture data, and a high-resolution (1.5 m) LiDAR-derived digital elevation map (DEM) which include slope, aspect, curvature, elevation,...

Multi-Temporal UAV Images and GeoDatabase Used to Estimate Temporal and Spatial Soil Moisture Content

Lindsey Bryson & batmyagmar dashbold
We used small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with optical digital camera to detect a land movement and to extract soil parameters. Using multi-temporal images in Garrard County, Kentucky, we detected land movement on three pairs of images that were captured one month apart. The multi-temporal images and the result of the movement analysis are available in folders. In addition, vertical displacement analysis is carried out using Differential Interferometry technique (DinSAR) to a pair of Synthetic...

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