213 Works

Data from: Factors essential for L,D-transpeptidase-mediated peptidoglycan cross-linking and β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli

Christiane Bouchier, Jean-Emmanuel Hugonnet, Michel Arthur, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Yves Brun, Michael Van Nieuwenhze, Louis B Rice, Alejandro Monton, Tanneke Den Blaauwen, Etienne Carbonnelle, Carole Veckerlé & Kuyek Tu
The target of β-lactam antibiotics is the D,D-transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) for synthesis of 4→3 cross-links in the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Unusual 3→3 cross-links formed by L,D-transpeptidases were first detected in Escherichia coli more than four decades ago, however no phenotype has previously been associated with their synthesis. Here we show that production of the L,D-transpeptidase YcbB in combination with elevated synthesis of the (p)ppGpp alarmone by RelA lead to full...

Data from: Complex selection on a regulator of social cognition: evidence of balancing selection, regulatory interactions and population differentiation in the prairie vole Avpr1a locus

Alejandro Berrio, Rafael F. Guerrero, Galina V. Aglyamova, Mariam Okhovat, Mikhail V. Matz & Steven M. Phelps
Adaptive variation in social behavior depends upon standing genetic variation, but we know little about how evolutionary forces shape genetic diversity relevant to brain and behavior. In prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), variants at the Avpr1a locus predict expression of the vasopressin 1a receptor in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a brain region that mediates spatial and contextual memory; cortical V1aR abundance in turn predicts diversity in space-use and sexual fidelity in the field. To examine the...

Data from: Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers.

Sebastien Renaut, Christopher J. Grassa, Sam Yeaman, Zhao Lai, Nolan K. Kane, Brook T. Moyers, John E. Bowers, John M. Burke & Loren H. Rieseberg
Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals three sources of adaptive variation during a rapid radiation

James B. Pease, David C. Haak, Matthew W. Hahn & Leonie C. Moyle
Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon), we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately...

Data from: Weak coordination between leaf structure and function among closely related tomato species

Christopher D. Muir, Miquel À. Conesa, Emilio J. Roldán, Arántzazu Molins & Jeroni Galmés
Theory predicts that natural selection should favor coordination between leaf physiology, biochemistry and anatomical structure along a functional trait spectrum from fast, resource-acquisitive syndromes to slow, resource-conservative syndromes. However, the coordination hypothesis has rarely been tested at a phylogenetic scale most relevant for understanding rapid adaptation in the recent past or for the prediction of evolutionary trajectories in response to climate change. We used a common garden to examine genetically based coordination between leaf traits...

Data from: Habitat, predators, and hosts regulate disease in Daphnia through direct and indirect pathways

Alexander T. Strauss, Marta S. Shocket, David J. Civitello, Jessica L. Hite, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Community ecology can link habitat to disease via interactions among habitat, focal hosts, other hosts, their parasites, and predators. However, complicated food web interactions (i.e., trophic interactions among predators, and their impacts on host density and diversity) often obscure the important pathways regulating disease. Here, we disentangle community drivers in a case study of planktonic disease, using a two-step approach. In step one, we tested univariate field patterns linking community interactions to two disease metrics....

Data from: Aging alters interspecific competition between two sympatric insect-parasitic nematode species

Farrah Bashey-Visser, Tara Sarin, Curtis M. Lively & Farrah Bashey
Interspecific competition can vary depending on the stage, age, or physiological state of the competitors. Competitive ability often increases with age or size; alternatively, senescence can lead to a loss of viability and reduced competitive success. Differences between species in their age-specific competitive abilities can promote coexistence in the face of substantial niche overlap. We examined two sympatric species of nematodes (genus Steinernema) to determine whether their competitive relationship changes as a function of age....

Data from: Guidelines and considerations for designing field experiments simulating precipitation extremes in forest ecosystems

Heidi Asbjornsen, John L. Campbell, Katie A. Jennings, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Cameron McIntire, Pamela H. Templer, Richard P. Phillips, Taryn L. Bauerle, Michael C. Dietze, Serita D. Frey, Peter M. Groffman, Rosella Guerrieri, Paul J. Hanson, Eric P. Kelsey, Alan K. Knapp, Nathan G. McDowell, Patrick Meir, Kimberly A. Novick, Scott V. Ollinger, Will T. Pockman, Paul G. Schaberg, Stan D. Wullschleger, Melinda D. Smith & Lindsey E. Rustad
1. Context. Precipitation regimes are changing in response to climate change, yet understanding of how forest ecosystems respond to extreme droughts and pluvials remains incomplete. As future precipitation extremes will likely fall outside the range of historical variability, precipitation manipulation experiments (PMEs) are critical to advancing knowledge about potential ecosystem responses. However, few PMEs have been conducted in forests compared to short-statured ecosystems, and forest PMEs have unique design requirements and constraints. Moreover, past forest...

