24 Works

Extensive pollinator sharing does not promote character displacement in two orchid congeners

Nina Joffard
Pollinator sharing between close relatives can be costly, which can promote pollination niche partitioning and floral divergence. This should be reflected by a higher species divergence in sympatry than in allopatry. We tested this hypothesis in two orchid congeners with overlapping distributions and flowering times. We characterized floral traits and pollination niches and quantified pollen limitation in 15 pure and mixed populations, and we measured phenotypic selection on floral traits and performed controlled crosses in...

Data from: Breakdown of gametophytic self-incompatibility in subdivided populations

Thomas Brom, Vincent Castric & Sylvain Billiard
In many hermaphroditic flowering plants self-fertilization is prevented by self-incompatibility (SI), often controlled by a single locus, the S-locus. In single isolated populations, the maintenance of SI depends chiefly on inbreeding depression and the number of SI alleles at the S-locus. In subdivided populations, however, population subdivision has complicated effects on both the number of SI alleles and the level of inbreeding depression, rendering the maintenance of SI difficult to predict. Here, we explore the...

Data from: Signatures of divergence, invasiveness and terrestralization revealed by four apple snail genomes

Jin Sun, Huawei Mu, Jack C. H. Ip, Runsheng Li, Ting Xu, Alice Accorsi, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, Eric Ross, Yi Lan, Yanan Sun, Alfredo Castro-Vazquez, Israel A. Vega, Horacio Heras, Santiago Ituarte, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Kenneth A. Hayes, Robert H. Cowie, Zhongying Zhao, Yu Zhang, Pei-Yuan Qian & Jian-Wen Qiu
The family Ampullariidae includes both aquatic and amphibious apple snails. They are an emerging model for evolutionary studies due to the high diversity, ancient history and wide geographical distribution. Insight into drivers of ampullariid evolution is hampered, however, by the lack of genomic resources. Here we report the genomes of four ampullariids spanning the Old World (Lanistes nyassanus) and New World (Pomacea canaliculata, Pomacea maculata and Marisa cornuarietis) clades. The ampullariid genomes have conserved ancient...

Data from: Weather and topography regulate the benefit of a conditionally helpful parasite

Jonathan Monsinjon, Christopher McQuaid, Katy Nicastro, Laurent Seuront, Mauricio Oróstica & Gerardo Zardi
Heat-induced mass mortalities involving ecosystem engineers may have long-lasting detrimental effects at the community level, eliminating the ecosystem services they provide. Intertidal mussels are ecologically and economically valuable with some populations facing unprecedented heat-induced mass mortalities. Critically, mussels are also frequently infested by endolithic parasites that modify shell albedo, hence reducing overheating and mortality rates under heat stress. Using a biophysical model, we explored the topographical and meteorological conditions under which endolithically-driven thermal buffering becomes...

Resource competition shapes biological rhythms and promotes temporal niche differentiation in a community simulation

Vance Gao, Sara Morley-Fletcher, Stefania Maccari, Martha Vitaterna & Fred Turek
This is the code and dataset for the article entitled "Resource competition shapes biological rhythms and promotes temporal niche differentiation in a community simulation," in the journal Ecology and Evolution. Competition for resources often contributes strongly to defining an organism’s ecological niche. Endogenous biological rhythms are important adaptations to the temporal dimension of niches, but how other organisms influence such temporal niches have not been much studied, and the role of competition in particular has...

Global Diversification Dynamics Since the Jurassic: Low Dispersal and Habitat-Dependent Evolution Explain Hotspots of Diversity and Shell Disparity in River Snails (Viviparidae)

Björn Stelbrink, Romy Richter, Frank Köhler, Frank Riedel, Ellen Strong, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Christian Albrecht, Torsten Hauffe, Timothy Page, David Aldridge, Arthur Bogan, Li-Na Du, Marivene Manuel-Santos, Ristiyanti Marwoto, Alena Shirokaya & Thomas Von Rintelen
The Viviparidae, commonly known as River Snails, is a dominant group of freshwater snails with a nearly worldwide distribution that reaches its highest taxonomic and morphological diversity in Southeast Asia. The rich fossil record is indicative of a probable Middle Jurassic origin on the Laurasian supercontinent where the group started to diversify during the Cretaceous. However, it remains uncertain when and how the biodiversity hotspot in Southeast Asia was formed. Here, we used a comprehensive...

