197 Works

Data from: Postural control during quiet bipedal standing in rats

Tetsuro Funato, Yota Sato, Soichiro Fujiki, Yamato Sato, Shinya Aoi, Kazuo Tsuchiya & Dai Yanagihara
The control of bipedal posture in humans is subject to non-ideal conditions such as delayed sensation and heartbeat noise. However, the controller achieves a high level of functionality by utilizing body dynamics dexterously. In order to elucidate the neural mechanism responsible for postural control, the present study made use of an experimental setup involving rats because they have more accessible neural structures. The experimental design requires rats to stand bipedally in order to obtain a...

Data from: Smooth enlargement of human standing sway by instability due to weak reaction floor and noise

Tetsuro Funato, Shinya Aoi, Nozomi Tomita & Kazuo Tsuchiya
Human quiet standing is accompanied by body sway. The amplitude of this body sway is known to be larger than would be predicted from simple noise effects, and sway characteristics are changed by neurological disorders. This large sway is thought to arise from nonlinear control with prolonged periods of no control (intermittent control), and a nonlinear control system of this kind has been predicted to exhibit bifurcation. The presence of stability-dependent transition enables dynamic reaction...

Data from: Assessing species boundaries and the phylogenetic position of the rare Szechwan Ratsnake, Euprepiophis perlacea (Serpentes: Colubridae), using coalescent-based methods

Xin Chen, Ke Jiang, Peng Guo, Song Huang, Dingqi Rao, Li Ding, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Jing Che, Yaping Zhang, Edward A. Myers, Frank T. Burbrink & Ya-Ping Zhang
Delimiting species and clarifying phylogenetic relationships are the main goals of systematics. For species with questionable taxonomic status, species delimitation approaches using multi-species coalescent models with multiple loci are recommended if morphological data are unavailable or unhelpful. Moreover, these methods will also reduce subjectivity based on genetic distance or requirement of monophyletic genetic lineages. We determine the validity and phylogenetic position of a rare and long controversial species of Chinese reptile, the Szechwan ratsnake (Euprepiophis...

Data from: Expression of taste signal transduction molecules in the caecum of common marmosets

Sae Gonda, Shuichi Matsumura, Shouichiro Saito, Yasuhiro Go & Hiroo Imai
The extraoral presence of taste signal transduction proteins has recently been reported in rodents and humans. Here, we report for the first time the presence of these signal transduction proteins in the caecum of a non-human primate, the common marmoset. Quantitative RT-PCR data on the gene expression of taste signal transduction molecules (gustducin and TRPM5) in common marmosets suggested high expression in the caecum, which was not observed in other non-human primates. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed...

Data from: Exaggerated male genitalia intensifies interspecific reproductive interference by damaging heterospecific female genitalia

Daisuke Kyogoku & Teiji Sota
Male–male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females...

Data from: Tree leaf and root traits mediate soil faunal contribution to litter decomposition across an elevational gradient

Saori Fujii, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Matty P. Berg & Akira S. Mori
1.Plant litter decomposition is key to carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil fauna are important litter decomposers, but how their contribution to decomposition changes with alterations in plant composition and climate is not well established. 2.Here we quantified how soil mesofauna affect decomposition rate interactively with climate and leaf and root traits. We conducted an in situ decomposition experiment using eight dominant tree species per forest site across four elevations (50, 400, 600...

Data from: The evolution of between-species reproductive interference capability under different within-species mating regimes

Daisuke Kyogoku & Teiji Sota
Sexual selection sometimes favors male traits that benefit their bearers, but harm their mates. The harmful effects of male traits may also extend to females of other species via heterospecific mating interactions. This could affect the coexistence of closely related species during secondary contact. We examined the evolution of the interspecific interfering capability of a beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) with a congener (C. maculatus) using C. chinensis males reared under conditions of monogamy and polygamy for...

Data from: Quantitative genetic analysis of subspecific differences in body shape in the snail-feeding carabid beetle Damaster blaptoides

Junji Konuma, Teiji Sota & Satoshi Chiba
A dimorphic pattern of macrocephalic (wide, short) and stenocephalic (narrow, long) body shapes is observed in snail-feeding carabid beetles globally. The former exhibits high performance in crushing snail shells with powerful jaws, whereas the latter specializes in eating snails' soft body directly by inserting the head into the shell. In the snail-feeding species Damaster blaptoides, the subspecies D. b. capito has a wide short forebody, and D. b. fortunei has a narrow, long forebody. They...

