52 Works

Data from: A temporal banding approach for consistent taxonomic ranking above the species level

Ekaphan Kraichak, Ana Crespo, Pradeep K. Divakar, Steven D. Leavitt & H. Thorsten Lumbsch
Comparable taxonomic ranks within clades can facilitate more consistent classifications and objective comparisons among taxa. Here we use a temporal approach to identify taxonomic ranks. This is an extension of the temporal banding approach including a Temporal Error Score that finds an objective cut-off for each taxonomic rank using information for the current classification. We illustrate this method using a data set of the lichenized fungal family Parmeliaceae. To assess its performance, we simulated the...

Data from: Diverse guilds provide complementary dispersal services in a woodland expansion process after land abandonment

Gema Escribano-Avila, María Calviño-Cancela, Beatriz Pías, Emilio Virgós, Fernando Valladares & Adrián Escudero
1. Land abandonment due to increasing depopulation of rural areas is an ongoing trend in developed countries worldwide. Abandoned lands represent an opportunity for ecosystem recovery, an urgent need for biodiversity conservation. Seed dispersal services provided by animals are a key feature for this process. Different dispersers may differentially contribute to plant recruitment under different ecological conditions, leading to complementary dispersal services. 2. We studied the dispersal services, quantified as the contribution to plant recruitment,...

Data from: The interplay among acorn abundance and rodent behavior drives the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment in mature Mediterranean oak forests

Pau Sunyer, Ester Boixadera, Alberto Muñoz, Raúl Bonal & Josep Maria Espelta
The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean...

The interplay of wind and uplift facilitates over-water flight in facultative soaring birds

Elham Nourani, Gil Bohrer, Paolo Becciu, Richard O Bierregaard, Olivier Duriez, Jordi Figuerola, Laura Gangoso, Sinos Giokas, Hiroyoshi Higuchi, Christina Kassara, Olga Kulikova, Nicolas Lecomte, Flavio Monti, Ivan Pokrovsky, Andrea Sforzi, Jean-François Therrien, Nikos Tsiopelas, Wouter MG Vansteelant, Duarte S Viana, Noriyuki M Yamaguchi, Martin Wikelski & Kamran Safi
Flying over the open sea is energetically costly for terrestrial birds. Despite this, over-water journeys of many birds, sometimes hundreds of kilometers long, are uncovered by bio-logging technology. To understand how these birds afford their flights over the open sea, we investigated the role of atmospheric conditions, specifically wind and uplift, in subsidizing over-water flight at the global scale. We first established that ∆T, the temperature difference between sea surface and air, is a meaningful...

Atlas of the vascular flora of the Iberian Peninsula biodiversity hotspot (AFLIBER)

Ignacio Ramos-Gutiérrez, Herlander Lima, Santiago Pajarón, Carlos Romero-Zarco, Llorenç Sáez, Rafael Molina-Venegas, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez & Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz
Motivation: We accessed published and unpublished floristic sources to compile a comprehensive species list of the Iberian-Balearic terrestrial vascular flora and generate AFLIBER, an accurate floristic database of georeferenced plant occurrence records. Main type of variable contained: Species distribution data totaling 1,824,549 plant occurrence records corresponding to 6,456 species and subspecies. Spatial location and grain: The western Mediterranean, including inland territories of Spain, Portugal and Andorra and the adjacent archipelagos of Berlengas, Columbretes, and Balearic...

