167 Works

Data from: Experimental test of plant defense evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures

Teresa J. Didiano, Nash E. Turley, Georg Everwand, Hanno Schaefer, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant defense traits have evolved over macro- and microevolutionary timescales in response to herbivores. Although a number of studies have investigated the evolutionary impacts of herbivores over short timescales, few studies have experimentally examined what defense traits most commonly evolve and whether multiple coexisting species exhibit similar evolutionary responses to herbivores. We addressed these questions using a long-term experiment at Silwood Park, England, United Kingdom, where we excluded rabbits from 38 grassland plots for <1...

Data from: Differential responses of herbivores and herbivory to management in temperate European beech

Martin M. Gossner, Esther Pašalić, Markus Lange, Patricia Lange, Dominik Hessenmöller, Jörg Müller, Stephanie A. Socher, Markus Fischer, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Steffen Boch
Forest management not only affects biodiversity but also might alter ecosystem processes mediated by the organisms, i.e. herbivory the removal of plant biomass by plant-eating insects and other arthropod groups. Aiming at revealing general relationships between forest management and herbivory we investigated aboveground arthropod herbivory in 105 plots dominated by European beech in three different regions in Germany in the sun-exposed canopy of mature beech trees and on beech saplings in the understorey. We separately...

Data from: Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices

Vesna Gagic, Ignasi Bartomeus, Astrid Taylor, Camilla Winqvist, Christina Fischer, Eleanor M. Slade, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Mark Emmerson, Simon G. Potts, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang Weisser, Riccardo Bommarco & T. Jonsson
Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach,...

Data from: Electromyographic permutation entropy quantifies diaphragmatic denervation and reinnervation

Christopher Kramer, Denis Jordan, Alexander Kretschmer, Veronika Lehmeyer, Kristine Kellermann, Stefan J. Schaller, Manfred Blobner, Eberhard F. Kochs, Heidrun Fink & Stephan J. Schaller
Spontaneous reinnervation after diaphragmatic paralysis due to trauma, surgery, tumors and spinal cord injuries is frequently observed. A possible explanation could be collateral reinnervation, since the diaphragm is commonly double-innervated by the (accessory) phrenic nerve. Permutation entropy (PeEn), a complexity measure for time series, may reflect a functional state of neuromuscular transmission by quantifying the complexity of interactions across neural and muscular networks. In an established rat model, electromyographic signals of the diaphragm after phrenicotomy...

Data from: A single-nucleotide polymorphism-based approach for rapid and cost-effective genetic wolf monitoring in Europe based on noninvasively collected samples

Robert H. S. Kraus, Bridgett VonHoldt, Berardino Cocchiararo, Verena Harms, Helmut Bayerl, Ralph Kühn, Daniel W. Förster, Jörns Fickel, Christian Roos & Carsten Nowak
Noninvasive genetics based on microsatellite markers has become an indispensable tool for wildlife monitoring and conservation research over the past decades. However, microsatellites have several drawbacks, such as the lack of standardisation between laboratories and high error rates. Here, we propose an alternative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based marker system for noninvasively collected samples, which promises to solve these problems. Using nanofluidic SNP genotyping technology (Fluidigm), we genotyped 158 wolf samples (tissue, scats, hairs, urine) for 192...

Data from: Sequence co-evolution gives 3D contacts and structures of protein complexes

Thomas A. Hopf, Charlotta P. I. Schärfe, João P. G. L. M. Rodrigues, Anna G. Green, Chris Sander, Alexandre M. J. J. Bonvin, Debora S. Marks & Oliver Kohlbacher
Protein-protein interactions are fundamental to many biological processes. Experimental screens have identified tens of thousands of interactions and structural biology has provided detailed functional insight for select 3D protein complexes. An alternative rich source of information about protein interactions is the evolutionary sequence record. Building on earlier work, we show that analysis of correlated evolutionary sequence changes across proteins identifies residues that are close in space with sufficient accuracy to determine the three-dimensional structure of...

Data from: Effects of management on aquatic tree-hole communities in temperate forests are mediated by detritus amount and water chemistry

Martin M. Gossner, Peggy Lade, Anja Rohland, Nora Sichardt, Tiemo Kahl, Jürgen Bauhus, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Jana S. Petermann
1. Arthropod communities in water-filled tree-holes may be sensitive to impacts of forest management, for example via changes in environmental conditions such as resource input. 2. We hypothesized that increasing forest management intensity negatively affects arthropod abundance and richness and shifts community composition and trophic structure of tree-hole communities. We predicted that this shift is caused by reduced habitat and resource availability at the forest stand scale as well as reduced tree-hole size, detritus amount...

Data from: A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

Martin M. Gossner, Nadja K. Simons, Roland Achtziger, Theo Blick, Wolfgang H. O. Dorow, Frank Dziock, Frank Köhler, Wolfgang Rabitsch & Wolfgang W. Weisser
Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We...

