62 Works

Data from: Microbiota-driven transcriptional changes in prefrontal cortex override genetic differences in social behavior

Mar Gacias, Sevasti Gaspari, Patricia Mae-Santos, Monica Andrade, Fan Zhang, Nan Shen, Vladimir Tolstikov, Michael A. Kiebish, Jeffrey L. Dupree, Venetia Zachariou, Jose C. Clemente & Patrizia Casaccia
Gene-environment interactions impact the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relative contributions are unclear. Here, we identify gut microbiota as sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors in genetically distinct mouse strains. Daily gavage of saline in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice induced a social avoidance behavior that was not observed in C57BL/6 mice. This was not observed in NOD animals with depleted microbiota via oral administration of antibiotics. Transfer of intestinal microbiota, including members of the Clostridiales,...

Data from: Organismal responses to habitat change: herbivore performance, climate, and leaf traits in regenerating tropical dry forests

Salvatore J. Agosta, Catherine M. Hulshof & Ethan G. Staats
1. The ecological effects of large-scale climate change have received much attention, but the effects of the more acute form of climate change that results from local habitat alteration have been less explored. When forest is fragmented, cut, thinned, cleared or otherwise altered in structure, local climates and microclimates change. Such changes can affect herbivores both directly (e.g., through changes in body temperature) and indirectly (e.g., through changes in host plant traits). 2. We advance...

Data from: The geography of spatial synchrony

Jonathan A. Walter, Lawrence W. Sheppard, Thomas L. Anderson, Jude H. Kastens, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Andrew M. Liebhold & Daniel C. Reuman
Spatial synchrony, defined as correlated temporal fluctuations among populations, is a fundamental feature of population dynamics, but many aspects of synchrony remain poorly understood. Few studies have examined detailed geographical patterns of synchrony; instead most focus on how synchrony declines with increasing linear distance between locations, making the simplifying assumption that distance decay is isotropic. By synthesising and extending prior work, we show how geography of synchrony, a term which we use to refer to...

Data from: Sex-specific graphs: Relating group-specific topology to demographic and landscape data

Philip Bertrand, Jeff Bowman, Rodney Dyer, Micheline Manseau, Paul J. Wilson & Rodney J. Dyer
Sex-specific genetic structure is a commonly observed pattern among vertebrate species. Facing differential selective pressures, individuals may adopt sex-specific life history traits that ultimately shape genetic variation among populations. Although differential dispersal dynamics are commonly detected in the literature, few studies have used genetic structure to investigate sex-specific functional connectivity. The recent use of graph theoretic approaches in landscape genetics has demonstrated network capacities to describe complex system behaviours where network topology represents genetic interaction...

Data from: Urbanization as a facilitator of gene flow in a human health pest

Lindsay S. Miles, J. Chadwick Johnson, Rodney J. Dyer & Brian C. Verrelli
Urban fragmentation can reduce gene flow that isolates populations, reduces genetic diversity and increases population differentiation, all of which have negative conservation implications. Alternatively, gene flow may actually be increased among urban areas consistent with an urban facilitation model. In fact, urban adapter pests are able to thrive in the urban environment and may be experiencing human-mediated transport. Here, we used social network theory with a population genetic approach to investigate the impact of urbanization...

Data from: Thermal sensitivity of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) during larval and pupal development

Nana Banahene, Salem K. Salem, Trevor M. Faske, Hannah M. Byrne, Madison Glackin, Salvatore J. Agosta, Andrew J. Eckert, Kristine L. Grayson & Lily M. Thompson
As global temperatures rise, thermal limits play an increasingly important role in determining the persistence and spread of invasive species. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. Lepidotera: Erebidae) in North America provides an ideal system for studying the effect of high temperatures on invasive species performance. Here, we used fluctuating temperature regimes and exposed gypsy moth at specific points in development (first–fourth instar, pupa) to cycles of favorable(22–28°C) or high-temperature treatments 030–36°C, 32–38°C, 34–40°C) for either...

