28 Works

Harmothoe imbricata MicroCT-scans for 3D reconstruction

Marc Christian Allentoft-Larsen, Brett C. Gonzalez, Joost Daniels, Kakani Katija, Karen Osborn & Katrine Worsaae
Annelids are predominantly found along the seafloor, but over time have colonised a vast diversity of habitats, such as the water column, where different modes of locomotion are necessary. Yet, little is known about their potential muscular adaptation to the continuously swimming required in the water column. The musculature and motility were examined for five scale worm species of Polynoidae (Aphroditiformia, Annelida) found in shallow waters, deep sea and caves that exhibit crawling, occasional swimming...

Data from: Fear dynamically structures the ocean's pelagic zone

Samuel Urmy & Kelly Benoit-Bird
Fear of predation can have wide-ranging ecological effects.This is especially true in the ocean’s pelagic zone, the Earth’s largest habitat, where vertical gradients in light and primary productivity force numerous taxa to migrate vertically each night to feed at the surface while minimizing risk from visual predators. Despite its importance, and the fact that it is driven by spatial differences in perceived risk, diel vertical migration (DVM) is rarely considered within the “landscape of fear”...

Data from: Evaluating the target‐tracking performance of scanning avian radars by augmenting data with simulated echoes

Samuel Urmy & Joseph Warren
1. Small scanning radars have been used for many years to track the movements of insects, birds, and bats. While the ability to track multiple flying animals simultaneously has numerous applications in basic ecology and applied conservation, translating radar tracks into accurate animal densities and fluxes requires estimates of detection and tracking probabilities. These can be challenging to determine, especially in environments with variable background clutter. 2. In order to assess radar tracking probabilities, we...

Behavioral responses across a mosaic of ecosystem states restructure a sea otter-urchin trophic cascade

Joshua Smith, Joseph Tomoleoni, Michelle Staedler, Sophia Lyon, Jessica Fujii & Tim M. Tinker
Consumer and predator foraging behavior can impart profound trait-mediated constraints on community regulation that scale-up to influence the structure and stability of ecosystems. Here we demonstrate how the behavioral response of an apex predator to changes in prey behavior and condition can dramatically alter the role and relative contribution of top-down forcing, depending on the spatial organization of ecosystem states. In this study, a rapid and dramatic decline in the abundance of a meso-predator (Pycnopodia...

Pelagomacellicephala iliffei MicroCT-Scans for 3D reconstruction

Marc Christian Allentoft-Larsen, Brett C. Gonzalez, Joost Daniels, Kakani Katija, Karen Osborn & Katrine Worsaae
Annelids are predominantly found along the seafloor, but over time have colonised a vast diversity of habitats, such as the water column, where different modes of locomotion are necessary. Yet, little is known about their potential muscular adaptation to the continuously swimming required in the water column. The musculature and motility were examined for five scale worm species of Polynoidae (Aphroditiformia, Annelida) found in shallow waters, deep sea and caves that exhibit crawling, occasional swimming...

Video recordings of polynoid (Annelida) swimming and crawling

Marc Christian Allentoft-Larsen, Brett C. Gonzalez, Joost Daniels, Kakani Katija, Karen Osborn & Katrine Worsaae
Annelids are predominantly found along the seafloor, but over time have colonised a vast diversity of habitats, such as the water column, where different modes of locomotion are necessary. Yet, little is known about their potential muscular adaptation to the continuously swimming required in the water column. The musculature and motility were examined for five scale worm species of Polynoidae (Aphroditiformia, Annelida) found in shallow waters, deep sea and caves that exhibit crawling, occasional swimming...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria

Felipe Zapata, Freya E. Goetz, Stephen A. Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H. Church, Steven M. Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S. McFadden, Scott C. France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G. Collins, Steven H. D. Haddock, Casey W. Dunn & Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is the most diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses...

Data from: Risso' s dolphins plan foraging dives

Patricia Arranz, Kelly J. Benoit-Bird, Brandon L. Southall, John Calambokidis, Ari S. Friedlaender & Peter L. Tyack
Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location, and predictability within...

Data from: Assessing vertebrate biodiversity in a kelp forest ecosystem using environmental DNA

Jesse A. Port, James L. O'Donnell, Ofelia C. Romero-Maraccini, Paul R. Leary, Steven Y. Litvin, Kerry J. Nickols, Kevan M. Yamahara & Ryan P. Kelly
Preserving biodiversity is a global challenge requiring data on species’ distribution and abundance over large geographic and temporal scales. However, traditional methods to survey mobile species’ distribution and abundance in marine environments are often inefficient, environmentally destructive, or resource-intensive. Metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) offers a new means to assess biodiversity and on much larger scales, but adoption of this approach for surveying whole animal communities in large, dynamic aquatic systems has been slowed by...

