15 Works

Data from: Rapid morphological changes, admixture and invasive success in populations of Ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) established in Europe

Ariane Le Gros, Sarah Samadi, Dario Zuccon, Raphaël Cornette, Michael P. Braun, Juan Carlos Senar & Philippe Clergeau
The Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), native of Asia and Africa, is a very successful invasive species in Europe: it has been present there for over 50 years. A recent study showed that European invasive populations occupy a colder climatic niche than in their native range but the establishment of this tropical species in temperate regions remains unexplained. Two main hypotheses may explain the success of Ring-necked parakeet in Europe: admixture between individuals from different origins...

Data from: Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters

Michaël C. Fontaine, Kathleen Roland, Isabelle Calves, Frederic Austerlitz, Friso P. Palstra, Krystal A. Tolley, Sean Ryan, Marisa Ferreira, Thierry Jauniaux, Angela Llavona, Bayram Öztürk, Ayaka A. Öztürk, Vincent Ridoux, Emer Rogan, Ursula Siebert, Marina Sequeira, Gísli A. Vikingsson, Asunción Borrell, Johan R. Michaux & Alex Aguilar
Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbor porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of ten microsatellite loci and a 5,085 bases-pairs portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the...

Data from: Characterizing and comparing the seasonality of influenza-like illnesses and invasive pneumococcal diseases using seasonal waveforms

Matthieu Domenech De Cellès, Helene Arduin, Emmanuelle Varon, Cécile Souty, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Sylvie Van Der Werf, Jean-Claude Soulary, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier & Lulla Opatowski
The seasonalities of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) remain incompletely understood. Experimental evidence indicates that influenza-virus infection predisposes to pneumococcal disease, so that a correspondence in the seasonal patterns of ILIs and IPDs might exist at the population level. We developed a method to characterize seasonality by means of easily interpretable summary statistics of seasonal shape—or seasonal waveforms. Non-linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate those waveforms based on weekly case reports...

Data from: Coping with the climate: cuticular hydrocarbon acclimation of ants under constant and fluctuating conditions

Philipp Peter Sprenger, Lars Holm Burkert, Berengere Abou, Walter Federle & Florian Menzel
Terrestrial arthropods achieve waterproofing by a layer of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). At the same time, CHCs also serve as communication signals. To maintain waterproofing under different climate conditions, insects adjust the chemical composition of their CHC layer, but this may affect the communication via CHC. The detailed acclimatory changes of CHCs and how these influence their physical properties are still unknown. Here, we studied acclimation in two closely related ant species with distinct CHC profiles,...

Data from: Invasion history and demographic processes associated with rapid morphological changes in the Red-whiskered bulbul established on tropical islands

Ariane Le Gros, Philippe Clergeau, Dario Zuccon, Raphaël Cornette, Blake Mathys & Sarah Samadi
The Red-whiskered bulbul is a very successful invasive bird species. Morphological differences have been reported among individuals inhabiting the humid and dry coasts of Reunion Island, in a 30-year-old population. This suggests a capacity for rapid local adaptation which could explain the general invasive success of this species. However, the origin and invasion history of this population is unknown. It is therefore not possible to establish with certainty the cause of these morphological differences. Here,...

Data from: The loci of repeated evolution: a catalogue of genetic hotspots of phenotypic variation

Arnaud Martin & Virginie Orgogozo
What is the nature of the genetic changes underlying phenotypic evolution? We have catalogued 1008 alleles described in the literature that cause phenotypic differences among animals, plants and yeasts. Surprisingly, evolution of similar traits in distinct lineages often involves mutations in the same gene (“gene reuse”). This compilation yields three important qualitative implications about repeated evolution. First, the apparent evolution of similar traits by gene reuse can be traced back to two alternatives, either several...

Data from: Polymorphism pattern at a Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Element locus downstream of the domestication gene Teosinte-branched1 in wild and domesticated pearl millet

Yann Dussert, Marie-Stanislas Remigereau, Michael C. Fontaine, Alodie Snirc, Ghayas Lakis, Solenn Stoeckel, Thierry Langin, Aboubakry Sarr, Thierry Robert & M.-S. Remigereau
Unraveling the mechanisms involved in adaptation to understand plant morphological evolution is a challenging goal. For crop species, identification of molecular causal polymorphisms involved in domestication traits are central to this issue. Pearl millet, a domesticated grass mostly found in semi-arid areas of Africa and India, is an interesting model to address this topic: the domesticated form shares common derived phenotypes with some other cereals such as a decreased ability to develop basal and axillary...

Data from: Evolution of a dominant natural isolate of Escherichia coli in the human gut over the course of a year suggests a neutral evolution with reduced effective population size

Mohamed Ghalayini, Adrien Launay, Antoine Bridier-Nahmias, Olivier Clermont, Erick Denamur, Mathilde Lescat & Olivier Tenaillon
In vitro and in vivo evolution experiments on Escherichia coli revealed several principles of bacterial adaptation. However, few data are available in the literature describing the behavior of E. coli in its natural environment. We attempted here to study the evolution in the human gut of a commensal dominant E. coli clone ED1a belonging to B2 phylogroup, through a longitudinal genomic study. We sequenced 24 isolates sampled at three different time points within a healthy...