Data from: Social feedback and the emergence of rank in animal society

Elizabeth A. Hobson & Simon DeDeo
Dominance hierarchies are group-level properties that emerge from the aggression of individuals. Although individuals can gain critical benefits from their position in a hierarchy, we do not understand how real-world hierarchies form. Nor do we understand what signals and decision-rules individuals use to construct and maintain hierarchies in the absence of simple cues such as size or spatial location. A study of conflict in two groups of captive monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) found that a...

Data from: Trade‐off between reproductive and anti‐competitor abilities in an insect–parasitic nematode–bacteria symbiosis

Sofia Bertoloni Meli & Farrah Bashey
Mutualistic symbionts can provide diverse benefits to their hosts and often supply key trait variation for host adaptation. The bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes play a crucial role in successful colonization of and reproduction in the insect host. Additionally, these symbionts can produce a diverse array of antimicrobial compounds to deter within‐host competitors. Natural isolates of the symbiont, Xenorhabdus bovienii, show considerable variation in their ability to target sympatric competitors via bacteriocins, which can inhibit...

Data from: Plant-soil feedbacks shift from negative to positive with decreasing light in forest understory species

Lauren M. Smith & Heather L. Reynolds
Net pairwise plant–soil feedbacks (PSF) may be an important factor structuring plant communities, yet the influence of abiotic context on PSF is not yet understood. Abiotic factors such as light availability can alter plant–soil interactions, potentially resulting in strong context dependence of PSF. Here, we present an experiment in which we measured whole-soil net pairwise feedbacks amongst six common forest understory species across a gradient of light availability. Light treatments were imposed throughout both phases...

Data from: Concordance of bacterial communities of two tick species and blood of their shared rodent host

Evelyn C. Rynkiewicz, Chris Hemmerich, Clay Fuqua, Keith Clay & Douglas B. Rusch
High-throughput sequencing is revealing that most macro-organisms house diverse microbial communities. Of particular interest are disease vectors whose microbiome could potentially affect pathogen transmission and vector competence. We investigated bacterial community composition and diversity of the ticks Dermacentor variabilis (n = 68) and Ixodes scapularis (n = 15) and blood of their shared rodent host, Peromyscus leucopus (n = 45) to quantify bacterial diversity and concordance. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified from genomic DNA...

Data from: Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Brandon S. Cooper, Loubna A. Hammad & Kristi L/ Montooth
1. Changes in temperature disrupt the fluidity of cellular membranes, which can negatively impact membrane integrity and cellular processes. Many ectotherms, including Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), adjust the glycerophospholipid composition of their membranes to restore optimal fluidity when temperatures change, a type of trait plasticity termed homeoviscous adaptation. 2. Existing data suggest that plasticity in the relative abundances of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) underlies cellular adaptation to temporal variability in the thermal environment....

Data from: Environmental structure and energetic consequences in groups of young mice

Delia S. Shelton, Paul M. Meyer & Karen M. Ocasio
Microenvironments can have considerable physiological consequences for the inhabitants by influencing the movements of individual members. The microenvironment can permit more diverse aggregation patterns or restrict movements to certain dimensions. Here, we tested whether aspects of the microenvironment that influenced aggregation patterns also influenced the energetics of groups of young animals. We tested the effects of enclosure configuration on the group temperature and respiration of infant mice (Mus musculus). We monitored the huddle temperature and...

Data from: The model marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana likely descended from a freshwater ancestor in the genus Cyclotella

Andrew J Alverson, Bank Beszteri, Matthew L Julius & Edward C Theriot
BACKGROUND: Publication of the first diatom genome, that of Thalassiosira pseudonana, established it as a model species for experimental and genomic studies of diatoms. Virtually every ensuing study has treated T. pseudonana as a marine diatom, with genomic and experimental data valued for their insights into the ecology and evolution of diatoms in the world's oceans. RESULTS: The natural distribution of T. pseudonana spans both marine and fresh waters, and phylogenetic analyses of morphological and...

Data from: Validation of a rodent model of source memory

Jonathon Crystal, Wesley Alford, W. T. Alford & J. D. Crystal
Source memory represents the origin (source) of information. Recently, we proposed that rats (Rattus norvegicus) remember the source of information. However, an alternative to source memory is the possibility that rats selectively encoded some, but not all, information rather than retrieving an episodic memory. We directly tested this "encoding-failure" hypothesis. Here, we show that rats remember the source of information, under conditions that cannot be attributed to encoding failure. Moreover, source memory lasted at least...