Data from: Time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of pteropods

Alice K. Burridge, Christine Hörnlein, Arie W. Janssen, Martin Hughes, Stephanie L. Bush, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Rebeca Gasca, Annelies C. Pierrot-Bults, Ellinor Michel, Jonathan A. Todd, Jeremy R. Young, Karen J. Osborn, Steph B.J. Menken, Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg & Steph B. J. Menken
Pteropods are a widespread group of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs and are uniquely suitable for study of long-term evolutionary processes in the open ocean because they are the only living metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. Pteropods have been proposed as bioindicators to monitor the impacts of ocean acidification and in consequence have attracted considerable research interest, however, a robust evolutionary framework for the group is still lacking. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and...

Data from: Energetic increases lead to niche packing in deep-sea wood falls

Craig R. McClain, Clifton Nunnally, Abbie S.A. Chapman, James P. Barry & Abbie S. A. Chapman
Mechanisms leading to variation in diversity over energetic gradients continue to challenge ecologists. Changes in diversity may reflect the environmental capacity to support species’ coexistence through increased niche packing or niche space expansion. Current ecological theory predicts increases of energy may lead to both scenarios but not their relative strengths. We use experimental deep-sea, wood-fall communities, where energy supply can be controlled, to test for the importance of niche expansion and packing in functional space...

Data and code for: The evolution of siphonophore tentilla for specialized prey capture in the open ocean

Alejandro Damian-Serrano, Steven Haddock & Casey Dunn
Predator specialization has often been considered an evolutionary ‘dead-end’ due to the constraints associated with the evolution of morphological and functional optimizations throughout the organism. However, in some predators, these changes are localized in separate structures dedicated to prey capture. One of the most extreme cases of this modularity can be observed in siphonophores, a clade of pelagic colonial cnidarians that use tentilla (tentacle side branches armed with nematocysts) exclusively for prey capture. Here we...

Data from: Long-term mechanistic hindcasts predict the structure of experimentally-warmed intertidal communities

Diana LaScala-Gruenewald & Mark Denny
Increases in global temperatures are expected to have dramatic effects on the abundance and distribution of species in the coming years. Intertidal organisms, which already experience temperatures at or beyond their thermal limits, provide a model system in which to investigate these effects. We took advantage of a previous study in which experimental plates were deployed in the intertidal zone and passively warmed for 12 years to a daily maximum temperature on average 2.7°C higher...

Data from: Beta-diversity on deep-sea wood falls reflects gradients in energy availability

Craig McClain & James Barry
Wood falls on the deep-sea floor represent a significant source of energy into the food-limited deep sea. Unique communities of primarily wood- and sulfide-obligate species form on these wood falls. However, little is known regarding patterns and drivers of variation in the composition of wood fall communities through space and time, and thus, how wood falls contribute to deep-sea biodiversity. Eighteen Acacia logs varying in size were placed and retrieved after five years at a...

Data from: New deep-sea species of Xenoturbella and the position of Xenacoelomorpha

Greg W. Rouse, Nerida G. Wilson, Jose I. Carvajal & Robert C. Vrijenhoek
The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden1, 2, but their taxonomic placement remains unstable3, 4. Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs5, 6, but the tissues can be contaminated with prey7, 8. They were then considered deuterostomes9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Further taxon sampling and analysis have grouped Xenoturbella with acoelomorphs...

Data from: Population subdivision of hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana across equatorial and Easter Microplate boundaries

Sook-Jin Jang, Eunji Park, Won-Kyung Lee, Shannon B. Johnson, Robert C. Vrijenhoek & Yong-Jin Won
Background: The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species’ known range from 23°N...

Data from: Juvenile survival, competing risks, and spatial variation in mortality risk of a marine apex predator

John F. Benson, Salvador J. Jorgensen, John B. O'Sullivan, Chuck Winkler, Connor F. White, Emiliano Garcia-Rodriguez, Oscar Sosa-Nishizaki, Christopher G. Lowe, Emiliano Garcia‐Rodriguez & Oscar Sosa‐Nishizaki
Reliable estimates of mortality have been a major gap in our understanding of population ecology for marine animals. This is especially true for juveniles, which are often the most vulnerable age class and whose survival can strongly influence population growth. Thousands of pop‐up archival satellite tags (PAT) have been deployed on a variety of marine species, but analysis of these data has mainly been restricted to movement ecology and post‐handling survival following fisheries bycatch. We...

Drieschia sp. MicroCT-Scans for 3D reconstruction

Marc Christian Allentoft-Larsen, Brett C. Gonzalez, Joost Daniels, Kakani Katija, Karen Osborn & Katrine Worsaae
Annelids are predominantly found along the seafloor, but over time have colonised a vast diversity of habitats, such as the water column, where different modes of locomotion are necessary. Yet, little is known about their potential muscular adaptation to the continuously swimming required in the water column. The musculature and motility were examined for five scale worm species of Polynoidae (Aphroditiformia, Annelida) found in shallow waters, deep sea and caves that exhibit crawling, occasional swimming...

