17 Works

Data from: Negative density dependence in the mortality and growth of tropical tree seedlings is strong, and primarily caused by fungal pathogens

Kirstie Hazelwood, Harald Beck & C. E. Timothy Paine
Natural enemies have been implicated as agents of negative density dependence (NDD) in tropical forests, but their relative contributions to NDD, and thus to the maintenance of diversity, are largely unknown. We monitored the rates of survival and relative growth rates on seedlings for ten years in tropical moist forest in Manu National Park, Peru. We then experimentally manipulated the plots to exclude fungal pathogens, insects, small mammals, and large mammals for an additional 31...

Supplemental data for: Three-dimensional kinematics of euchelicerate limbs uncover functional specialisation in eurypterid appendages

Russell D C Bicknell, Roland R Melzer & Michel Schmidt
Sea scorpions (Eurypterida; Euchelicerata) explored the extreme limits of the aquatic euchelicerate body plan. Indeed, the group contains the largest known marine euarthropods. Inferences on eurypterid life modes—in particular walking and eating—are commonly made by comparing the group to horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura; Euchelicerata). However, no models have been presented to test these hypotheses. Here, we reconstruct prosomal appendages of two exceptionally well-preserved eurypterids Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus and Pentecopterus decorahensis and kinematically model the flexure and extension...

Self-organization and information transfer in Antarctic krill swarms

Ashley Ward, Alicia Burns, Timothy Schaerf, Joseph Lizier, So Kawaguchi, Martin Cox, Rob King & Jens Krause
Antarctic krill swarms are one of the largest known animal aggregations, and yet, despite being the keystone species of the Southern Ocean, little is known about how swarms are formed and maintained. Understanding the local interactions between individuals that provide the basis for these swarms is fundamental to knowing how swarms arise in nature, and what potential factors might lead to their breakdown. Here we analyzed the trajectories of captive, wild-caught krill in 3D to...

The role of fishes as food: A functional perspective on predator-prey interactions

Michalis Mihalitsis, Christopher R. Hemingson, Christopher R. Goatley & David R. Bellwood
Every animal dies. In nature, mortality usually occurs due to predation by other animals. One of the fundamental consequences of mortality is the transfer of energy and nutrients from one organism (prey) to another (predator). On coral reefs, these key interactions and processes, that are essential for ecosystem functioning, are primarily mediated by fishes; up to 53% of fishes on coral reefs can be regarded as piscivorous. To date, piscivory on coral reefs has been...

Data from: Morphology and distribution of scales, dermal ossifications, and other non-feather integumentary structures in non-avialan theropod dinosaurs

Christophe Hendrickx, Phil R. Bell, Michael Pittman, Andrew R. C. Milner, Elena Cuesta, Jingmai O'Connor, Mark Loewen, Philip J. Currie, Octávio Mateus, Thomas G. Kaye & Rafael Delcourt
Modern birds are typified by the presence of feathers, complex evolutionary innovations that were already widespread in the group of theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes) that include crown Aves. Squamous or scaly reptilian-like skin is, however, considered the plesiomorphic condition for theropods and dinosaurs more broadly. Here, we review the morphology and distribution of non-feathered integumentary structures in non-avialan theropods covering squamous skin and naked skin as well as dermal ossifications. The integumentary record of non-averostran theropods...

Tooth morphology elucidates shark evolution across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

Mohamad Bazzi, Nicolás Campione, Per Ahlberg, Henning Blom & Benjamin Kear
Sharks (Selachimorpha) are iconic marine predators that have survived multiple mass extinctions over geologic time. Their prolific fossil record is represented mainly by isolated shed teeth, which provide the basis for reconstructing deep time diversity changes affecting different selachimorph clades. By contrast, corresponding shifts in shark ecology, as measured through morphological disparity, have received comparatively limited analytical attention. Here, we use a geometric morphometric approach to comprehensively examine tooth morphologies in multiple shark lineages traversing...

Enabling conditions for an equitable and sustainable blue economy

Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, Marcia Moreno-Baez, Gabriel Reygondeau, William W.L. Cheung, Katherine M. Crosman, Pedro C. Gonzalez-Espinosa, Vicky W.Y. Lam, Muhammed A. Oyinlola, Gerald G. Singh, Wilf Swartz, Yoshitaka Ota & Chong-Wei Zheng
The future of the global ocean economy is currently envisioned as an advancement towards a ‘Blue Economy’—socially equitable, environmentally sustainable, and economically viable ocean industries. However, there are current tensions between development discourses from perspectives of natural capital versus social equity and environmental justice. Here we show there are stark differences in Blue Economy outlooks when social conditions and governance capacity beyond resource availability are considered, and highlight limits to establishing multiple overlapping industries. The...

Supplementary data to: Trapped in the morphospace: the trade-off between morphological integration and functional performance can limit adaptation

Gabriele Sansalone
The evolution of complex morphological structures can be seen as the result of interplay between different anatomical units evolving in a coordinated fashion. These can be influenced by genetic, developmental and/or functional integration in response to selective pressures. Using the highly derived humeral morphology of talpid moles as model, here we test whether functional specialization (measured as performance) can be linked to increased levels of morphological integration and, if so, what is the extent of...

Regarding the F-word: the effects of data Filtering on inferred genotype-environment associations

Collin Ahrens, Rebecca Jordan, Jason Bragg, Peter Harrison, Tara Hopley, Helen Bothwell, Kevin Murray, Dorothy Steane, John Whale, Margaret Byrne, Rose Andrew & Paul Rymer
Genotype-environment association (GEA) methods have become part of the standard landscape genomics toolkit, yet, we know little about how to best filter genotype-by-sequencing data to provide robust inferences for environmental adaptation. In many cases, default filtering thresholds for minor allele frequency and missing data are applied regardless of sample size, having unknown impacts on the results. These effects could be amplified in downstream predictions, including management strategies. Here, we investigate the effects of filtering on...