Data from: Development of the neurons controlling fertility in humans: new insights from 3D imaging and transparent fetal brains

Filippo Casoni, Samuel A. Malone, Morgane Belle, Federico Luzzati, Francis Collier, Cecile Allet, Erik Hrabovszky, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Vincent Prevot, Alain Chedotal & Paolo Giacobini
Fertility in mammals is controlled by hypothalamic neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). These neurons differentiate in the olfactory placodes during embryogenesis and migrate from the nose to the hypothalamus before birth. Information regarding this process in humans is sparse. Here, we adapted new tissue-clearing and whole-mount immunohistochemical techniques to entire human embryos/fetuses to meticulously study this system during the first trimester of gestation in the largest series of human fetuses examined to date. Combining...

Effects of sexual dimorphism on pollinator behaviour in a dioecious species

Isabelle De Cauwer, Laura Moquet, Anne-Laure Jacquemart & Mathilde Dufay
Floral traits often display sexual dimorphism in insect-pollinated dioecious plant species, with male individuals typically being showier than females. While this strategy is theorized to be optimal when pollinators are abundant, it might represent a risk when they become scarce, because the disproportionately high number of visits on the most attractive sex, males, might preclude efficient pollen transfer from males to females. Here, the effect of sexual dimorphism on pollination efficiency was assessed in experimental...

Data from: Early MoCA predicts long-term cognitive and functional outcome and mortality after stroke

Vera Zietemann, Marios K Georgakis, Thibaut Dondaine, Claudia Müller, Anne-Marie Mendyk, Anna Kopczak, Hilde Hénon, Stéphanie Bombois, Frank Arne Wollenweber, Régis Bordet & Martin Dichgans
Objective: To examine whether the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) administered within 7 days after stroke predicts long-term cognitive impairment, functional impairment, and mortality. Methods: MoCA was administered to 274 patients from two prospective hospital-based cohort studies in Germany (n=125) and France (n=149). Cognitive and functional outcomes were assessed at 6, 12 and 36 months post-stroke by comprehensive neuropsychological testing, the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living...

Data from: Profile of and risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment in diverse ethno-regional groups

Jessica W Lo, John D Crawford, David W Desmond, Olivier Godefroy, Hanna Jokinen, Simin Mahinrad, Hee-Joon Bae, Sebastian Köhler, Elles Douven, Julie Staals, Christopher Chen, Xin Xu, Eddie J Chong, Rufus O Akinyemi, Rajesh N Kalaria, Adesola Ogunniyi, Mélanie Barbay, Martine Roussel, Byung-Chul Lee, Velandai K Srikanth, Christopher Moran, Nagaendran Kandiah, Russell J Chander, Behnam Sabayan, J. Wouter Jukema … & Perminder S Sachdev
OBJECTIVE: To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardised approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the STROKOG consortium. METHODS: We harmonised data from thirteen studies based in eight countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardised cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile...

Data from: Reversion of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by spiroisoxazoline SMARt-420

Nicolas Blondiaux, Martin Moune, Matthieu Desroses, Rosangela Frita, Marion Flipo, Vanessa Mathys, Karine Soetaert, Mehdi Kiass, Vincent Delorme, Kamel Djaout, Vincent Trebosc, Christian Kemmer, René Wintjens, Alexandre Wohlkönig, Rudy Antoine, Ludovic Huot, David Hot, Mireia Coscolla, Julia Feldmann, Sebastien Gagneux, Camille Locht, Priscille Brodin, Marc Gitzinger, Benoit Deprez, Nicolas Willand … & Alain R. Baulard
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to human health globally. Alarmingly, multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now spread worldwide. Some key antituberculosis antibiotics are prodrugs, for which resistance mechanisms are mainly driven by mutations in the bacterial enzymatic pathway required for their bioactivation. We have developed drug-like molecules that activate a cryptic alternative bioactivation pathway of ethionamide in M. tuberculosis, circumventing the classic activation pathway in which resistance mutations have now...