Gesiella jameensis MicroCT-scans for 3D reconstruction

Marc Christian Allentoft-Larsen, Brett C. Gonzalez, Joost Daniels, Kakani Katija, Karen Osborn & Katrine Worsaae
Annelids are predominantly found along the seafloor, but over time have colonised a vast diversity of habitats, such as the water column, where different modes of locomotion are necessary. Yet, little is known about their potential muscular adaptation to the continuously swimming required in the water column. The musculature and motility were examined for five scale worm species of Polynoidae (Aphroditiformia, Annelida) found in shallow waters, deep sea and caves that exhibit crawling, occasional swimming...

Data from: Bone-eating Osedax females and their 'harems' of dwarf males are recruited from a common larval pool

Robert C Vrijenhoek, Shannon B Johnson & Greg W Rouse
Extreme male dwarfism occurs in Osedax (Annelida: Siboglinidae), marine worms with sessile females that bore into submerged bones. Osedax are hypothesized to use environmental sex-determination (ESD), in which undifferentiated larvae that settle on bones develop as females, and subsequent larvae that settle on females transform into dwarf males. This study addresses several hypotheses regarding possible recruitment sources for the males: (1) common larval pool — males and females are sampled from a common pool of...

Data from: Phylogeny, evidence for a cryptic plastid, and distribution of Chytriodinium parasites (Dinophyceae) infecting copepods

Jürgen F.H. Strassert, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Javier Del Campo, Noriko Okamoto, Martin Kolisko, Thomas A. Richards, Alexandra Z. Worden, Alyson E. Santoro, Patrick J. Keeling & Javier Campo
Spores of the dinoflagellate Chytriodinium are known to infest copepod eggs causing their lethality. Despite the potential to control the population of such an ecologically important host, knowledge about Chytriodinium parasites is limited: we know little about phylogeny, parasitism, abundance, or geographical distribution. We carried out genome sequence surveys on four manually isolated sporocytes from the same sporangium to analyse the phylogenetic position of Chytriodinium based on SSU and concatenated SSU/LSU rRNA gene sequences, and...

Diel temperature and pH variability scale with depth across diverse coral reef habitats

Tyler Cyronak, Yui Takeshita, Travis A. Courtney, Eric H. DeCarlo, Bradley D. Eyre, David I. Kline, Todd Martz, Heather Page, Nichole N. Price, Jennifer Smith, Laura Stoltenberg, Martin Tresguerres & Andreas J. Andersson
Coral reefs are facing intensifying stressors, largely due to global increases in seawater temperature and decreases in pH. However, there is extensive environmental variability within coral reef ecosystems which can impact how organisms respond to global trends. We deployed spatial arrays of autonomous sensors across distinct shallow coral reef habitats to determine patterns of spatiotemporal variability in seawater physicochemical parameters. Temperature and pH were positively correlated over the course of a day due to solar...

Macellicephala longipalpa MicroCT-scans for 3d reconstruction

Marc Christian Allentoft-Larsen, Brett C. Gonzalez, Joost Daniels, Kakani Katija, Karen Osborn & Katrine Worsaae
Annelids are predominantly found along the seafloor, but over time have colonised a vast diversity of habitats, such as the water column, where different modes of locomotion are necessary. Yet, little is known about their potential muscular adaptation to the continuously swimming required in the water column. The musculature and motility were examined for five scale worm species of Polynoidae (Aphroditiformia, Annelida) found in shallow waters, deep sea and caves that exhibit crawling, occasional swimming...

Branchipolynoe sp. MicroCT-Scans for 3D reconstruction

Marc Christian Allentoft-Larsen, Brett C. Gonzalez, Joost Daniels, Kakani Katija, Karen Osborn & Katrine Worsaae
Annelids are predominantly found along the seafloor, but over time have colonised a vast diversity of habitats, such as the water column, where different modes of locomotion are necessary. Yet, little is known about their potential muscular adaptation to the continuously swimming required in the water column. The musculature and motility were examined for five scale worm species of Polynoidae (Aphroditiformia, Annelida) found in shallow waters, deep sea and caves that exhibit crawling, occasional swimming,...

Data from: Lactation and resource limitation affect stress responses, thyroid hormones, immune function and antioxidant capacity of sea otters (Enhydra lutris)

Sarah M. Chinn, Daniel H. Monson, M. Tim Tinker, Michelle M. Staedler & Daniel E. Crocker
1. Lactation is the most energetically demanding stage of reproduction in female mammals. Increased energetic allocation toward current reproduction may result in fitness costs, though the mechanisms underlying these trade-offs are not well understood. Trade-offs during lactation may include reduced energetic allocation to cellular maintenance, immune response and survival, and may be influenced by resource limitation. 2. As the smallest marine mammal, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have the highest mass-specific metabolic rate necessitating substantial energetic...

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