Climate-related geographic variation in performance traits across the invasion front of a widespread nonnative insect

Lily Thompson, Sean Powers, Ashley Appolon, Petra Hafker, Lelia Milner, Dylan Parry, Salvatore Agosta & Kristine Grayson
Aim: Invasive species are an ideal system for testing geographic differences in performance traits and measuring evolutionary responses as a species spreads across divergent climates and habitats. The European gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), is a generalist forest defoliator introduced to Medford, Massachusetts, USA in 1869. Currently, the invasion front extends from Minnesota to North Carolina and the ability of gypsy moth populations to adapt to local climate may contribute to its...

Data from: The edaphic control of plant diversity

Catherine Hulshof & Marko Spasojevic
BACKGROUND: The central thesis of plant ecology is that climate determines the distribution of global vegetation. Within a vegetation type, however, finer-scale environmental features such as the physical and chemical properties of soil (edaphic variation) control plant distributions and diversity patterns. AIMS: Here, we review the literature to provide a mechanistic framework for the edaphic control of plant diversity. First, we review three examples where soils have known, prevalent effects on plant diversity: during soil...

Evolutionary stability, landscape heterogeneity, and human land-usage shape population genetic connectivity in the Cape Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot

Lindsay Miles, Brian Verrelli & Erica Tassone
As human-induced change eliminates natural habitats, it impacts genetic diversity and population connectivity for local biodiversity. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is the most diverse extratropical area for plant biodiversity, and much of its habitat is protected as a UNESCO World Heritage site. There has long been great interest in explaining the underlying factors driving this unique diversity, especially as much of the CFR is endangered by urbanization and other anthropogenic activity. Here,...

Soil biogeochemistry across Central and South American tropical dry forests

Bonnie Waring, Mark De Guzman, Dan Du, Juan Dupuy, Maga Gei, Jessica Gutknecht, Catherine Hulshof, Nicolas Jelinski, Andrew Margenot, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Beatriz Salgado-Negret, Naomi Schwartz, Annette Trierweiler, Skip Van Bloem, German Vargas G & Jennifer Powers
The availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) controls the flow of carbon (C) among plants, soils, and the atmosphere, thereby shaping terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. Soil C, N, and P cycles are linked by drivers operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales: landscape-level variation in macroclimate, seasonality, and soil geochemistry; stand-scale heterogeneity in forest composition and structure; and microbial community dynamics at the soil pore scale. Yet in many biomes, we do...

Data from: Ecological co-associations influence species’ responses to past climatic change: an example from a Sonoran Desert bark beetle

Ryan C. Garrick, John D. Nason, Rodney J. Dyer & Juan F. Fernández-Manjarrés
Ecologically interacting species may have phylogeographic histories that are shaped both by features of their abiotic landscape, and by biotic constraints imposed by their co-association. The Baja California peninsula provides an excellent opportunity to examine the influence of abiotic vs. biotic factors on patterns of diversity in plant-insect species. This is because past climatic and geological changes impacted the genetic structure of plants quite differently to that of co-distributed free-living animals (e.g., herpetofauna and small...

Data from: Toward translating near-infrared spectroscopy oxygen saturation data for the non-invasive prediction of spatial and temporal hemodynamics during exercise

Laura Ellwein, Margaret M. Samyn, Michael Danduran, Sheila Schindler-Ivens, Stacy Liebham, & John F. LaDisa
Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies conducted at rest have shown that atherosclerotic plaque in the thoracic aorta (TA) correlates with adverse wall shear stress (WSS), but there is a paucity of such data under elevated flow conditions. We developed a pedaling exercise protocol to obtain phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) blood flow measurements in the TA and brachiocephalic arteries during three-tiered supine pedaling at 130, 150, and 170 % of resting heart rate...