Data from: Development of nuclear microsatellite loci and mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms for the natterjack toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita (Bufonidae), using next generation sequencing and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar)

Leslie Faucher, Cecile Godé & Jean-Francois Arnaud
Amphibians are undergoing a major decline worldwide and the steady increase in the number of threatened species in this particular taxa highlights the need for conservation genetics studies using high-quality molecular markers. The natterjack toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita, is a vulnerable pioneering species confined to specialized habitats in Western Europe. To provide efficient and cost-effective genetic resources for conservation biologists, we developed and characterized 22 new nuclear microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing. We also used...

Data from: Interspecific shared collective decision-making in two forensically important species

Julien Boulay, Jean Louis Deneubourg, Valéry Hédouin & Damien Charabidzé
To date, the study of collective behaviour has mainly focused on intraspecific situations: the collective decision-making of mixed-species groups involving interspecific aggregation-segregation has received little attention. Here, we show that, in both conspecific and heterospecific groups, the larvae of two species (Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria, calliphorid carrion-feeding flies) were able to make a collective choice. In all groups, the choice was made within a few minutes and persisted throughout the experiment period. The monitoring...

Nest architecture is linked with ecological success in songbirds

Iliana Medina, Daniela Perez, Ana C Afonso Silva, Justin Cally, Constanza Leon, Odile Maliet & Ignacio Quintero
Nests are essential constructions that directly determine fitness, yet their structure can vary substantially across bird species. While there is evidence supporting a link between nest architecture and the habitat a species occupies, we still ignore what ecological and evolutionary processes are linked to different nest types. Using information on 3175 species of songbirds, we show that – after controlling for latitude and body size – species that build domed nests (i.e., nests with a...

Data from: Animal models to understand the etiology and pathophysiology in polycystic ovary syndrome

Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Kirsty A Walters, Rebecca E Campbell, Anna Benrick, Paolo Giacobini, Daniel A Dumesic & David H Abbott
More than one out of ten women worldwide are diagnosed with the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely under-diagnosed, averaging >2 years and 3 physicians changes before women are diagnosed. Despite intensive research, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and how to predict and prevent...

Data from: AmpuBase: a transcriptome database for eight species of apple snails (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

Jack C. H. Ip, Huawei Mu, Qian Chen, Jin Sun, Santiago Ituarte, Horacio Heras, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Monthon Ganmanee, Xin Huang & Jian-Wen Qiu
Background: Gastropoda, with approximately 80,000 living species, is the largest class of Mollusca. Among gastropods, apple snails (family Ampullariidae) have members that are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical freshwater ecosystems and are ecologically and economically important. They exhibit various morphological and physiological adaptations to their respective habitats, which make them ideal candidates for studying adaptation, population divergence, speciation, and larger-scale patterns of diversity, including biogeography of native and invasive populations. The limited availability of...

Conservation of the glycogen metabolism pathway underlines a pivotal function of storage polysaccharides in Chlamydiae

Ugo Cenci & Christophe Colleoni
The order Chlamydiales includes obligate intracellular pathogens capable of infecting mammals, fishes and amoeba. Unlike other intracellular bacteria for which intracellular adaptation led to the loss of glycogen metabolism pathway, all chlamydial families maintained the nucleotide-sugar dependent glycogen metabolism pathway i.e. the GlgC-pathway with the notable exception of both Criblamydiaceae and Waddliaceae families. Through detailed genome analysis and biochemical investigations, we have shown that genome rearrangement events have resulted in a defective GlgC-pathway and more...

Simultaneous genotyping of snails and infecting trematode parasites using high-throughput amplicon sequencing.

Cyril Hammoud, Stephen Mulero, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Jérôme Boissier, Dirk Verschuren, Christian Albrecht & Tine Huyse
Several methodological issues currently hamper the study of entire trematode communities within populations of their intermediate snail hosts. Here we develop a new workflow using high-throughput amplicon sequencing to simultaneously genotype snail hosts and their infecting trematode parasites. We designed primers to amplify 4 snail and 5 trematode markers in a single multiplex PCR. While also applicable to other genera, we focused on medically and economically important snail genera within the Superorder Hygrophila and targeted...