Data from: The escalatory Red Queen: population extinction and replacement following arms-race dynamics in poplar rust

Antoine Persoons, Katherine J. Hayden, Bénédicte Fabre, Pascal Frey, Stéphane De Mita, Aurélien Tellier & Fabien Halkett
Host-parasite systems provide convincing examples of Red Queen co-evolutionary dynamics. Yet, a key process underscored in Van Valen's theory – that arms-race dynamics can result in extinction – has never been documented. One reason for this may be that most sampling designs lack the breadth needed to illuminate the rapid pace of adaptation by pathogen populations. In this study we used a 25-years temporal sampling to decipher the demographic history of a plant pathogen: the...

Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe

Miren Del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluis Coll, Lars össler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Makrickiene, Bratislav Matovic, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan Den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze … & Lars Drössler
1.There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest...

Data from: Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and belowground arthropod communities

Klaus Birkhofer, Martin M. Gossner, Tim Diekötter, Claudia Drees, Olga Ferlian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Andrey S. Zaitsev & Henrik G. Smith
1. Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Belowground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than aboveground arthropods. 2. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest)...

Data from: Comparative genomics to explore phylogenetic relationship, cryptic sexual potential and host specificity of Rhynchosporium species on grasses

Daniel Penselin, Martin Muensterkoetter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H. Paskiewicz, Richard J. Harrison, David J. Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Woeltje, Kevin M. King, Bruce D. L. Fitt, Ulrich Gueldener, Anna Avrova & Wolfgang Knogge
Background: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young...

Data from: The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests

Peter Schall, Martin M. Gossner, Steffi Heinrichs, Markus Fischer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Kirsten Jung, Vanessa Baumgartner, Stefan Blaser, Stefan Böhm, Francois Buscot, Rolf Daniel, Kezia Goldmann, Kirstin Kaiser, Tiemo Kahl, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Jörg Overmann, Swen C. Renner, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Johannes Sikorski, Marco Tschapka, Manfred Türke, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Bernd Wemheuer … & Kristin Kaiser
For managed temperate forests, conservationists and policymakers favour fine-grained uneven-aged management over more traditional coarse-grained even-aged management, based on the assumption that within-stand habitat heterogeneity enhances biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We investigated for the first time how differently grained forest management systems affect the biodiversity of multiple above- and below-ground taxa across spatial scales. We sampled 15 taxa of animals, plants, fungi and bacteria within the largest contiguous...

Data from: EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) through Europe

Michael Heym, Ricardo Ruíz-Peinado, Miren Del Río, Kamil Bielak, David I. Forrester, Gerald Dirnberger, Ignacio Barbeito, Gediminas Brazaitis, Indrė Ruškytė, Lluís Coll, Marek Fabrika, Lars Drössler, Magnus Löf, Hubert Sterba, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylak, Fabio Lombardi, Dejan Stojanović, Jan Den Ouden, Renzo Motta, Maciej Pach, Jerzy Skrzyszewski, Quentin Ponette, Géraud De Streel, Vit Sramek … & Hans Pretzsch
This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics.

Data from: Additive effects of plant chemotype, mutualistic ants and predators on aphid performance and survival

Matthias Senft, Mary V. Clancy, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Joerg-Peter Schnitzler & Sharon E. Zytynska
1. Cascading effects in ecological systems acting across three or more trophic levels can be either of a resource-based (bottom-up) or natural enemy-based (top-down) nature. But, due to their complexity these effects are often considered separately and their relative strength, acting simultaneously, remains unknown. 2. In a semi-natural field experiment using tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) and the specialised tansy aphid Metopeurum fuscoviride Stroyan as a model system, we compared the effects of four distinct plant...

Data from: Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

Herve Jactel, Emmanuel S. Gritti, Lars Drössler, David I. Forrester, William L. Mason, Xavier Morin, Hans Pretzsch & Bastien Castagneyrol
While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity - forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity...

Data from: Independent effects of host and environment on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi

Franz-Sebastian Krah, Sebastian Seibold, Roland Brandl, Petr Baldrian, Jörg Müller & Claus Bässler
1. Dead wood is a habitat for numerous fungal species, many of which are important agents of decomposition. Previous studies suggested that wood-inhabiting fungal communities are affected by climate, availability of dead wood in the surrounding landscape and characteristics of the colonized dead-wood object (e.g. host tree species). These findings indicate that different filters structure fungal communities at different scales, but how these factors individually drive fungal fruiting diversity on dead-wood objects is unknown. 2....

Water potential gradient, root conduit size and root xylem hydraulic conductivity determine the extent of hydraulic redistribution in temperate trees

Benjamin D Hafner, Benjamin D Hesse, Taryn L Bauerle & Thorsten EE Grams
1. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is widely described, however its extent, especially in temperate trees, remains unclear. Here, we quantified redistributed water of five temperate tree species. We hypothesized that both, HR within a plant and into the soil increases with higher water-potential gradients, larger root conduit diameters and root-xylem hydraulic conductivities. 2. Saplings of conifer (Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii), diffuse-porous (Acer pseudoplatanus) and ring-porous species (Castanea sativa, Quercus robur)...