Data from: Wall structure and material properties cause viscous damping of swimbladder sounds in the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau

Michael L. Fine, Terrence L. King, Heba Ali, Nehan Sidker & Timothy M. Cameron
Despite rapid damping, fish swimbladders have been modelled as underwater resonant bubbles. Recent data suggest that swimbladders of sound-producing fishes use a forced rather than a resonant response to produce sound. The reason for this discrepancy has not been formally addressed, and we demonstrate, for the first time, that the structure of the swimbladder wall will affect vibratory behaviour. Using the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau, we find regional differences in bladder thickness, directionality of collagen...

Data from: Predator diversity reduces habitat colonization by mosquitoes and midges

Ethan G. Staats, Salvatore J. Agosta & James R. Vonesh
Changes in predator diversity via extinction and invasion are increasingly widespread and can have important ecological and socio-economic consequences. Anticipating and managing these consequences requires understanding how predators shape ecological communities. Previous predator biodiversity research has focused on post-colonization processes. However, predators can also shape communities by altering patterns of prey habitat selection during colonization. The sensitivity of this non-consumptive top down mechanism to changes in predator diversity is largely unexamined. To address this gap,...

Data from: Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics framework

Erin Landguth, Brenna R. Forester, Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew J. Shirk, Mitra Menon, Amy Whipple, Casey C. Day & Samuel A. Cushman
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of any number of environmental variables....

Data from: Alternative reproductive tactics and lifetime reproductive success in a polygynandrous mammal

Adele Balmer, Bertram Zinner, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Shirley Raveh & F. Stephen Dobson
The widespread occurrence of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) highlights the diverse ways in which sexual selection can operate within a population. We studied ARTs in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), evaluating paternity, lifetime reproductive success, and life histories. Reproductively mature male Columbian ground squirrels displayed either a territorial or satellite (non-territorial) tactic. Territorial males secured a higher proportion of copulations, were more likely to mate at earlier positions in females’ mating sequences and sired more...

Data from: Evolutionary genomics of gypsy moth populations sampled along a latitudinal gradient

Christopher J Friedline, Trevor M Faske, Brandon M Lind, Erin M Hobson, Dylan Parry, Rodney J Dyer, Derek M Johnson, Lily M Thompson, Kristine L Grayson & Andrew J Eckert
The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) was first introduced to Massachusetts in 1869 and within 150 years has spread throughout eastern North America. This large-scale invasion across a heterogeneous landscape allows examination of the genetic signatures of adaptation potentially associated with rapid geographic spread. We tested the hypothesis that spatially divergent natural selection has driven observed changes in three developmental traits that were measured in a common garden for 165 adult moths sampled from...

Supplemental material from: A population-based prevalence of myotonic dystrophy type 1

Nicholas Johnson, Russell Butterfield, Katie Mayne, Tara Newcomb, Carina Imburgia, Diane Dunn, Brett Duval, Marcia Feldkamp & Robert Weiss
Objective: To determine whether the genetic prevalence of the CTG expansion in the DMPK gene associated with myotonic dystrophy (DM1) in an unbiased cohort is higher than previously reported population estimates, ranging from 5-20 per 100,000 individuals. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional cohort of de-identified dried blood spots (DBS) from the newborn screening program in the state of New York, taken from consecutive births from 2013-2014. Blood spots were screened for the CTG repeat...

Asymmetrical effects of temperature on stage-structured predator-prey interactions

Andrew Davidson, Elizabeth Hamman, Michael McCoy & James Vonesh
Warming can impact consumer-resource interactions through multiple mechanisms. For example, warming can both alter the rate at which predators consume prey and the rate prey develop through vulnerable life stages. Thus, the overall effect of warming on consumer-resource interactions will depend upon the strength and asymmetry of warming effects on predator and prey performance. Here, we quantified the temperature dependence of both 1) density-dependent predation rates for two dragonfly nymph predators on a shared mosquito...