Searching for genetic evidence of demographic decline in an arctic seabird: beware of overlapping generations

Emeline Charbonnel, Claire Daguin, Lucille Caradec, Eléonore Moittié, Olivier Gilg, Maria Gavrilo, Hallvard Strom, Mark L Mallory, Grant Gilchrist, R. I. Guy Morrisson, Raphael Leblois, Camille Roux, Jonathan M Yearsley, Glenn Yannic & Thomas Broquet
Genetic data are useful for detecting sudden population declines in species that are difficult to study in the field. Yet this indirect approach has its own drawbacks, including population structure, mutation patterns, and generation overlap. The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), a long-lived Arctic seabird, is currently suffering from rapid alteration of its primary habitat (i.e., sea ice), and dramatic climatic events affecting reproduction and recruitment. However, ivory gulls live in remote areas, and it is...

Data from: Detection of human adaptation during the past 2000 years

Yair Field, Evan A. Boyle, Natalie Telis, Ziyue Gao, Kyle J. Gaulton, David Golan, Loic Yengo, Ghislain Rocheleau, Philippe Froguel, Mark I. McCarthy & Jonathan K. Pritchard
Detection of recent natural selection is a challenging problem in population genetics. Here we introduce the Singleton Density Score (SDS), a method to infer very recent changes in allele frequencies from contemporary genome sequences. Applied to data from the UK10K Project, SDS reflects allele frequency changes in the ancestors of modern Britons during the past ~2,000-3,000 years. We see strong signals of selection at lactase and the MHC, and in favor of blond hair and...

Widespread coexistence of self-compatible and self-incompatible phenotypes in a diallelic self-incompatibility system in Ligustrum vulgare (Oleaceae)

Isabelle De Cauwer, Philippe Vernet, Sylvain Billiard, Cécile Godé, Angélique Bourceaux, Chloé Ponitzki & Pierre Saumitou-Laprade
The breakdown of self-incompatibility (SI) in angiosperms is one of the most commonly observed evolutionary transitions. While multiple examples of SI breakdown have been documented in natural populations, there is strikingly little evidence of stable within-population polymorphism with both inbreeding (self-compatible) and outcrossing (self-incompatible) individuals. This absence of breeding system polymorphism corroborates theoretical expectations that predict that in/outbreeding polymorphism is possible only under very restricted conditions. However, theory also predicts that a diallelic sporophytic SI...

Age-specific habitat preference, carrying capacity, and landscape structure determine the response of population spatial variability to fishing-driven age truncation

Hsiao-Hang Tao, Gaël Dur, Po-Ju Ke, Sami Souissi & Chih-Hao Hsieh
1. Understanding the mechanisms underlying spatial variability of exploited fish is critical for the sustainable management of fish stocks. Empirical studies suggest that size-selective fishing can elevate fish population spatial variability (i.e., more heterogeneous distribution) through age truncation, making the population less resilient to changing environment. However, species differ in how their spatial variability respond to age truncation and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. 2. We hypothesize that age-specific habitat preference, together with environmental carrying...

Data from: The double edged sword: the demographic consequences of the evolution of self-fertilisation

Diala Abu Awad & Sylvain Billiard
Phylogenies indicate that the transition from outcrossing to selfing is frequent, with selfing populations being more prone to extinction. The rates of transition to selfing and extinction, acting on different timescales, could explain the observed distributions of extant selfing species among taxa. However, phylogenetic and theoretical studies consider these mechanisms independently, i.e. transitions do not cause extinction. Here, we theoretically explore the demographic consequences of the evolution of self-fertilization. Deleterious mutations and mutations modifying the...

Revisiting the number of self‐incompatibility alleles in finite populations: From old models to new results

Peter Czuppon & Sylvain Billiard
Under gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI), plants are heterozygous at the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) and can only be fertilized by pollen with a different allele at that locus. The last century has seen a heated debate about the correct way of modeling the allele diversity in a GSI population that was never formally resolved. Starting from an individual-based model, we derive the deterministic dynamics as proposed by Fisher (1958), and compute the stationary S-allele frequency distribution. We...

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