Data from: Ecomorphological adaptation in three mudskippers (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Gobiidae) from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

Gianluca Polgar, Mehdi Ghanbarifardi, Salvatore Milli, Ainhoa Agorreta, Mansour Aliabadian, Hamid Reza Esmaeili & Tsung Fei Khang
We hypothesise that the body shapes of three mudskipper species (Boleophthalmus dussumieri, Periophthalmus waltoni, and Scartelaos tenuis) are ecomorphological adaptations to different epi- and infaunal habitats. We investigated: (i) the association between burrow density and selected ecological variables; (ii) the phylogenetic relationships among these species, based on two mtDNA and one nDNA markers; (iii) their geometric morphometrics and ancestral shape reconstructions, based on two-dimensional landmark configurations; and (iv) their body surface-to-volume ratios (SAV), based on...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Feather traits, wing morphology and abundance of southern populations of Sylvia atricapilla related to altitudinal movements

Irene Hernandez-Tellez
Moult of birds is shaped by environmental and genetic drivers whose relative contribution to the structure of feathers may differ within and between populations. In this study we compare some traits of tail feathers (growth bars, mass, rachis width and barb length) between four populations of the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) breeding at different elevations within the southwestern Palaearctic. We tested if these traits were related to the primary productivity of habitats (a surrogate of...

Data from: An integrative skeletal and paleogenomic analysis of stature variation suggests relatively reduced health for early European farmers

Stephanie Marciniak, Christina Bergey, Ana Maria Silva, Agata Hałuszko, Mirosław Furmanek, Barbara Veselka, Petr Velemínský, Giuseppe Vercellotti, Joachim Wahl, Gunita Zarina, Cristina Longhi, Jan Kolář, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Raúl Flores-Fernández, Ana M. Herrero-Corral, Angela Simalcsik, Werner Müller, Alison Sheridan, Žydrūnė Miliauskienė, Rimantas Jankauskas, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Kitti Köhler, Ágnes Király, Beatriz Gamarra, Olivia Cheronet … & George H. Perry
Human culture, biology, and health were shaped dramatically by the onset of agriculture ~12,000 years before present (BP). This shift is hypothesized to have resulted in increased individual fitness and population growth as evidenced by archaeological and population genomic data alongside a decline in physiological health as inferred from skeletal remains. Here, we consider osteological and ancient DNA data from the same prehistoric individuals to study human stature variation as a proxy for health across...

Data supplement for: Agreement of analytical and simulation-based estimates of the required land depth in climate models

Norman J. Steinert, J. Fidel González Rouco, Camilo A. Melo Aguilar, Félix García-Pereira, Elena García-Bustamante, Philipp De Vrese, Vladimir Alexeev, Johann H. Jungclaus, Stephan J. Lorenz & Stefan Hagemann
Many current-generation climate models have land components that are too shallow. Under climate change conditions, the long-term warming trend at the surface propagates deeper into the ground than the commonly used 3-10m. Shallow models alter the terrestrial heat storage and distribution of temperatures in the subsurface, influencing the simulated land-atmosphere interactions. Previous studies focusing on annual timescales suggest that deeper models are required to match subsurface-temperature observations and the classic analytical heat conduction solution. However,...

Data from: Fitness of an allopolyploid rupicolous fern compared to its diploid progenitors: From sporogenesis to sporophyte formation

Emilia Pangua, Santiago Pajarón & Luis G. Quintanilla
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: When two populations of related cytotypes grow in sympatry, the rarer cytotype tends to be excluded due to a frequency-dependent mating disadvantage. Evolutionary models predict that polyploids, which are typically the rarer cytotype upon first formation, should have higher relative fitness and/or higher selfing rates to establish and then coexist with diploid parents. METHODS: We compared performance in early recruitment among three co-occurring rupicolous fern species: the allotetraploid Cheilanthes tinaei and...

Data from: Effects of grazing intensity on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui & Martin Oesterheld
Most of our knowledge of the effect of grazing on grassland structure is based on grazed-ungrazed contrasts. The effects of grazing in the most common scenario, where grazing intensity varies from low to high grazing intensity, are less known. The objectives of this paper were to (1) quantify the effect of stocking rates on species richness and diversity of grasslands world-wide, and (2) evaluate the response under different environmental and experimental conditions. We conducted a...

Data from: Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird

Marcel E. Visser, Phillip Gienapp, Arild Husby, Michael Morrisey, Iván De La Hera, Francisco Pulido & Christiaan Both
Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first...

