304 Works

Data from: Increasing plant diversity of experimental grasslands alters the age and growth of Plantago lanceolata from younger and faster to older and slower

Anna Roeder, Fritz H. Schweingruber, Markus Fischer & Christiane Roscher
The persistence of plant populations depends on the ability of individuals to cope with the conditions provided by the community. So far, it is not known whether differences in the diversity and composition of plant communities affect the age structure of plant populations or the expression of stem anatomical traits reflecting investment into plant growth and storage. We analyzed annual growth rings in the secondary xylem and measured stem anatomical traits in individuals from 18...

Data from: Adapted dandelions trade dispersal for germination upon root herbivore attack

Zoe Bont, Marc Pfander, Christelle Robert, Meret Huber, Erik Poelman, Ciska Raaijmakers & Matthias Erb
A plant’s offspring may escape unfavourable local conditions through seed dispersal. Whether plants use this strategy to escape insect herbivores is not well understood. Here, we explore how different dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) populations, including diploid outcrossers and triploid apomicts, modify seed dispersal in response to root herbivore attack by their main root-feeding natural enemy, the larvae of the common cockchafer Melolontha melolontha. In a manipulative field experiment, root herbivore attack increased seed dispersal potential...

Chironomid-based temperature reconstruction from Burgäschisee, Switzerland

Alexander Bolland, Fabian Rey, Erika Gobet, Willy Tinner & Oliver Heiri
The data herein presents a new chironomid record and associated chironomid-based temperature reconstruction covering the time interval 18,000-14,000 cal. BP from the lacustrine sediments of a kettle hole lake Burgäschisee, Switzerland. Chironomid assemblages show ecological turnover beginning 1,300 years before the onset of the Oldest Dryas / Bølling transition at ca. 14,700 cal. BP and associated increases in chironomid-based temperature reconstructions. These data also include non-chironomid invertebrate remains, including Ceratopogonidae, Daphnia and Ephemeroptera as well...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Including tree spatial extension in the evaluation of neighbourhood competition effects in Bornean rain forest

David Newbery & Peter Stoll
Classical tree neighbourhood models use size variables acting at point distances. In a new approach here, trees were spatially extended as a function of their crown sizes, represented impressionistically as points within crown areas. Extension was accompanied by plasticity in the form of crown removal or relocation under the overlap of taller trees. Root systems were supposedly extended in a similar manner. For the 38 most abundant species in the focal size class (10 -...

Data from: Transcriptomic signatures of social experience during early development in a highly social cichlid fish

Cecilia Nyman, Francois Olivier Hebert, Mathilde Bessert-Nettelbeck, Nadia Aubin-Horth & Barbara Taborsky
The social environment encountered early during development can temporarily or permanently influence life history decisions and behaviour of individuals and correspondingly shape molecular pathways. In the highly social cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, deprivation of brood care permanently affects social behaviour, and alters the expression of stress axis genes in juveniles and adults. It is unclear when gene expression patterns change during early life depending on social experience, and which genes are involved. We compared brain...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Stallion semen quality depends on MHC matching to teaser mare

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Catherine Berney, Fredi Janett, Heinrich Bollwein, Harald Sieme, Dominik Burger & Claus Wedekind
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has repeatedly been found to influence mate choice of vertebrates, with MHC-dissimilar mates typically being preferred over MHC-similar mates. We used horses (Equus caballus) to test whether MHC matching also affects male investment into ejaculates after short exposure to a female. Semen characteristics varied much among stallions. Controlling for this variance with a full-factorial within-subject experimental design, we found that a short exposure to an MHC-dissimilar mare enhanced male plasma...

Data from: Revised time scales of RNA virus evolution based on spatial information

Moritz Saxenhofer, Vanessa Weber De Melo, Rainer G. Ulrich & Gerald Heckel
The time scales of pathogen evolution are of major concern in the context of public and veterinary health, epidemiology and evolutionary biology. Dating the emergence of a pathogen often relies on estimates of evolutionary rates derived from nucleotide sequence data. For many viruses, this has yielded estimates of evolutionary origins only a few hundred years in the past. Here we demonstrate through the incorporation of geographic information from virus sampling that evolutionary age estimates of...

