9 Works

Herding mechanisms to maintain the cohesion of a harem group: two interaction phases during herding

Monamie Ringhofer, Clark Kendrick Go, Sota Inoue, Renata S. Mendonça, Satoshi Hirata, Takatomi Kubo, Kazushi Ikeda & Shinya Yamamoto
In animal groups, individual interactions achieve coordinated movements to maintain cohesion. In horse harem groups, herding is a behavior in which males chase females from behind; it is considered to assist with group cohesiveness. However, the mechanisms by which the individuals move to maintain group cohesion are unknown. We applied novel non-invasive methods of drone filming and video tracking to observe horse movements in the field with high temporal and spatial resolution. We tracked all...

Genetic consequences of plant edaphic specialisation to solfatara fields; phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of Carex angustisquama (Cyperaceae)

Koki Nagasawa, Hiroaki Setoguchi, Masayuki Maki, Hayato Goto, Keitaro Fukushima, Yuji Isagi, Yoshihisa Suyama, Yoshihiro Tsunamoto, Ayumi Matsuo, Kazuhiro Sawa & Shota Sakaguchi
Edaphic specialisation is one of the main drivers of plant diversification and has multifaceted effects on population dynamics. Carex angustisquama is a sedge plant growing only on heavily acidified soil in solfatara fields, where only extremophytes can survive. Because of the lack of closely related species in similar habitats and its disjunct distribution, the species offers ideal settings to investigate the effects of adaptation to solfatara fields and historical biogeography on genetic consequences of plant...

Data from: Initial hydraulic failure followed by late-stage carbon starvation leads to drought-induced death in tree, Trema orientalis

Yuri Kono, Atsushi Ishida, Shin-Taro Saiki, Kenichi Yoshimura, Masako Dannoura, Kenichi Yazaki, Fuku Kimura, Jin Yoshimura & Shin-Ichi Aikawa
Drought-induced tree death has become a serious problem in global forest ecosystems. Two nonexclusive hypotheses, hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, have been proposed to explain tree die-offs. To clarify the mechanisms, we investigated the physiological processes of drought-induced tree death in saplings with contrasting Huber values (sapwood area/total leaf area). First, hydraulic failure and reduced respiration were found in the initial process of tree decline, and in the last stage carbon starvation leaded to tree...

Data from: A natural point mutation in the bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 causes inverse agonism of arbutin in lemur gustation

Akihiro Itoigawa, Takashi Hayakawa, Nami Suzuki-Hashido & Hiroo Imai
Bitter taste enables the detection of potentially harmful substances and is mediated by bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, in vertebrates. Few antagonists and inverse agonists of TAS2Rs have been identified, especially natural compounds. TAS2R16s in humans, apes and Old World monkeys (Catarrhini, Anthropoidea) recognise β-glucoside analogues as specific agonists. Here, we investigated responses of TAS2R16 to β-glucosides in non-anthropoid primates, namely, lemurs (Lemuriformes, Strepsirrhini). Salicin acted as an agonist on lemur TAS2R16. Arbutin acted as an...

Intraspecific neighborhood effect: population-level consequence of aggregation of highly-defended plants

Takashi Ida, Momoka Tamura & Takayuki Ohgushi
There is increasing evidence that herbivore-plant interactions on a focal plant species are influenced by interspecific neighborhood effects via neighboring plants (i.e., an associational effect). However, intraspecific neighborhood effects imposed by plant traits have been less appreciated. Specifically, the significance of intraspecific neighborhood effects in population-level consequences of plants has been totally overlooked. Using two varieties of Nicotiana tabacum (high- and low-nicotine), we evaluated the neighborhood effects based on patch-level interactions in a split-plot 3...

Data from: Genomic reconstruction of 100 000-year grassland history in a forested country: population dynamics of specialist forbs

Yuichi Yamaura, Ayu Narita, Yoshinobu Kusumoto, Atsushi J. Nagano, Ayumi Tezuka, Toru Okamoto, Hikaru Takahara, Futoshi Nakamura, Yuji Isagi & David Lindenmayer
Grassland ecosystems worldwide have been extensively converted to other land uses and are globally imperiled. Because many grasslands have been maintained by human activities, understanding their origin and history is fundamentally important to better contemporary management. However, existing methods to reconstruct past vegetation can produce contrasting views on grassland history. Here, we inferred demographic histories of 40 populations of four grassland forb species throughout Japan using high-resolution genome sequences and model-flexible demographic simulation based on...

Pinopsin evolved as the ancestral dim-light visual opsin in vertebrates

Keita Sato, Takahiro Yamashita, Keiichi Kojima, Kazumi Sakai, Yuki Matsutani, Masataka Yanagawa, Yumiko Yamano, Akimori Wada, Naoyuki Iwabe, Hideyo Ohuchi & Yoshinori Shichida
Pinopsin is the opsin most closely related to vertebrate visual pigments on the phylogenetic tree. This opsin has been discovered among many vertebrates, except mammals and teleosts, and was thought to exclusively function in their brain for extraocular photoreception. Here, we show the possibility that pinopsin also contributes to scotopic vision in some vertebrate species. Pinopsin is distributed in the retina of non-teleost fishes and frogs, especially in their rod photoreceptor cells, in addition to...

Data from: Space and rank: infants expect agents in higher position to be socially dominant

Xianwei Meng, Yo Nakawake, Hiroshi Nitta, Yusuke Moriguchi & Kazuhide Hashiya
Social hierarchies exist throughout the animal kingdom, including among humans. Our daily interactions inevitably reflect social dominance relationships between individuals. How do we mentally represent such concepts? Studies show that social dominance is represented as vertical space (i.e., high=dominant) by adults and preschool children, suggesting a space-dominance representational link in social cognition. However, little is known about its early development. Here, we present experimental evidence that 12- to 16-month-old infants expect agents presented in a...

Data from: Functional divergence of the bitter receptor TAS2R38 in Sulawesi macaques

Kanthi Widayati, Yan Xiaochan, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Akihiro Itoigawa, Laurentia Purba, Fahri Fahri, Yohey Terai, Bambang Suryobroto & Hiroo Imai
Bitter perception is mediated by G protein-coupled receptors TAS2Rs and plays an important role in avoiding the ingestion of toxins by inducing innate avoidance behavior in mammals. One of the best-studied TAS2Rs is TAS2R38, which mediates the perception of the bitterness of synthetic phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Previous studies of TAS2R38 have suggested that geographical separation enabled the independent divergence of bitter taste perception. The functional divergence of TAS2R38 in allopatric species has not been evaluated. We...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    9

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    9

Affiliations

  • Kyoto University
    9
  • Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
    3
  • Kobe Pharmaceutical University
    1
  • Yamagata Prefectural Education Institute
    1
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
    1
  • Kyoto Prefectural University
    1
  • Kyushu University
    1
  • Yamagata University
    1
  • Ryukoku University
    1
  • Australian National University
    1