Data from: Unexpected consequences of a drier world: evidence that delay in late summer rains biases the population sex ratio of an insect

Raul Bonal, Marisa Hernández, Josep Maria Espelta, Alberto Muñoz & José M. Aparicio
The complexity of animal life histories makes it difficult to predict the consequences of climate change on their populations. In this paper, we show, for the first time, that longer summer drought episodes, such as those predicted for the dry Mediterranean region under climate change, may bias insect population sex ratio. Many Mediterranean organisms, like the weevil Curculio elephas, become active again after summer drought. This insect depends on late summer rainfall to soften the...

Natural selection favours drought escape and an acquisitive resource-use strategy in semiarid Mediterranean shrubs

Mario Blanco-Sánchez, Marina Ramos-Muñoz, Beatriz Pías, Jose Alberto Ramirez-Valiente, Laura Díaz-Guerra, Adrián Escudero & Silvia Matesanz
1. Natural selection is the major force driving adaptive evolution in natural populations, varying in strength, direction, and form through space and time, especially in highly variable environments such as Mediterranean ecosystems. Although a conservative resource-use strategy has been hypothesized to be adaptive in Mediterranean taxa, patterns of selection at the intraspecific level, i.e., the suite of traits determining individual fitness, are largely unknown. 2. Using a phenotypic selection experiment in natural semiarid conditions, we...

MARIBNO Cruise, RV Sarmiento de Gamboa

Alfonso Muñoz &
Oceanographic data acquired during the MARIBNO Cruise (29SG20210914) on board the Research Vessel Sarmiento de Gamboa in 2021.

Data from: A phylogenetic study to assess the link between biome specialisation and diversification in swallowtail butterflies

Sara Gamboa, Fabien L. Condamine, Juan L. Cantalapiedra, Sara Varela, Jonathan Pelegrín, Iris Menéndez, Fernando Blanco & Manuel Hernández Fernández
The resource-use hypothesis, proposed by E.S. Vrba, states that habitat fragmentation caused by climatic oscillations would affect particularly biome specialists (species inhabiting only one biome), which might show higher speciation and extinction rates than biome generalists. If true, lineages would accumulate biome-specialist species. This effect would be particularly exacerbated for biomes located at the periphery of the global climatic conditions, namely, biomes that have high/low precipitation and high/low temperature such as rainforest (warm-humid), desert (warm-dry),...

Data from: Speciation below ground: tempo and mode of diversification in a radiation of endogean ground beetles

Carmelo Andújar, Sergio Pérez-González, Paula Arribas, Juan P. Zaballos, Alfried P. Vogler & Ignacio Ribera
Dispersal is a critical factor determining the spatial scale of speciation, which is constrained by the ecological characteristics and distribution of a species' habitat and the intrinsic traits of species. Endogean taxa are strongly affected by the unique qualities of the below-ground environment and its effect on dispersal, and contrasting reports indicate either high dispersal capabilities favoured by small body size and mediated by passive mechanisms, or low dispersal due to restricted movement and confinement...

Data from: Bees explain floral variation in a recent radiation of Linaria

José Luis Blanco-Pastor, Concepción Ornosa, Daniel Romero, Isabel Liberal, José M. Gómez & Pablo Vargas
The role of pollinators in floral divergence has long attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists. Although abundant studies have reported the effect of pollinators on flower shape variation and plant speciation, the influence of pollinators on plant species differentiation during rapid radiations and the specific consequences of shifts among similar pollinators are not well understood. Here, we evaluate the association between pollinators and floral morphology in a closely related and recently diversifying clade of Linaria...