Data from: A prioritised list of invasive alien species to assist the effective implementation of EU legislation

Carles Carboneras, Piero Genovesi, Montserrat Vila, Tim Blackburn, Martina Carrete, Miguel Clavero, Bram D'hondt, Jorge F. Orueta, Belinda Gallardo, Pedro Geraldes, Pablo González-Moreno, Richard D. Gregory, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jean-Yves Paquet, Petr Pysek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Iván Ramírez, Riccardo Scalera, Jose Tella, Paul Walton, Robin Wynde & Tim M. Blackburn
1. Effective prevention and control of invasive species generally relies on a comprehensive, coherent and representative list of species that enables resources to be used optimally. European Union (EU) Regulation 1143/2014 on invasive alien species (IAS) aims to control or eradicate priority species, and to manage pathways to prevent the introduction and establishment of new IAS; it applies to species considered of Union concern and subject to formal risk assessment. So far, 49 species have...

Data from: Rapid buildup of sympatric species diversity in Alpine whitefish

Carmela J. Doenz, David Bittner, Pascal Vonlanthen, Catherine E. Wagner & Ole Seehausen
Adaptive radiations in postglacial fish offer excellent settings to study the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the rapid buildup of sympatric species diversity from a single lineage. Here, we address this by exploring the genetic and ecological structure of the largest Alpine whitefish radiation known, that of Lakes Brienz and Thun, using microsatellite data of more than 2000 whitefish caught during extensive species‐targeted and habitat‐randomized fishing campaigns. We find six strongly genetically and ecologically differentiated species,...

Data from: Prevalence of disruptive selection predicts extent of species differentiation in Lake Victoria cichlids

Jacco C. Van Rijssel, Florian N. Moser, David Frei & Ole Seehausen
Theory suggests that speciation with gene flow is most likely when both sexual and ecological selection are divergent or disruptive. Divergent sexual and natural selection on the visual system have been demonstrated before in sympatric, morphologically similar, sister species of Lake Victoria cichlids, but this does not explain the subtle morphological differences between them. To investigate the significance of natural selection on morphology during speciation, we here ask whether the prevalence of disruptive ecological selection...

Data from: Bird responses to lowland rainforest conversion in Sumatran smallholder landscapes, Indonesia

Walesa Edho Prabowo, Kevin Felix Arno Darras, Yann Clough, Manuel Toledo-Hernández, Raphael Arlettaz, Yeni A. Mulyani, Teja Tscharntke & Kevin Darras
Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation)...

Data from: Heterozygosity is linked to the costs of immunity in nestling great tits (Parus major)

Beatrice Voegeli, Verena Saladin, Michèle Wegmann & Heinz Richner
There is growing evidence that heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are more pronounced under harsh conditions. Empirical evidence suggests a mediating effect of parasite infestation on the occurrence of HFCs. Parasites have the potential to mediate HFCs not only by generally causing high stress levels but also by inducing resource allocation tradeoffs between the necessary investments in immunity and other costly functions. To investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms, we manipulated growth conditions of great...

Data from: Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable age

Kay Lucek, Arjun Sivasundar, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason & Ole Seehausen
When genetic constraints restrict phenotypic evolution, diversification can be predicted to evolve along so-called lines of least resistance. To address the importance of such constraints and their resolution, studies of parallel phenotypic divergence that differ in their age are valuable. Here, we investigate the parapatric evolution of six lake and stream threespine stickleback systems from Iceland and Switzerland, ranging in age from a few decades to several millennia. Using phenotypic data, we test for parallelism...

Data from: Many-to-one form-to-function mapping weakens parallel morphological evolution

Cole J. Thompson, Newaz Ahmed, Thor Veen, Catherine Lynn Peichel, Andrew P. Hendry, Daniel I. Bolnick & Yoel E. Stuart
Evolutionary ecologists aim to explain and predict evolutionary change under different selective regimes. Theory suggests that such evolutionary prediction should be more difficult for biomechanical systems in which different trait combinations generate the same functional output: “many-to-one mapping”. Many-to-one mapping of phenotype to function enables multiple morphological solutions to meet the same adaptive challenges. Therefore, many-to-one mapping should undermine parallel morphological evolution, and hence evolutionary predictability, even when selection pressures are shared among populations. Studying...

Data from: Decoupled diversity dynamics in green and brown webs during primary succession in a salt marsh

Maarten Schrama, Fons Van Der Plas, Matty P. Berg & Han Olff
Terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by a strong functional connection between the green (plant–herbivore-based) and brown (detritus–detritivore-based) parts of the food web, which both develop over successional time. However, the interlinked changes in green and brown food web diversity patterns in relation to key ecosystem processes are rarely studied. Here, we demonstrate changes in species richness, diversity and evenness over a wide range of invertebrate green and brown trophic groups during 100 years of primary succession...

