49 Works

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

Data from: Drivers of plant traits that allow survival in wetlands

Yingji Pan, Ellen Cieraad, Bev Clarkson, Tim Colmer, Ole Pedersen, Eric Visser, Laurentius A.C.J. Voesenek & Peter Van Bodegom
Plants have developed a suite of traits to survive the anaerobic and anoxic soil conditions in wetlands. Previous studies on wetland plant adaptive traits have focused mainly on physiological aspects under experimental conditions, or compared the trait expression of the local species pool. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of potential factors driving wetland plant adaptive traits under natural environmental conditions is still missing. In this study, we analysed three important wetland adaptive traits, i.e. root porosity,...

Data from: Genomic diversity of a nectar yeast clusters into metabolically, but not geographically, distinct lineages

Manpreet K. Dhami, Thomas Hartwig, Andrew D. Letten, Michael Banf & Tadashi Fukami
Both dispersal limitation and environmental sorting can affect genetic variation in populations, but their contribution remains unclear, particularly in microbes. We sought to determine the contribution of geographic distance (as a proxy for dispersal limitation) and phenotypic traits (as a proxy for environmental sorting), including morphology, metabolic ability, and interspecific competitiveness, to the genotypic diversity in a nectar yeast species, Metschnikowia reukaufii. To measure genotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes of 102 strains of M....

Data from: Divergent transcriptional responses to low temperature among populations of alpine and lowland species of New Zealand stick insects (Micrarchus)

Luke T. Dunning, Alice B. Dennis, Brent J. Sinclair, Richard D. Newcomb & Thomas R. Buckley
In widespread and genetically-structured populations, temperature variation may lead to among-population differentiation of thermal biology. The New Zealand stick insect genus Micrarchus contains four species that inhabit different thermal environments, two of which are geographically widespread. RNA-Seq and quantitative PCR were used to investigate the transcriptional responses to cold-shock among lowland and alpine species to identify cold-responsive transcripts that differ between the species, and to determine if there is intraspecific geographic variation in gene expression....

Data from: A conifer–angiosperm divergence in the growth vs shade tolerance trade-off underlies the dynamics of a New Zealand warm-temperate rain forest

Christopher H. Lusk, Murray A. Jorgensen & Peter J. Bellingham
1. A central tenet of forest ecology is that succession and regeneration dynamics are driven by an interspecific trade-off between juvenile growth rates in high light and shade tolerance. There is evidence, however, that a single trade-off axis may fail to explain the dynamics of mixed conifer-angiosperm rainforests in the southern hemisphere, especially in New Zealand. 2. We tested for growth vs shade tolerance trade-offs by measuring juvenile growth of five podocarps and five broadleaved...

Data from: Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Laurent Augusto, W. Troy Baisden, E. N. J. Brookshire, Michael D. Cramer, Niles J. Hasselquist, Erik A. Hobbie, Ansgar Kahmen, Keisuke Koba, J. Marty Kranabetter, Michelle C. Mack, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Jordan R. Mayor, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Anders Michelsen, Gabriela B. Nardoto, Rafael S. Oliveira, Steven S. Perakis, Pablo L. Peri, Carlos A. Quesada, Andreas Richter, Louis A. Schipper, Bryan A. Stevenson … & Bernd Zeller
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...

The National Soils Data Repository (NSDR)

Data from: A metatranscriptomic analysis of diseased social wasps (Vespula vulgaris) for pathogens, with an experimental infection of larvae and nests

Oliver Quinn, Monica A.M. Gruber, Robert L. Brown, James W. Baty, Mariana Bulgarella, Phil J. Lester, Monica A. M. Gruber & Philip J. Lester
Social wasps are a major pest in many countries around the world. Pathogens may influence wasp populations and could provide an option for population management via biological control. We investigated the pathology of nests of apparently healthy common wasps, Vespula vulgaris, with nests apparently suffering disease. First, next-generation sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis were used to examine pathogen presence. The transcriptome of healthy and diseased V. vulgaris showed 27 known microbial phylotypes. Four of these were...

Data from: Interspecies interference and monitoring duration affect detection rates in chew cards

Olivia R. Burge, Dave Kelly & Janet M. Wilmshurst
Pest monitoring methods should provide unbiased accurate estimates of pest densities and locations, while also minimizing time-in-field and costs. Recent pest mammal monitoring studies have found that chew cards are more effective than conventional mammal monitoring methods, but little experimental work has been done to determine optimal experimental duration or quantify the risks of saturation by one species biasing detections of other species. Here, we used chew cards in three sites within Awarua wetland (Southland,...