Data from: New species of Franchia and Protozigzagiceras (Ammonoidea, Middle Jurassic): the phyletic origin of Zigzagiceratinae

Sixto R. Fernandez-Lopez & Giulio Pavia
Three genera and seven species belonging to the subfamily Zigzagiceratinae (family Perisphinctidae) are described from the Lower Bathonian of France and Saudi Arabia. Intraspecific dimorphism is recognized. A revision of the genus Franchia proposed by Sturani (1967), based on the syntypes and new specimens from south-east France, is presented. Franchia arkelli Sturani, Franchia subalpina sp. nov., Protozigzagiceras torrensi (Sturani), Protozigzagiceras tethycum sp. nov., Protozigzagiceras flexum sp. nov. and Protozigzagiceras densum sp. nov. are described from...

Data from: Breeding bird species diversity across gradients of land use from forest to agriculture in Europe

Matti J. Koivula, Dan E. Chamberlain, Robert J. Fuller, Stephen C. F. Palmer, Attila Bankovics, Fintan Bracken, Tom Bolger, Eduardo De Juana, Marc Montadert, Renato Neves, Rui Rufino, Angel Sallent, Luís Lopes Da Silva, Pedro J. Leitão, Manfred Steffen & Allan D. Watt
Loss, fragmentation and decreasing quality of habitats have been proposed as major threats to biodiversity world-wide, but relatively little is known about biodiversity responses to multiple pressures, particularly at very large spatial scales. We evaluated the relative contributions of four landscape variables (habitat cover, diversity, fragmentation and productivity) in determining different components of avian diversity across Europe. We sampled breeding birds in multiple 1-km2 landscapes, from high forest cover to intensive agricultural land, in eight...

Social norms and cultural diversity in the development of third-party punishment

Bailey House, Patricia Kanngiesser, H. Clark Barrett, Süheyla Yilmaz, Andrew Marcus Smith, Carla Sebastian-Enesco, Alejandro Erut & Joan Silk
Human cooperation is likely supported by our tendency to punish selfishness in others. Social norms play an important role in motivating third-party punishment, and also in explaining societal differences in prosocial behavior. However, there has been little work directly linking social norms to the development of third-party punishment across societies. In this study, we explored the impact of normative information on the development of third-party punishment in 603 children aged 4-14 years, across six diverse...

Data from: Combining correlative and mechanistic niche models with human activity data to elucidate the invasive potential of a sub-Antarctic insect

Luis Pertierra, Pedro Aragón, Miguel Olalla-Tarraga, Greta Vega, Grant Duffy, Pete Convey, Scott Hayward, Kevin Hughes & Jesamine Bartlett
Aim Correlative Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are subject to substantial spatio-temporal limitations when historical occurrence records of data-poor species provide incomplete and outdated information for niche modelling. Complementary mechanistic modelling techniques can, therefore, offer a valuable contribution to underpin more physiologically-informed predictions of biological invasions, the risk of which is often exacerbated by climate change. In this study we integrate physiological and human pressure data to address the uncertainties and limitations of correlative SDMs and...

The role of plant-pollinator interactions in structuring nectar microbial communities

Clara De Vega, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Rafael G. Albaladejo, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Marc-André Lachance, Steve D. Johnson & Carlos M. Herrera
1. Floral nectar harbours a diverse microbiome of yeasts and bacteria that depend predominantly on animal visitors for their dispersal. Since pollinators visit specific sets of flowers and carry their own unique microbiota, we hypothesize that plant species visited by the same set of pollinators may support non-random nectar microbial communities linked together by the type of pollinator. 2. Here we explore the importance of plant-pollinator interactions in the assembly of nectar microbiome and study...

Climate change and maladaptive wing shortening in a long-distance migratory bird

Carolina Remacha Sebastián, César Rodríguez, Javier De La Puente & Javier Pérez-Tris
Contemporary phenotypic trends associated with global change are widely documented, but whether such trends always denote trait optimization under changed conditions remains obscure. Natural selection has shaped the wings of long-distance migratory birds to minimize the costs of transport, and new optimal wing shapes could be promoted by migration patterns altered due to global change. Alternatively, wing shape could vary as a correlated response to selection on other traits favoured in a changing environment, eventually...

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