Automated location invariant animal detection in camera trap images using publicly available data sources

Andrew Shepley, Greg Falzon, Paul D. Meek & Paul Kwan
1. A time-consuming challenge faced by ecologists is the extraction of meaningful data from camera trap images to inform ecological management. Automated object detection solutions are increasingly, however, most are not sufficiently robust to be deployed on a large scale due to lack of location invariance across sites. This prevents optimal use of ecological data and results in significant resource expenditure to annotate and retrain object detectors. 2. In this study, we aimed to (a)...

Agriculture is adapting to phenological shifts caused by climate change, but grassland songbirds are not

Noah Perlut, Allan Strong & Maeve McGowan
Migratory birds time their migration based on cues that signal resource availability for reproduction. However, with climate change, the timing of seasonal events may shift, potentially inhibiting the ability of some species to use them as accurate cues for migration. We studied the relationship between phenological shifts and reproduction by long- and short-distance migratory songbirds—Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our study population breeds in hayfields and pastures in Vermont, USA, where farmers...

Environmental DNA reveals a multi-taxa biogeographic break across the Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman

Joseph DiBattista, Michael Berumen, Mark Priest, Maarten De Brauwer, Darren Coker, Tane Sinclair-Taylor, Amanda Hay, Gerd Bruss, Shawky Mansour, Michael Bunce, Christopher Goatley, Matthew Power & Alyssa Marshell
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used to assess community composition in marine ecosystems. Applying eDNA approaches across broad spatial scales now provide the potential to inform biogeographic analyses. However, to date, few studies have employed this technique to assess broad biogeographic patterns across multiple taxonomic groups. Here, we compare eDNA-derived communities of bony fishes and invertebrates, including corals and sponges, from 15 locations spanning the entire length of the Omani coast. This survey includes...

Data from: Biogeographic history and habitat specialisation shape floristic and phylogenetic composition across Amazonian forests

Christopher Baraloto, Jason Vleminckx, Julien Engel, Pascal Petronelli, Nállarett Dávila, Marcos Ríos, Elvis Harry Valderrama Sandoval, Italo Mesones, Juan Ernesto Guevara Andino, Claire Fortunel, Elodie Allie, C. E. Timothy Paine, Aurélie Dourdain, Jean-Yves Goret, Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes, Freddie Draper & Paul V. A. Fine
A major challenge remains to understand the relative contributions of history, dispersal and environmental filtering to the assembly of hyperdiverse communities across spatial scales. Here, we examine the extent to which biogeographical history and habitat specialization have generated turnover among and within lineages of Amazonian trees across broad geographic and environmental gradients. We replicated standardised tree inventories in 102 0.1-ha plots located in two distant regions - the western Amazon and the eastern Guiana shield....

Size-driven preservational and macroecological biases in the latest Maastrichtian terrestrial vertebrate assemblages of North America

Caleb Brown, Nicolas Campione, Gregory Wilson Mantilla & David Evans
The end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass-extinction event is the most recent and well-understood of the “Big Five” and triggered establishment of modern terrestrial ecosystem structure. Despite the depth of research into this event, our knowledge of upper Maastrichtian terrestrial deposits globally relies primarily on assemblage-level data limited to a few well-sampled formations in North America, the Hell Creek and Lance formations. These assemblages disproportionally affect our interpretations of this important interval. Multiple investigations have quantified diversity patterns...

Data - Leech removal is not the primary driver of basking behavior in a freshwater turtle

Donald McKnight, Wytamma Wirth, Lin Schwarzkopf & Eric Nordberg
Leaving the water to bask (usually in the sun) is a common behavior for many freshwater turtles, with some species also engaging in “nocturnal basking.” Ectoparasite removal is an obvious hypothesis to explain nocturnal basking and has also been proposed as a key driver of diurnal basking. However, the efficacy of basking, day or night, to remove leeches has not been experimentally tested. Therefore, we examined the number of leeches that were removed from Krefft’s...

Supplemental Material for \"Biomechanical analyses of Cambrian euarthropod limbs reveal their effectiveness in mastication and durophagy\"

Russell Bicknell, James Holmes, Gregory Edgecombe, Sarah Losso, Javier Ortega-Hernández, Stephen Wroe & John Paterson
Durophagy arose in the Cambrian and greatly influenced the diversification of biomineralised defensive structures throughout the Phanerozoic. Spinose gnathobases on protopodites of Cambrian euarthropod limbs are considered key innovations for shell-crushing, yet few studies have demonstrated their effectiveness with biomechanical models. Here we present finite element analysis models of two Cambrian trilobites with prominent gnathobases—Redlichia rex and Olenoides serratus—and compare these to the protopodites of the Cambrian euarthropod Sidneyia inexpectans and the modern American horseshoe...

Data from: Human face-off: a new method for mapping evolutionary rates on three-dimensional digital models

Silvia Castiglione, Marina Melchionna, Antonio Profico, Gabriele Sansalone, Maria Modafferi, Alessandro Mondanaro, Stephen Wroe, Paolo Piras & Pasquale Raia
Modern phylogenetic comparative methods allow estimating evolutionary rates of phenotypic change, how these rates differ across clades, and assessing whether the rate remained constant over time. Unfortunately, currently available phylogenetic comparative tools express the rate in terms of a scalar dimension, hence they do not allow us to determine rate variations among different parts of a single, complex phenotype, or charting of realized rate variation directly onto the phenotype. Herein, we present a new method...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of New England
  • University of Washington
  • James Cook University
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
  • University of Adelaide
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Queensland
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana
  • University of Vermont