20 Works

Public food forest opportunities and challenges in small municipalities

Sarah Coffey, John Munsell, Rico Hübner & Curtis Friedel
The opportunities and challenges associated with public food forest initiatives in small municipalities are understudied compared to large metropolitan counterparts. Research in small population centers is needed to identify and understand factors affecting the growth of public food forests where resources more commonly available in cities often are lacking. To study these factors, we surveyed mayors in Virginia, United States serving communities with populations under 25,000. Out of 176 mayors who received a paper survey...

Biodiversity-productivity relationships are key to nature-based climate solutions

Akira Mori, Laura Dee, Andrew Gonzalez, Haruka Ohashi, Jane Cowles, Alexandra Wright, Michel Loreau, Yann Hautier, Tim Newbold, Peter Reich, Tetsuya Matsui, Wataru Takeuchi, Kei-Ichi Okada, Rupert Seidl & Forest Isbell
The global impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked but the feedbacks between them are rarely assessed. Areas with greater tree diversity tend to be more productive, providing a greater carbon sink, and biodiversity loss could reduce these natural C sinks. Here, we quantify how tree and shrub species richness could affect biomass production at biome, national and regional scales. We find that greenhouse gas mitigation could help maintain tree diversity and thereby...

Relative impacts of gypsy moth outbreaks and insecticide treatments on forest resources and ecosystem: An experimental approach

Benjamin Leroy, Hannes Lemme, Philipp Braumiller, Torben Hilmers, Martin Jacobs, Sophia Hochrein, Sebastian Kienlein, Jörg Müller, Hans Pretzsch, Kilian Stimm, Sebastian Seibold, Jessica Jaworek, W. Andreas Hahn, Stefan Müller-Kroehling & Wolfgang Weisser
Gypsy moth outbreaks cause severe defoliation in Holarctic forests, both in North America where it is invasive, and in its native range in Eurasia. Severe defoliation can hamper timber production and impact ecological communities and processes. Aerial insecticide applications are regularly performed in outbreak areas to mitigate economic losses. These operations can be financially costly and harmful to non-target species and may disrupt species interaction networks. However, replicated studies of the relative impacts of gypsy...

Morphological trait database of saproxylic beetles

Jonas Hagge, Jörg Müller, Tone Birkemoe, Jörn Buse, Rune Haubo Bojesen Christensen, Martin M. Gossner, Axel Gruppe, Christoph Heibl, Andrea Jarzabek-Müller, Sebastian Seibold, Juha Siitonen, João Gonçalo Soutinho, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Simon Thorn & Lukas Drag
The extinction of species is a non-random process, and understanding why some species are more likely to go extinct than others is critical for conservation efforts. Functional trait-based approaches offer a promising tool to achieve this goal. In forests, deadwood-dependent (saproxylic) beetles comprise a major part of threatened species, but analyses of their extinction risk have been hindered by the availability of suitable morphological traits. To better understand the mechanisms underlying extinction in insects, we...

FASTA sequences of 6 different proteins of SARS-CoV-2

Umama Khan, & Pinky Debnath
The acute respiratory disease induced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global epidemic in just less than a year by the first half of 2020. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected millions of people worldwide. The virulence of the SARS-CoV-2 is mostly regulated by its proteins but very little is known about the protein structures and functionalities. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to learn...

Data from: Systematics of the giant sedges of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae) in Macaronesia with description of two new species

Monica Miguez, Pedro Jimenez-Mejias, Carmen Benitez-Benitez, Hanno Schaefer & Santiago Martín-Bravo
Populations of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae) from the Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores and Madeira) have traditionally been treated either as a variety of the widely distributed Western Palearctic C. pendula, or directly synonymized under it. However, recent phylogenetic studies have shown that Azorean populations of C. pendula display a certain degree of differentiation from mainland plants, while the phylogenetic relationships of Madeiran populations remain unclear. Here we perform an integrated systematic study focused on the Macaronesian...

Dataset: Effect of flower identity and diversity on reducing aphid populations via natural enemy communities

Sharon Zytynska, Moritz Eicher, Robin Fahle & Wolfgang Weisser
This dataset contains data from the paper: Zytynska SE, Eicher M, Fahle R, Weisser W. Effect of flower identity and diversity on reducing aphid populations via natural enemy communities. Ecology and Evolution. Floral plantings are often used in agriculture to attract pollinator communities but they also play an important role in recruiting and establishing natural communities for natural pest control. Inconsistent effects of floral plantings for pest control may be a result of an absence...

