371 Works

Data from: Using structured eradication feasibility assessment to prioritise the management of new and emerging invasive alien species in Europe

Olaf Booy, Peter A. Robertson, Niall Moore, Jess Ward, Helen E. Roy, Tim Adriaens, Richard Shaw, Johan Van Valkenburg, Gabe Wyn, Sandro Bertolino, Olivier Blight, Etienne Branquart, Giuseppe Brundu, Joe Caffrey, Dario Capizzi, Jim Casaer, Olivier De Clerck, Neil Coughlan, Eithne Davis, Jaimie Dick, Franz Essl, Guillaume Fried, Piero Genovesi, Pablo González-Moreno, Frank Hysentruyt … & Aileen C. Mill
Prioritising the management of invasive alien species (IAS) is of global importance and within Europe integral to the EU IAS regulation. To prioritise management effectively the risks posed by IAS need to be assessed, but so too does the feasibility of their management. While risk of IAS to the EU has been assessed, the feasibility of management has not. We assessed the feasibility of eradicating 60 new (not yet established) and 35 emerging (established with...

Data from: The importance of individual heterogeneity for interpreting faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in wildlife studies

Joy Coppes, Jim-Lino Kämmerle, Mirjam Willert, Annette Kohnen, Rupert Palme & Veronika Braunisch
1. Being a non-invasive and inexpensive method, the analysis of faecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCM) is increasingly being applied in wildlife research. Various environmental factors have been shown to influence FCM levels, but most studies did not account for inter-individual variance, which we hypothesized may substantially affect the results. 2. We combined FCM analysis with genetic analysis to identify the sex and individual of samples collected in three consecutive winters, with repeated samples per individual, across...

Primordial GATA6 macrophages function as extravascular platelets in sterile injury

Joel Zindel, Moritz Peiseler, Mokarram Hossain, Carsten Deppermann, Woo Yong Lee, Beat Haenni, Bas Surewaard, Daniel Candinas & Paul Kubes
Most multicellular organisms have a major body cavity that harbors immune cells. In primordial species like purple sea urchins, these cells perform phagocytic functions but are also crucial in repairing injuries. In mammals, the peritoneal cavity contains large numbers of resident GATA6+ macrophages, which may play a similar role. It is unclear how cavity macrophages suspended in the fluid phase (peritoneal fluid) identify and migrate towards injuries, however. Here, we show that cavity macrophages in...

Data from: The scent of attractiveness: levels of reproductive hormones explain individual differences in women’s body odour

Janek Lobmaier, Urs Fischbacher, Urs Wirthmüller, Daria Knoch & Janek S. Lobmaier
Individuals are thought to have their own distinctive body odour which reportedly plays an important role in mate choice. In the present study we investigated individual differences in body odours of women and examined whether some women generally smell more attractive than others or whether odour preferences are a matter of individual taste. We then explored whether levels of reproductive hormones explain women’s body odour attractiveness, to test the idea that body odour attractiveness may...

Data from: Projecting shifts in thermal habitat for 686 species on the North American continental shelf

James W. Morley, Rebecca L. Selden, Robert J. Latour, Thomas L. Froelicher, Richard J. Seagraves, Malin L. Pinsky & Thomas L. Frölicher
Recent shifts in the geographic distribution of marine species have been linked to shifts in preferred thermal habitats. These shifts in distribution have already posed challenges for living marine resource management, and there is a strong need for projections of how species might be impacted by future changes in ocean temperatures during the 21st century. We modeled thermal habitat for 686 marine species in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans using long-term ecological survey data from...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Divergent brain gene expression profiles between alternative behavioural helper types in a cooperative breeder

Claudia Kasper, Francois Olivier Hebert, Nadia Aubin-Horth & Barbara Taborsky
Juveniles of the cooperatively-breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher either consistently provide help in form of alloparental egg care ('cleaners') or consistently abstain from helping ('non-cleaners'). These phenotypes are not based on heritable genetic differences. Instead they arise during ontogeny, which should lead to differences in brain structure or physiology, a currently untested prediction. We compared brain gene expression profiles of cleaners and non-cleaners in two experimental conditions, a helping opportunity and a control condition. We...

The smell of cooperation: rats increase helpful behaviour when receiving odour cues of a conspecific performing a cooperative task

Nina Gerber, Manon Schweinfurth & Michael Taborsky
Reciprocity can explain cooperative behaviour among non-kin, where individuals help others depending on their experience in previous interactions. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) cooperate reciprocally according to direct and generalized reciprocity. In a sequence of four consecutive experiments, we show that odour cues from a cooperating conspecific are sufficient to induce altruistic help of rats in a food-exchange task. When rats were enabled to help a non-cooperative partner while receiving olfactory information from a rat helping...