Data from: Numerical response of mammalian carnivores to rodents affects bird reproduction in temperate forests: a case of apparent competition?

Alexander Grendelmeier, Raphaël Arlettaz, Gilberto Pasinelli & Alex Grendelmeier
Resource pulses such as mast seeding in temperate forests may affect interspecific interactions over multiple trophic levels and link different seed and non-seed consumers directly via predation or indirectly via shared predators. However, the nature and strength of interactions among species remain unknown for most resource pulse driven ecosystems. We considered five hypotheses concerning the influence of resource pulses on the interactions between rodents, predators and bird reproduction with data from northern Switzerland collected between...

Data from: Group-size dependent punishment of idle subordinates in a cooperative breeder where helpers pay to stay

Stefan Fischer, Markus Zöttl, Frank Groenewoud, Barbara Taborsky & M. Zottl
In cooperative breeding systems, dominant breeders sometimes tolerate unrelated individuals even if they inflict costs on the dominants. According to the ‘pay-to-stay’ hypothesis, (i) subordinates can outweigh these costs by providing help and (ii) dominants should be able to enforce help by punishing subordinates that provide insufficient help. This requires that dominants can monitor helping and can recognize group members individually. In a field experiment, we tested whether cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates increase...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus associated with its rodent host, Myodes glareolus

Vanessa Weber De Melo, Hanan Sheik Ali, Jona Freise, Denise Kühnert, Sandra Essbauer, Marc Mertens, Konrad M. Wanka, Stephan Drewes, Rainer G. Ulrich, Gerald Heckel & Hanan Sheikh Ali
Many viruses significantly impact human and animal health. Understanding the population dynamics of these viruses and their hosts can provide important insights for epidemiology and virus evolution. Puumala virus (PUUV) is a European hantavirus that may cause regional outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of PUUV circulating in local populations of its rodent reservoir host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) during eight years. Phylogenetic and population...

Data from: Phylogeographic past and invasive presence of Arion pest slugs in Europe

Miriam A. Zemanova, Eva Knop & Gerald Heckel
Arion vulgaris (syn. A. lusitanicus) is the most destructive pest slug in Europe. The species has been regarded a classic case of an ongoing biological invasion with negative economic and ecological impact in many European countries, but this status has recently been contested. In this study, we assessed mitochondrial and autosomal genetic diversity in populations of A. vulgaris across the entire distribution range in order to characterize its evolutionary history. Mitochondrial diversity in A. vulgaris...

Data from: Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips

Guillaume Lavanchy, Marie Strehler, Maria Noemi Llanos Roman, Malie Lessard Therrien, Jean-Yves Humbert, Zoé Dumas, Kirsten Jalvingh, Karim Ghali, Amaranta Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, Bart Zijlstra, Raphaël Arlettaz, Tanja Schwander & Malie Lessard-Therrien
Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of...

Data from: Increase in CO2 concentration could alter the response of Hedera helix to climate change

Ruben D. Manzanedo, Juan Ballesteros-Cánovas, Floris Schenk, Markus Stoffel, Markus Fischer & Eric Allan
• Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is likely to affect future species distributions, in interaction with other climate change drivers. However, current modelling approaches still seldom consider interactions between climatic factors and the importance of these interactions therefore remains mostly unexplored. • Here, we combined dendrochronological and modelling approaches to study the interactive effects of increasing [CO2] and temperature on the distribution of one of the main European liana species, Hedera helix. We combined a classical...

Data from: Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families

Nick J. Royle, Thomas W. Pike, Phillip Heeb, Heinz Richner, Mathias Kölliker & M. Kolliker
Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependent young, interactions within families nearly always involve more...

Data from: A below ground herbivore shapes root defensive chemistry in natural plant populations

Meret Huber, Zoe Bont, Julia Fricke, Théo Brillatz, Zohra Aziz, Jonathan Gershenzon & Matthias Erb
Plants display extensive intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites. However, the selective forces shaping this diversity remain often unknown, especially below ground. Using Taraxacum officinale and its major native insect root herbivore Melolontha melolontha, we tested whether below ground herbivores drive intraspecific variation in root secondary metabolites. We found that high M. melolontha infestation levels over the last decades are associated with high concentrations of major root latex secondary metabolites across 21 central European T. officinale...

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