Timescales of motor memory formation in dual-adaptation

Marion Forano
The timescales of adaptation to novel dynamics are well explained by a dual-rate model with slow and fast states. This model can predict interference, savings and spontaneous recovery, but cannot account for adaptation to multiple tasks, as each new task drives unlearning of the previously learned task. Nevertheless, in the presence of appropriate contextual cues, humans are able to adapt simultaneously to opposing dynamics. Consequently this model was expanded, suggesting that dual-adaptation occurs through a...

Data for: Topological defects produce kinks in biopolymer filament bundles

Qingda Hu, Maximilian Grill, Elliot Botvinick, Wolfgang Wall, Valentin Slepukhin & Alex Levine
Bundles of stiff filaments are ubiquitous in the living world, found both in the cytoskeleton and in the extracellular medium. These bundles are typically held together by smaller cross-linking molecules. We demonstrate, analytically, numerically, and experimentally, that such bundles can be kinked, that is, have localized regions of high curvature that are long-lived metastable states. We propose three possible mechanisms of kink stabilization: a difference in trapped length of the filament segments between two cross-links,...

Disentangling effects of climate and land use on biodiversity and ecosystem services – a multi-scale experimental design

Sarah Redlich, Jie Zhang, Caryl Benjamin, Maninder Singh Dhillon, Jana Englmeier, Jörg Ewald, Ute Fricke, Cristina Ganuza, Maria Hänsel, Thomas Hovestadt, Johannes Kollmann, Thomas Koellner, Carina Kübert-Flock, Harald Kunstmann, Annette Menzel, Christoph Moning, Wibke Peters, Rebekka Riebl, Thomas Rummler, Sandra Rojas Botero, Cynthia Tobisch, Johannes Uhler, Lars Uphus, Jörg Müller & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
1. Climate and land-use change are key drivers of environmental degradation in the Anthropocene, but too little is known about their interactive effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Long-term data on biodiversity trends are currently lacking. Furthermore, previous ecological studies have rarely considered climate and land use in a joint design, did not achieve variable independence or lost statistical power by not covering the full range of environmental gradients. 2. Here, we introduce a multi-scale...

A systematic assessment of medical diagnoses preceding the first diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: Supplementary materials

Bernhard Hemmer
Objective: To explore the occurrence of diseases and symptoms in the five years prior to diagnosis in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a case-control study. Methods: Using ambulatory claims data we systematically assessed differences in the occurrence of diseases and symptoms in the five years prior to first diagnosis in patients with MS (n=10,262) as compared to patients with two other autoimmune diseases – Crohn’s disease (n=15,502) and psoriasis (n=98,432) - and individuals without...

Plant diversity across small-scale boundaries

Pia Maria Eibes, Jens Oldeland, Severin David Howard Irl, Alina Twerski, Nicole Kühne & Ute Schmiedel
Questions: Habitat islands are often characterized by the presence of more or less sharp boundaries to adjacent matrix habitats. However, knowledge on boundaries of natural habitat islands is scarce, especially regarding patterns of beta diversity and its two underlying components: species turnover and nestedness. We therefore aim to quantify the effects of fine-scaled and sharp boundaries of quartz islands (quartz-gravel covered soils) on the different components of plant beta diversity and how they are linked...

Dispersal syndromes are poorly associated with climatic niche differences in the Azorean seed plants

María Leo, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Paulo A. V. Borges, Eduardo B. De Azevedo, Rosalina Gabriel, Hanno Schaefer & Ana M. C. Santos
Aim: Environmental niche tracking is linked to the species ability to disperse. While well investigated on large spatial scales, dispersal constraints also influence small-scale processes and may explain the difference between the potential and the realized niche of species at small-scales. Here we test whether niche size and niche fill differ systematically according to dispersal syndrome within isolated oceanic islands. We expect species with higher dispersal abilities (anemochorous or endozoochorous) will have a higher niche...

Conversion of Andean montane forests into plantations: effects on soil characteristics, microorganisms and microarthropods

Franca Marian, Pablo Ramirez Castillo, Carlos Iñiguez Armijos, Sven Günter, Mark Maraun & Stefan Scheu
Tropical montane forests in the Andes are subjected to deforestation and subsequent transformation into pastures. Abandoned pastures are frequently reforested by planting monoculture timber plantations, resulting in reduced aboveground diversity and changes in soil characteristics compared to primary forests. In this study, we evaluated differences in soil properties (litter layer thickness, pH, water content and C-to-N ratio) between degraded primary montane forest and monoculture pine (Pinus patula) and alder (Alnus acuminata) plantations and their effect...