Data from: Delegating decisions: recruiting others to make choices we might regret

Mary Steffel & Elanor F. Williams
Consumers typically prefer freedom of choice, but when faced with a choice they might regret, they may prefer freedom from choice. Eight experiments show that people delegate difficult decisions, regardless of the decision’s importance, and regardless of their potential surrogate’s expertise. Delegation stems from a desire to avoid responsibility for potentially making the wrong choice rather than simply the desire to avoid the possibility of a poor outcome: although anticipated disappointment with the outcome and...

Data from: Evolving from static to dynamic signals: evolutionary compensation between two communicative signals

Emilia P. Martins, Alison G. Ossip-Klein, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Cuauhcihuatl Vital García, Stephanie M. Campos & Diana K. Hews
Signals that convey related information may impose selection on each other, creating evolutionary links between different components of the communicative repertoire. Here, we ask about the consequences of the evolutionary loss of one signal (a colour patch) on another (a motion display) in Sceloporus lizards. We present data on male lizards of four species: two pairs of sister taxa representing two independent evolutionary losses of the static colour patch (S. cozumelae and S. parvus; S....

Data from: Community functional trait composition at the continental scale: the effects of non-ecological processes

A. Michelle Lawing, Jussi T. Eronen, Jessica L. Blois, Catherine H. Graham & P. David Polly
Ecological communities and their response to environmental gradients are increasingly being described by measures of trait composition at the community level – the trait-based approach. Whether ecological or non-ecological processes influence trait composition between communities has been debated. Understanding the processes that influence trait composition is important for reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions from fossil deposits and for understanding changes in community functionality through time. Here, we assess the influence of ecological and non-ecological processes on the...

Data from: The missing link in grassland restoration: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation increases plant diversity and accelerates succession

Liz Koziol & James D. Bever
Because soil microbial communities are often altered by anthropogenic disturbance, successful plant community restoration may require the restoration of beneficial soil microbes, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Recent evidence suggests that later successional grassland species are more strongly affected by AM fungi relative to early successional plants and that late successional plants consistently benefit from some AM fungi but not other AM fungal species. Many of these late successional species are also often missing...

Data from: Serotonin differentially affects morph-specific behavior in divergent populations of a horned beetle

Keeley D. Newsom, Armin P. Moczek & Daniel B. Schwab
Associations between animal weapons and corresponding aggressive behaviors are among the most characteristic features of species, yet at the same time their co-expression is itself often strongly dependent on context, such as male condition or population ecology. Yet the mechanisms that modulate associations between aggression, morphology, and biological context remain poorly understood. The biogenic amine serotonin has been shown to regulate a wide range of aggressive and morph-specific behaviors in diverse insect species. However, the...

Data from: Density-dependent fitness, not dispersal movements, drives temporal variation in spatial genetic structure in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)

Eric B. Liebgold, Nicole M. Gerlach & Ellen D. Ketterson
Some studies have found that dispersal rates and distances increase with density, indicating that density-dependent dispersal likely affects spatial genetic structure. In an 11-year mark-recapture study on a passerine, the dark-eyed junco, we tested whether density affected dispersal distance and/or fine-scale spatial genetic structure. Contrary to expectations, we found no effect of pre-dispersal density on dispersal distance or the proportion of locally-produced juveniles returning to the population from which they hatched. However, even though density...

Macroimmunology: the drivers and consequences of spatial patterns in wildlife immune defense

Daniel Becker, Gregory Albery, Maureen Kessler, Tamika Lunn, Caylee Falvo, Gábor Czirják, Lynn Martin & Raina Plowright
1. Spatial variation in parasite pressure, abiotic and biotic conditions, and anthropogenic factors can all shape immune phenotypes across spatial scales. Identifying the most important spatial drivers of immunity could help preempt infectious disease risks, especially in the context of how large-scale factors such as urbanization affect defense by changing environmental conditions. 2. We provide a synthesis of how to apply macroecological approaches to the study of ecoimmunology (i.e., macroimmunology). We first review spatial factors...

Rapid differentiation of plasticity in life history and morphology during invasive range expansion and concurrent local adaptation in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

Patrick T. Rohner & Armin P. Moczek
Understanding the interplay between genetic differentiation, ancestral plasticity, and the evolution of plasticity during adaptation to environmental variation is critical to predict populations’ responses to environmental change. However, the role of plasticity in rapid adaptation in nature remains poorly understood. We here use the invasion of the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus in the United States during the last half century to study the contribution of ancestral plasticity and post-invasion evolution of plastic responses in rapid...

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

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