Data from: Global plant ecology of tropical ultramafic ecosystems

Catherine Hulshof, Claudia Garnica-Díaz, Rosalina Berazaín Iturralde, Betsaida Cabrera, Erick Calderón-Morales, Fermín L. Felipe, Ricardo García, José Luis Gómez Hechavarría, Aretha Franklin Guimarães, Ernesto Medina, Adrian L.D. Paul, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Carla Restrepo, Stefan Siebert, Eduardo Van Den Berg, Antony Van Der Ent & Grisel Velasquez
This is a compiled geospatial dataset in ESRI polygon shapefile format of ultramafic soils of the neotropics showing the location of ultramafic soils in Guatemala, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil, Suriname, French Guiana, and Bolivia. The data are derived from seven geospatial datasets. Original datasets were subset to include only ultramafic areas, datasets were assigned a common projection (WGS84), attribute tables were reconciled to a common set...

Data from: Postcranial morphology and the locomotor habits of living and extinct carnivorans

Joshua X. Samuels, Julie A. Meachen & Stacey A. Sakai
Members of the order Carnivora display a broad range of locomotor habits, including cursorial, scansorial, arboreal, semiaquatic, aquatic, and semifossorial species from multiple families. Ecomorphological analyses from osteological measurements have been used successfully in prior studies of carnivorans and rodents to accurately infer the locomotor habits of extinct species. This study uses 20 postcranial measurements that have been shown to be effective indicators of locomotor habits in rodents and incorporates an extensive sample of over...

Data from: Multilocus analyses reveal little evidence for lineage wide adaptive evolution within major clades of soft pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus)

Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew D. Bower, Kathleen D. Jermstad, Jill L. Wegrzyn, Brian J. Knaus, John V. Syring & David B. Neale
Estimates from molecular data for the fraction of new nonsynonymous mutations that are adaptive vary strongly across plant species. Much of this variation is due to differences in life-history strategies as they influence the effective population size (Ne). Ample variation for these estimates, however, remains even when comparisons are made across species with similar values of Ne. An open question thus remains as to why the large disparity for estimates of adaptive evolution exists among...

Data from: Genetic signatures of natural selection in response to air pollution in red spruce (Picea rubens, Pinaceae)

Stanislav Bashalkhanov, Andrew J. Eckert & Om P. Rajora
One of the most important drivers of local adaptation for forest trees is climate. Coupled to these patterns, however, are human-induced disturbances through habitat modification and pollution. The confounded effects of climate and disturbance have rarely been investigated with regard to selective pressure on forest trees. Here, we have developed and used a population genetic approach to search for signals of selection within a set of 36 candidate genes chosen for their putative effects on...

Data from: Spatial variation in Allee effects influences patterns of range expansion

Jonathan A. Walter, Derek M. Johnson & Kyle J. Haynes
Allee effects are thought to slow range expansion and contribute to stable range boundaries. Recent studies have shown Allee effects to vary spatiotemporally due to influences of environmental heterogeneity on population processes. Gradients in Allee effects might occur as a species' range approaches suboptimal conditions while expanding into new territory. Allee effects could exhibit patchiness if drivers of positive density dependence (e.g., mate finding rates) are influenced by habitat patchiness. However, theoretical studies have largely...

Data from: The dynamic role of genetics on cortical patterning during childhood and adolescence

J. Eric Schmitt, Michael C. Neale, Bilqis Fassassi, Javier Perez, Rhoshel K. Lenroot, Elizabeth M. Wells & Jay N. Giedd
Longitudinal imaging and quantitative genetic studies have both provided important insights into the nature of human brain development. In the present study we combine these modalities to obtain dynamic anatomical maps of the genetic contributions to cortical thickness through childhood and adolescence. A total of 1,748 anatomic MRI scans from 792 healthy twins and siblings were studied with up to eight time points per subject. Using genetically informative latent growth curve modeling of 81,924 measures...

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