Data from: Higher flight activity in the offspring of migrants compared to residents in a migratory insect

Laura J. Dällenbach, Alexandra Glauser, Ka S. Lim, Jason W. Chapman & Myles H. M. Menz
Migration has evolved among many animal taxa and migratory species are found across all major lineages. Insects are the most abundant and diverse terrestrial migrants, with trillions of animals migrating annually. Partial migration, where populations consist of resident and migratory individuals, is ubiquitous among many taxa. However, the underlying mechanisms are relatively poorly understood and may be driven by physiological, behavioural or genetic variation within populations. We investigated the differences in migratory tendency between migratory...

ramp-pulse-zebrafish-heart

Olivia MARIANI, François Marelli, Christian Jaques, Alexander Ernst, Nadia Mercader & Michael Liebling
This dataset contains image series of the beating heart of a 48 hours post fertilization old Tg(actb2:LIFEACT-RFP) transgenic zebrafish.

Data from: Heritabilities, social environment effects and genetic correlations of social behaviours in a cooperatively breeding vertebrate

Claudia Kasper, Tanja Schreier & Barbara Taborsky
Social animals interact frequently with conspecifics, and their behaviour is influenced by social context, environmental cues and the behaviours of interaction partners, allowing for adaptive, flexible adjustments to social encounters. This flexibility can be limited by part of the behavioural variation being genetically determined. Furthermore, behaviours can be genetically correlated, potentially constraining independent evolution. Understanding social behaviour thus requires carefully disentangling genetic, environmental, maternal and social sources of variations as well as the correlation structure...

No impact of neonicotinoids on male solitary bees Osmia cornuta under semi-field conditions

Lars Straub & Verena Strobl
The ubiquitous use of agrochemicals is one driver for the ongoing loss of insect biomass and diversity. Data show that field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect both population density and the fitness of solitary bees. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain poorly understood. Here, using an established semi-field experimental set-up and Osmia cornuta as a solitary bee model, we examined the effects of field-realistic concentrations of a common neonicotinoid insecticide (clothianidin)...

Prosopis invasion and management scenarios for Baringo County, Kenya

René Eschen, Ketema Bekele, Purity Rima Mbaabu, Charles Kilawe & Sandra Eckert
Climate change, land degradation and invasive alien species (IAS) threaten grassland ecosystems worldwide. IAS clearing and grassland restoration would help to reduce the negative effects of IAS, restore the original vegetation cover, and sustain livelihoods while contributing to climate change mitigation, but uncertain financial benefits to local stakeholders hamper such efforts. This study assessed where and when net financial benefit could be realised from Prosopis juliflora management and subsequent grassland restoration by combining ecological, social...

Both diversity and functional composition affect productivity and water use efficiency in experimental temperate grasslands

Charlotte Grossiord, Manuel Walde, Eric Allan, Seraina L. Cappelli, Margaux Didion‐Gency, Arthur Gessler, Marco M. Lehmann & Noémie A. Pichon
Many experiments have shown that biodiversity promotes ecosystem functioning and stability and that this relationship varies with resource availability. However, we still have a poor understanding of the underlying physiological and ecological mechanisms driving diversity effects and how they may interact with soil nutrient availability. We collected data in a grassland experiment factorially manipulating fertilization, species richness, functional composition (slow-growing vs. fast-growing species), and functional diversity in resource economic traits. We measured aboveground productivity, nitrogen...

Larger capacity for unconscious versus conscious episodic memory

Else Schneider, Marc Alain Züst, Sergej Wüthrich, Flavio Schmidig, Stefan Klöppel, Roland Wiest, Simon Ruch & Katharina Henke
Episodic memory is the memory for experienced events. A peak competence of episodic memory is the mental combination of events to infer commonalities. Inferring commonalities may proceed with and without consciousness of events. Yet, what distinguishes conscious from unconscious inference? This question inspired nine experiments that featured strongly and weakly masked cartoon clips presented for unconscious and conscious inference. Each clip featured a scene with a visually impenetrable hiding place. Five animals crossed the scene...

Data from: Neonicotinoids and ectoparasitic mites synergistically impact honeybees

Lars Straub, Geoffrey R. Williams, Beatriz Vidondo, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Gina Retschnig, Annette Schneeberger, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Vincent Dietemann & Peter Neumann
The Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the most important managed pollinator globally and has recently experienced unsustainably high colony losses. Synergistic interactions among stressors are believed to be primarily responsible. However, despite clear evidence of strong effect on honeybee longevity of widely-employed neonicotinoid insecticides and of the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, no data exist to show synergistic effects between these two stressors. Even though neonicotinoids had no significant impact by themselves, we here show...

Early social deprivation shapes neuronal programming of the social decision-making network in a cooperatively breeding fish

Diogo Antunes, Magda Teles, Matthew Zuellig, Caitlin Friesen, Rui Oliveira, Nadia Aubin-Horth & Barbara Taborsky
The early social environment an animal experiences may have pervasive effects on its behaviour. The Social Decision-Making network (SDMN), consisting of interconnected brain nuclei from the forebrain and midbrain, is involved in the regulation of behaviours during social interactions. In species with advanced sociality such as cooperative breeders, offspring are exposed to a large number and a great diversity of social interactions every day of their early life, which may have life-long consequences on the...