Persistence of plant-mediated microbial soil legacy effects in soil and inside roots

Emilia Hannula, Robin Heinen, Martine Huberty, Katja Steinauer, Jonathan De Long, Renske Jongen & Martijn Bezemer
Plant-soil feedbacks are shaped by microbial legacies that plants leave in the soil. We tested the persistence of these legacies after subsequent colonization by the same or other plant species. Soil fungal legacies were detectable for months, but the current plant effect on fungi amplified in time. Contrary, in bacterial communities, legacies faded away rapidly and bacteria communities were influenced strongly by the current plant. However, both fungal and bacterial legacies were conserved inside the...

Data from: Traits mediate niches and co-occurrences of forest beetles in ways that differ among bioclimatic regions

Ryan C. Burner, Jörg G. Stephan, Lukas Drag, Tone Birkemoe, Jörg Muller, Tord Snäll, Otso Ovaskainen, Mária Potterf, Juha Siitonen, Olav Skarpaas, Inken Doerfler, Martin M. Gossner, Peter Schall, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Aim To investigate the role of traits in beetle community assembly and test for consistency in these effects among several bioclimatic regions. We asked (1) whether traits predicted species’ responses to environmental gradients (i.e., their niches), (2) whether these same traits could predict co-occurrence patterns, and (3) how consistent were niches and the role of traits among study regions. Location Boreal forests in Norway and Finland, temperate forests in Germany. Methods We complied capture records...

Regionalized dynamic climate series for ecological climate impact research in modern controlled environment facilities

Bálint Jákli, Roman Meier, Ulrike Gelhardt, Margaret Bliss, Ludger Grünhage & Manuela Baumgarten
Modern controlled environment facilities (CEFs) enable the simulation of dynamic microclimates in controlled ecological experiments through their technical ability to precisely control multiple environmental parameters. However, few CEF studies exploit the technical possibilities of their facilities, as climate change treatments are frequently applied by static manipulation of an inadequate number of climate change drivers, ignoring intra-annual variability and co-variation of multiple meteorological variables. We present so called Test Reference Years (TRY) that consist of typical...

Data from: Loss of fungal symbionts at the arid limit of the distribution range in a native Patagonian grass – resource ecophysiological relations

Cecilia Casas, Pedro E. Gundel, Eluney Deliens, Leopoldo J. Iannone, Guillermo García Martinez, María V. Vignale & Hans Schnyder
1. Crucial to our understanding of plant ecology is the consideration of the eco-physiological responses and constraints of plant-fungal symbioses throughout the native distribution range of their host. 2. We examined key eco-physiological roles of two co-occurring fungal symbionts [Epichloë endophytes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)] in the endemic grass Hordeum comosum across a wide bioclimatic gradient and contrasting grazing severity. We sampled H. comosum plants along four humid-to-arid transects in Patagonia, Argentina, covering its...

Global impacts of climate change on avian functional diversity

Peter Stewart, Alke Voskamp, Luca Santini, Matthias Biber, Adam Devenish, Christian Hof, Stephen Willis & Joseph Tobias
Climate change is predicted to drive geographical range shifts, leading to fluctuations in species richness worldwide. However, the effect of these changes on functional diversity remains unclear, in part because comprehensive species-level trait data are generally lacking at global scales. Here we use morphometric and ecological traits for 8268 bird species to estimate the impact of climate change on avian functional diversity (FD). We show that future bird assemblages are likely to undergo substantial shifts...

Data for: Growing faster, longer or both? Modelling plastic response of Juniperus communis growth phenology to climate change

Jan Tumajer, Allan Buras, Jesús Julio Camarero, Marco Carrer, Rohan Shetti, Martin Wilmking, Jan Altman, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda & Jiří Lehejček
Aim: Plant growth and phenology plastically respond to changing climatic conditions both in space and time. Species-specific levels of growth plasticity determine biogeographical patterns and the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. However, a direct assessment of spatial and temporal variability in radial-growth dynamics is complicated, as long records of cambial phenology do not exist. Location: 16 sites across European distribution margins of Juniperus communis L. (the Mediterranean, the Arctic, the Alps and the...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Technical University Munich
  • University of Würzburg
  • University of Göttingen
  • Autonomous University of Madrid
  • University of Bayreuth
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • Technical University of Munich
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • University of Padua
  • University of Buenos Aires