Data from: Inbreeding tolerance as a pre-adapted trait for invasion success in the invasive ant Brachyponera chinensis

Pierre-André Eyer, Kenji Matsuura, Edward Vargo, Kazuya Kobayashi, Toshihisa Yashiro, Wataru Suehiro, Chihiro Himuro, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Benoit Guénard, Robert R. Dunn, Kazuki Tsuji, Pierre‐André Eyer & Edward L. Vargo
Identifying traits that facilitate species introductions and successful invasions of ecosystems represents a key issue in ecology. Following their establishment into new environments, many non-native species exhibit phenotypic plasticity with post-introduction changes in behavior, morphology or life history traits that allow them to overcome the presumed loss of genetic diversity resulting in inbreeding and reduced adaptive potential. Here we present a unique strategy in the invasive ant Brachyponera chinensis (Emery), in which inbreeding tolerance is...

Data from: Approximate Bayesian computation analysis of EST-associated microsatellites indicates that the broadleaved evergreen tree Castanopsis sieboldii survived the Last Glacial Maximum in multiple refugia in Japan

Kyoko Aoki, Ichiro Tamaki, Katsuhiro Nakao, Saneyoshi Ueno, Takashi Kamijo, Hiroaki Setoguchi, Noriaki Murakami, Makoto Kato & Yoshihiko Tsumura
Climatic changes have played major roles in plants’ evolutionary history. Glacial oscillations have been particularly important, but some of their effects on plants’ populations are poorly understood, including the numbers and locations of refugia in Asian warm temperate zones. In the present study, we investigated the demographic history of the broadleaved evergreen tree species Castanopsis sieboldii (Fagaceae) during the last glacial period in Japan. We used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) for model comparison and parameter...

Data from: Clade-specific evolutionary diversification along ontogenetic major axes in avian limb skeleton

Junya Watanabe
The evolutionary diversification of birds has been facilitated by specializations for various locomotor modes, with which the proportion of the limb skeleton is closely associated. However, recent studies have identified phylogenetic signals in this system, suggesting the presence of historical factors that have affected its evolutionary variability. In this study, in order to explore potential roles of ontogenetic integration in biasing the evolution in the avian limb skeleton, evolutionary diversification patterns in six avian families...

Data from: Trophic niche breadth of pond zooplankton species using stable isotope analysis and the relationship with the abiotic and biotic factors

Hideyuki Doi, Kwang-Hyeon Chang & Shin-Ichi Nakano
1. Zooplankton species have different feeding habits, but the diversity of their food resources and the factors governing them are still largely unknown. We here estimated the differences in the trophic niche breadths of dominant zooplankton species in ponds, using stable isotopes. 2. To understand the differences in trophic niches of different zooplankton species, we measured the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and calculated the nearest neighbor distance (NND), and standard deviation of NND...

Data from: Morphological integration and pleiotropy in the adaptive body shape of the snail-feeding carabid beetle Damaster blaptoides

Junji Konuma, Satoshi Yamamoto & Teiji Sota
The snail-feeding carabid beetle Damaster blaptoides exhibits diverse head and thorax morphologies, and these morphotypes are linked with two alternative feeding behaviors. Stout-shaped beetles feed on snails by crushing the shells, whereas slender-shaped beetles consume snails by inserting their heads into the shells. A trade-off exists between these feeding strategies. Because intermediate-shaped beetles are less proficient in these two behaviors, stout-slender morphological divergence occurs between related species feeding on land snails. To examine the genetic...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in cephalopod conchs changes during ontogeny: perspectives from three-dimensional morphometry of Nautilus pompilius

Amane Tajika, Naoki Morimoto, Ryoji Wani & Christian Klug
Intraspecific variation of organisms is of great importance to correctly carry out taxonomic work, which is a prerequisite for important disciplines in paleontology such as community paleoecology, biostratigraphy, and biogeography. However, intraspecific variation is rarely studied in ectocochleate cephalopods (ammonoids and nautiloids), in which an excessive number of taxa were established during the past centuries. Since intraspecific variation of fossilized organisms suffers from various biases (time averaging and taphonomy), an extant example is needed for...