Re-evaluating deep neural networks for phylogeny estimation: the issue of taxon sampling

Martin Grosshauser, Paul Zaharias & Tandy Warnow
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are powerful machine learning models that are widely used for classification problems, and have been recently proposed for quartet tree phylogeny estimation (Survorov et al. Systematic Biology 2020 and Zou et al. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2020). Here we present a study evaluating recently trained DNNs (from Zou et al., MBE 2020) in comparison to a collection of standard phylogeny estimation methods, including UPGMA, neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood,...

Data for: Topological defects produce kinks in biopolymer filament bundles

Qingda Hu, Maximilian Grill, Elliot Botvinick, Wolfgang Wall, Valentin Slepukhin & Alex Levine
Bundles of stiff filaments are ubiquitous in the living world, found both in the cytoskeleton and in the extracellular medium. These bundles are typically held together by smaller cross-linking molecules. We demonstrate, analytically, numerically, and experimentally, that such bundles can be kinked, that is, have localized regions of high curvature that are long-lived metastable states. We propose three possible mechanisms of kink stabilization: a difference in trapped length of the filament segments between two cross-links,...

Disentangling effects of climate and land use on biodiversity and ecosystem services – a multi-scale experimental design

Sarah Redlich, Jie Zhang, Caryl Benjamin, Maninder Singh Dhillon, Jana Englmeier, Jörg Ewald, Ute Fricke, Cristina Ganuza, Maria Hänsel, Thomas Hovestadt, Johannes Kollmann, Thomas Koellner, Carina Kübert-Flock, Harald Kunstmann, Annette Menzel, Christoph Moning, Wibke Peters, Rebekka Riebl, Thomas Rummler, Sandra Rojas Botero, Cynthia Tobisch, Johannes Uhler, Lars Uphus, Jörg Müller & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
1. Climate and land-use change are key drivers of environmental degradation in the Anthropocene, but too little is known about their interactive effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Long-term data on biodiversity trends are currently lacking. Furthermore, previous ecological studies have rarely considered climate and land use in a joint design, did not achieve variable independence or lost statistical power by not covering the full range of environmental gradients. 2. Here, we introduce a multi-scale...

NOX5-induced uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase is a causal mechanism and theragnostic target of an age-related hypertension endotype

Harald H. H. W. Schmidt, Mahmoud H. Elbatreek, Sepideh Sadegh, Elisa Anastasi, Emre Guney, Cristian Nogales, Tim Kacprowski, Ahmed A. Hassan, Andreas Teubner, Po-Hsun Huang, Chien-Yi Hsu, Paul M. H. Schiffers, Ger M. Janssen, Pamela W. M. Kleikers, Anil Wipat, Jan Baumbach & Jo G. R. De Mey
Hypertension is the most important cause of death and disability in the elderly. In 9 out of 10 cases, the molecular cause, however, is unknown. One mechanistic hypothesis involves impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Indeed, ROS forming NADPH oxidase (Nox) genes associate with hypertension, yet target validation has been negative. We re-investigate this association by molecular network analysis and identify NOX5, not present in rodents, as a sole neighbor to human...

Experimental comparison of fish mortality and injuries at innovative and conventional small hydropower plants - raw data

Melanie Mueller, Josef Knott, Joachim Pander & Juergen Geist
Resolving the controversy about hydropower is only possible based on reliable data on its ecological effects, particularly fish welfare. Herein, we propose a comprehensive assessment of conventional and innovative hydropower using a data set of 52 250 fish. The effects of hydropower on fish were most harmful at sites with Kaplan turbines, showing £ 83% mortality. Innovative hydropower, often termed ‘fish-friendly’, caused £ 64% mortality. Our findings suggested that the runner peripheral speed, number of...

The evolution, complexity and diversity of models of long-term forest dynamics

Harald Bugmann & Rupert Seidl
1. To assess the impacts of climate change on vegetation from stand to global scales, models of forest dynamics that include tree demography are needed. Such models are now available for 50 years, but the currently existing diversity of model formulations and its evolution over time are poorly documented. This hampers systematic assessments of structural uncertainties in model-based studies. 2. We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 models, focusing on models that were used in the...

Emerging stability of forest productivity by mixing two species buffers temperature destabilizing effect

Miren Del Rio, Ricardo Ruiz‐Peinado, Stig‐Olof Holm, Aris Jansons, Thomas Nord‐Larsen, Kris Verheyen, Andrés Bravo‐Oviedo, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Hervé Jactel, Lluís Coll, Magnus Löf, Jorge Aldea, Christian Ammer, Admir Avdagić, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Felipe Bravo, Gediminas Brazaitis, Jakub Cerný, Catherine Collet, Sonia Condés, Lars Drössler, Marek Fabrika, Michael Heym … & Andrés Bravo-Oviedo
The increasing disturbances in monocultures around the world are testimony to their instability under global change. Many studies have claimed that temporal stability of productivity increase with species richness, although the ecological fundaments have mainly been investigated through diversity experiments. To adequately manage forest ecosystems, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the effect of mixing species on the temporal stability of productivity and the way in which this it is influenced by...

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