Data from: Comparative phylogeography biogeography of forest-dependent mammals reveals paleo-forest corridors throughout Sundaland

Victor C. Mason, Kristofer M. Helgen & William J. Murphy
The evolutionary history of the colugo, a gliding arboreal mammal distributed throughout Sundaland, was influenced by the location of and connections between forest habitats. By comparing colugo phylogenetic patterns, species ecology, sample distributions, and times of divergence to those of other Sundaic taxa with different life history traits and dispersal capabilities, we inferred the probable distribution of paleo-forest corridors. We identified a consistent pattern of early diversification between east and west Bornean lineages in colugos,...

Genome annotation of Apeltes quadracus

Zuyao Liu, Marius Roesti, David Marques, Melanie Hiltbrunner, Verena Saladin & Catherine Peichel
Chromosomal fusions have been hypothesized to facilitate adaptation to divergent environments, both by bringing together previously unlinked adaptive alleles and by creating regions of low recombination that facilitate the linkage of adaptive alleles. But, there is little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we address this knowledge gap by studying threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), in which ancestral marine fish have repeatedly adapted to freshwater across the northern hemisphere. By comparing the threespine stickleback genome...

Data from: Applying generalised allometric regressions to predict live body mass of tropical and temperate arthropods

Esra H. Sohlström, Lucas Marian, Andrew D. Barnes, Noor F. Haneda, Stefan Scheu, Björn C. Rall, Ulrich Brose & Malte Jochum
1. The ecological implications of body size extend from the biology of individual organisms to ecosystem–level processes. Measuring body mass for high numbers of invertebrates can be logistically challenging, making length-mass regressions useful for predicting body mass with minimal effort. However, standardised sets of scaling relationships covering a large range in body length, taxonomic groups, and multiple geographical regions are scarce. 2. We collected 6212 arthropods from 19 higher-level taxa in both temperate and tropical...

Data from: Genomic changes in the biological control agent Cryptolaemus montrouzieri associated with introduction

Hao-Sen Li, Gerald Heckel, Yu-Hao Huang, Wei-Jian Fan, Adam Ślipiński & Hong Pang
Biological control is the main purpose of intentionally introducing non-native invertebrate species. The evolutionary changes that occur in the populations of the introduced biological control agents may determine the agent's efficiency and the environmental safety. Here, to explore the pattern and extent of potential genomic changes in the worldwide introduced predatory ladybird beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, we used a reduced-representation sequencing method to analyze the genome-wide differentiation of the samples from two native and five introduced...

Alpine ibex simulation files

Deborah Leigh, Heidi Lischer, Frederic Guillaume, Christine Grossen & Torsten Gunther
Identifying local adaptation in bottlenecked species is essential for conservation management. Selection detection methods have an important role in species management plans, assessments of adaptive capacity, and looking for responses to climate change. Yet, the allele frequency changes exploited in selection detection methods are similar to those caused by the strong neutral genetic drift expected during a bottleneck. Consequently, it is often unclear what accuracy selection detection methods have across bottlenecked populations. In this study,...

Data from: Micronutrients may influence the efficacy of ectomycorrhizas to support tree seedlings in a lowland African rain forest

David M. Newbery & Godlove A. Neba
In the lowland rain forest of SW Cameroon, a field experiment tested whether ectomycorrhizal hyphal connections might affect the growth and survival of seedlings of a principal tree species, Microberlinia bisulcata, close to its adults. Nursery‐raised seedlings were planted into fine‐, medium‐, and coarse‐mesh root bags, and as no‐bag controls, in replicate subplots. The bags prevented fungal hyphae, and fine‐ and medium‐sized roots, respectively, entering from the outside forest floor root mat. Harvests were taken...

Data from: Partitioning the effects of plant diversity on ecosystem functions at different trophic levels

Seraina Lisa Cappelli, Noémie Anna Pichon, Tosca Mannall & Eric Allan
Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning can be partitioned into complementarity effects, driven by many species, and selection effects, driven by few. Selection effects occur through interspecific abundance shifts (dominance) and intraspecific shifts in functioning. Complementarity and selection effects are often calculated for biomass, but very rarely for secondary productivity, i.e. energy transfer to higher trophic levels. We calculated diversity effects for three functions: aboveground biomass, insect herbivory and pathogen infection, the latter two as proxies...

Heterogeneous genetic structure in eastern North American peatmosses (Sphagnum)

Aaron M. Duffy, Mariana Ricca, Sean Robinson, Blanka Aguero, Matthew G. Johnson, Hans K. Stenoien, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Kristian Hassel & A. Jonathan Shaw
Bryophytes generally have broad geographic ranges that suggest high dispersal ability. The aim of this study was to test hypotheses about dispersal limitation, as indicated by isolation by distance (IBD), in four spore producing species of the moss genus Sphagnum (S. carolinianum, S. missouricum, S. macrophyllum, S. pylaesii), and to assess whether plants in the southern United States harbor high levels of unique alleles and/or other indicators of exceptional genetic diversity. IBD was detected in...

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