Data from: Initial hydraulic failure followed by late-stage carbon starvation leads to drought-induced death in tree, Trema orientalis

Yuri Kono, Atsushi Ishida, Shin-Taro Saiki, Kenichi Yoshimura, Masako Dannoura, Kenichi Yazaki, Fuku Kimura, Jin Yoshimura & Shin-Ichi Aikawa
Drought-induced tree death has become a serious problem in global forest ecosystems. Two nonexclusive hypotheses, hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, have been proposed to explain tree die-offs. To clarify the mechanisms, we investigated the physiological processes of drought-induced tree death in saplings with contrasting Huber values (sapwood area/total leaf area). First, hydraulic failure and reduced respiration were found in the initial process of tree decline, and in the last stage carbon starvation leaded to tree...

Data from: How many broadleaved trees are enough in conifer plantations? The economy of land sharing, land sparing, and quantitative targets

Yuichi Yamaura, Yasushi Shoji, Yasushi Mitsuda, Hajime Utsugi, Takahiro Tsuge, Koichi Kuriyama & Futoshi Nakamura
1. For biodiversity conservation to be an effective and significant social investment, non-marketed values of biodiversity conservation and its associated opportunity costs should be evaluated in monetary terms. 2. In this study, we measured the willingness to pay (WTP) for bird abundance using a choice experiment (CE) based on the random utility model. We performed a cost–benefit analysis to identify the optimal proportion of broad-leaved trees in conifer plantations on a volume basis to maximize...

Genetic diversity, structure, and demography of Pandanus boninensis(Pandanaceae) with sea drifted seeds, endemic to the Ogasawara Islands of Japan: Comparison between young and old islands

Suzuki Setsuko, Kyoko Sugai, Ichiro Tamaki, Koji Takayama, Hidetoshi Kato & Hiroshi Yoshimaru
Pandanus boninensis, endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, is distributed on both the older Bonin and younger Volcano Islands. In this study, we conducted population genetic analyses of P. boninensis on these islands to examine the population diversity and structure across old and young islands, to assess potential differences in population demography with island age, and to collect any evidence of migration between old and young islands. We found that the genetic diversity of expressed...

Genetic consequences of plant edaphic specialisation to solfatara fields; phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of Carex angustisquama (Cyperaceae)

Koki Nagasawa, Hiroaki Setoguchi, Masayuki Maki, Hayato Goto, Keitaro Fukushima, Yuji Isagi, Yoshihisa Suyama, Yoshihiro Tsunamoto, Ayumi Matsuo, Kazuhiro Sawa & Shota Sakaguchi
Edaphic specialisation is one of the main drivers of plant diversification and has multifaceted effects on population dynamics. Carex angustisquama is a sedge plant growing only on heavily acidified soil in solfatara fields, where only extremophytes can survive. Because of the lack of closely related species in similar habitats and its disjunct distribution, the species offers ideal settings to investigate the effects of adaptation to solfatara fields and historical biogeography on genetic consequences of plant...

Genetic structures across a biogeographical barrier reflect dispersal potential of four Southeast Asian mangrove plant species

Alison Wee, Annika Noreen, Junya Ono, Koji Takayama, Prakash Kumar, Hugh Tan, Mohd Saleh, Tadashi Kajita, Edward Webb, Alison K. S. Wee, Annika M. E. Noreen, Prakash P. Kumar, Hugh T. W. Tan, Mohd N. Saleh & Edward L. Webb
Aim Biogeographic barriers restrict the movement of individuals, resulting in population divergence, genetic differentiation, endemism and speciation. Yet, some barriers demonstrate unequal effect across species depending on species dispersal, which manifests in varying genetic structure. We test the hypotheses that the genetic structure of four coastal mangrove species would reflect differences in dispersal potential across the Malay Peninsula, a major biogeographic barrier in the Indo-West Pacific region. Location Twelve sites from the east and west...