Data from: Single-dose oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis as a response to a meningococcal meningitis epidemic in the African meningitis belt: a three-arm, open-label, cluster-randomized trial

Matthew E. Coldiron, Bachir Assao, Anne-Laure Page, Matt D. T. Hitchings, Gabriel Alcoba, Iza Ciglenecki, Céline Langendorf, Christopher Mambula, Eric Adehossi, Fati Sidikou, Elhadji Ibrahim Tassiou, Victoire De Lastours & Rebecca F. Grais
Background: Antibiotic prophylaxis for contacts of meningitis cases is not recommended during outbreaks in the African meningitis belt. We assessed the effectiveness of single-dose oral ciprofloxacin administered to household contacts and in village-wide distributions on the overall attack rate (AR) in an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis. Methods and findings: In this 3-arm, open-label, cluster-randomized trial during a meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Madarounfa District, Niger, villages notifying a suspected case were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to standard...

Data from: Reduced mate availability leads to evolution of self-fertilization and purging of inbreeding depression in a hermaphrodite

Elsa Noël, Yohann Chemtob, Tim Jänicke, Violette Sarda, Benjamin Pélissié, Philippe Jarne & Patrice David
Basic models of mating-system evolution predict that hermaphroditic organisms should mostly either cross-fertilize, or self-fertilize, due to self-reinforcing coevolution of inbreeding depression and outcrossing rates. However transitions between mating systems occur. A plausible scenario for such transitions assumes that a decrease in pollinator or mate availability temporarily constrains outcrossing populations to self-fertilize as a reproductive assurance strategy. This should trigger a purge of inbreeding depression which in turn encourages individuals to self-fertilize more often and...

Data from: State transitions: a major mortality risk for seasonal species

Julie Landes, Martine Perret, Isabelle Hardy, Carlo Giovanni Camarda, Pierre-Yves Henry & Samuel Pavard
Ageing results from the accumulation of multifactorial damage over time. However, the temporal distribution of this damage remains unknown. In seasonal species, transitions between seasons are critical periods of massive physiological remodelling. We hypothesised that these recurrent peaks of physiological remodelling are costly in terms of survival. We tested whether captive small primates exposed to an experimentally increased frequency of seasonal transitions die sooner than individuals living under natural seasonality. The results show that experiencing...

Data from: Should the WHO growth charts be used in France?

Pauline Scherdel, Jérémie Botton, Marie-Françoise Rolland-Cachera, Juliane Léger, Fabienne Pelé, Pierre Yves Ancel, Chantal Simon, Katia Castetbon, Benoit Salanave, Hélène Thibault, Sandrine Lioret, Sandrine Péneau, Gaelle Gusto, Marie-Aline Charles & Barbara Heude
Background: Growth charts are an essential clinical tool for evaluating a child's health and development. The current French reference curves, published in 1979, have recently been challenged by the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. Objective: To evaluate and compare the growth of French children who were born between 1981 and 2007, with the WHO growth charts and the French reference curves currently used. Design: Anthropometric measurements from French children, who participated in 12...

Data from: Morphological drivers of trophic cascades

Clémentine Renneville, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Michel Baylac, Alexis Millot, Stéphane Loisel & Eric Edeline
Worldwide, local anthropogenic extinctions have recently been reported to induce trophic cascades, defined as perturbations of top consumers that propagate along food chains down to primary producers. This focus on the effects of top-consumer extinction (i.e. of species presence) ignores potential cascading effects of the rapid morphological changes that may precede extinction. Here, we show in an experimental, three-level food chain including medaka fish, herbivorous zooplankton and unicellular algae that varying body length of a...

Data from: Collective cell migration without proliferation: density determines cell velocity and wave velocity

Sham Tlili, Estelle Gauquelin, Brigitte Li, Olivier Cardoso, Benoit Ladoux, Helene Delanoe-Ayari & Francois Graner
Collective cell migration contributes to embryogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. Cell monolayer migration experiments help understanding what determines the movement of cells far from the leading edge. Inhibiting cell proliferation limits cell density increase and prevents jamming; we observe long-duration migration and quantify space-time characteristics of the velocity profile over large length- and time-scales. Velocity waves propagate backwards and their frequency depends only on cell density at the moving front. Both cell average velocity...

Data from: Using long-term experimental evolution to uncover the patterns and determinants of molecular evolution of an Escherichia coli natural isolate in the streptomycin treated mouse gut

Mathilde Lescat, Launay Adrien, Mohamed Ghalayini, Mélanie Magnan, Jérémy Glodt, Coralie Pintard, Sara Dion, Erick Denamur, Olivier Tenaillon & Adrien Launay
Though microbial ecology of the gut is now a major focus of interest, little is known about the molecular determinants of microbial adaptation in the gut. Experimental evolution coupled with whole genome sequencing can provide insights of the adaptive process. In vitro experiments have revealed some conserved patterns: intermediate convergence, epistatic interactions between beneficial mutations and mutations in global regulators. To test the relevance of these patterns and to identify the selective pressures acting in...

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