Herding mechanisms to maintain the cohesion of a harem group: two interaction phases during herding

Monamie Ringhofer, Clark Kendrick Go, Sota Inoue, Renata S. Mendonça, Satoshi Hirata, Takatomi Kubo, Kazushi Ikeda & Shinya Yamamoto
In animal groups, individual interactions achieve coordinated movements to maintain cohesion. In horse harem groups, herding is a behavior in which males chase females from behind; it is considered to assist with group cohesiveness. However, the mechanisms by which the individuals move to maintain group cohesion are unknown. We applied novel non-invasive methods of drone filming and video tracking to observe horse movements in the field with high temporal and spatial resolution. We tracked all...

Behavioural synchronization in a multilevel society of feral horses

Tamao Maeda
Behavioural synchrony among individuals is essential for group-living organisms to maintain their cohesiveness necessary to get information and against predation. It is still largely unknown how synchronization functions in a multilevel society, a nested assemblage of multiple social levels between many individuals. Our aim was to build a model to explain the synchronization of activity in a multilevel society of feral horses. We used multi-agent based models based on four hypotheses: A) independent model: horses...

Phylogeography of Meimuna cicadas on continental and oceanic islands of Japan in the north-western Pacific region

Nobuaki Nagata, Mamoru Toda, Teiji Sota, Takashi Ohbayashi & Masami Hayashi
Islands are a challenging habitat for organisms with weak dispersal power. We aimed to elucidate how geological history, geography, accidental dispersal events and species ecology affected different colonisation and genetic divergence patterns on continental and oceanic islands among species of a cicada group, which are poor dispersers. Location: Japanese Archipelago, Ogasawara Islands, Ryukyu Archipelago. Taxon: Cicadas of the genus Meimuna (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). We performed phylogenetic analysis, divergence time estimation, and ancestral area reconstruction using two...

Dietary and body mass reconstruction of the Miocene neotropical bat Notonycteris magdalenensis (Phyllostomidae) from La Venta, Colombia

Camilo López-Aguirre, Nicholas Czaplewski, Andrés Link, Masanaru Takai & Suzanne Hand
With 14 species recorded, the Miocene La Venta bat fauna is the most diverse bat palaeocommunity in South America. They include the oldest plant-visiting bat in the New World, and some of the earliest representatives of the extant families Phyllostomidae, Thyropteridae and Noctilionidae. La Venta’s Notonycteris magdalenensis is an extinct member of the subfamily Phyllostominae, a group of modern Neotropical animalivorous bats, and is commonly included in studies of the evolution of Neotropical bats, but...

Data from: Direct and indirect effect of cannibalism and intraguild predation in the two sibling Harmonia ladybird beetles

Naoya Osawa & Arash Rasekh
In this study, we focused on the direct (i.e. predation) and indirect (i.e. potential threat from coexisting with a larger individual) effects of cannibalism and intraguild predation (IGP) during larval stages of two sibling ladybird beetles. These effects play an important role in the coexistence of the generalist–common Harmonia axyridis and specialist–rare H. yedoensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Direct predation effect of cannibalism and IGP were asymmetric in the two sibling ladybird beetles; the fourth instar larvae...

Resource partitioning is not coupled with assortative mating in sympatrically divergent ricefish in a Wallacean ancient lake

Ryo Kakioka, Nobu Sutra, Hirozumi Kobayashi, Satoshi Ansai, Kawilarang Masengi, Atsushi Nagano, Noboru Okuda, Rieko Tanaka, Masahiro Sato & Kazunori Yamahira
Sympatric speciation is considered to be difficult without the coupling between ecological traits that allow resource partitioning and reproductive traits that allow assortative mating. Such “magic traits” are known to be involved in most of the compelling examples of sympatric speciation. In this study, we report a possible case of sympatric speciation without magic traits. Three species of ricefish (genus Oryzias) are suggested to have diverged sympatrically within Lake Poso, an ancient lake in Sulawesi....

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  • Kyoto University
  • University of Tokyo
  • Hokkaido University
  • Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
  • Tohoku University
  • University of the Ryukyus
  • Kobe University
  • Kyushu University
  • National Institute for Environmental Studies
  • Kyoto Prefectural University