Data from: Breaking and remaking a seed and seed predator interaction in the introduced range of Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) in New Zealand

Quentin Paynter, Yvonne M. Buckley, Paul Peterson, Allan Hugh Gourlay & Simon V. Fowler
Introduced plants may initially experience enemy release but some of those interactions may be reinstated through biological control. These cases provide opportunities to explore the dynamics of broken and re-made consumer-resource interactions. The European shrub broom (Cytisus scoparius) was introduced to New Zealand without a specialist seed predator (Bruchidius villosus) until a biological control programme reinstated this interaction in 1988. Broom produces substantially larger seeds throughout its non-native range and there are differences in seedling...

Data from: Regime shifts in marine communities: a complex systems perspective on food web dynamics

Johanna Yletyinen, Örjan Bodin, Marie Nordström, Benjamin Weigel, Erik Bonsdorff & Thorsten Blenckner
Species composition and habitats are changing at unprecedented rates in the world’s oceans, potentially causing entire food webs to shift to structurally and functionally different regimes. Despite the severity of these regime shifts, elucidating the precise nature of their underlying processes has remained difficult. We address this challenge with a new analytic approach to detect and assess the relative strength of different driving processes in food webs. Our study draws on complexity theory, and integrates...

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Age-related reproductive performance of the Adélie Penguin, a long-lived seabird exhibiting similar outcomes regardless of individual life-history strategy

Peter Kappes, Katie Dugger, Amélie Lescroël, David Ainley, Grant Ballard, Kerry Barton, Philip Lyver & Peter Wilson
1. Age-related variation in reproductive performance in long-lived iteroparous vertebrate species is common, with performance being influenced by within-individual processes, such as improvement and senescence, in combination with among-individual processes, such as selective appearance and disappearance. Few studies of age-related reproductive performance have compared the role of these drivers within a metapopulation, subject to varying degrees of resource competition. 2. We accounted for within- and among-individuals changes among known-aged Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) during 17...

Diversity change in forest plots of Blue Mountains, Jamaica

William Godsoe, Peter Bellingham & Elena Moltchanova
Beta diversity describes the differences in species composition among communities. Changes in beta diversity over time are thought to be due to selection based on species’ niche characteristics. For example, theory predicts that selection that favours habitat specialists will increase beta diversity. In practice, ecologists struggle to predict how beta diversity changes. To remedy this problem, we propose a novel solution that formally measures selection’s effects on beta diversity. Using the Price equation, we show...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity of plant-soil feedbacks increases per capita reproductive biomass of species at an establishment disadvantage

Jean H. Burns, Angela J. Brandt, Jennifer E. Murphy, Angela M. Kaczowka & David J. Burke
Plant–soil feedbacks have been widely implicated as a driver of plant community diversity, and the coexistence prediction generated by a negative plant–soil feedback can be tested using the mutual invasibility criterion: if two populations are able to invade one another, this result is consistent with stable coexistence. We previously showed that two co-occurring Rumex species exhibit negative pairwise plant–soil feedbacks, predicting that plant–soil feedbacks could lead to their coexistence. However, whether plants are able to...

Data from: Glyphosate redirects wetland vegetation trajectory following willow invasion

Olivia R. Burge, Kerry A. Bodmin, Beverley R. Clarkson, Scott Bartlam, Corinne H. Watts & Chris C. Tanner
Aims: Aerially applied glyphosate is an economic tool to deal with large areas of invasive plants. However, there are few studies investigating non-target effects or rates of reinvasion, particularly over multi-year timeframes. The aims were to evaluate the effectiveness of aerial application of glyphosate for control of dense stands of the invasive grey willow Salix cinerea, and determine the vegetation trajectory over the subsequent two years. Location: Whangamarino Wetland, Waikato, New Zealand. Methods: A before-after...

Data from: Creating new evolutionary pathways through bio-invasion: the population genetics of brushtail possums in New Zealand

Stephen D. Sarre, Nicola Aitken, Aaron T. Adamack, Anna J. MacDonald, Bernd Gruber & Phil Cowan
Rapid increases in global trade and human movement have created novel mixtures of organisms bringing with them the potential to rapidly accelerate the evolution of new forms. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), introduced into New Zealand from Australia in the 19th Century, is one such species having been sourced from multiple populations in its native range. Here, we combine microsatellite DNA and GIS-based spatial data to show that T.vulpecula originating from at least two...

Data from: Analysis of the genome of the New Zealand giant collembolan (Holacanthella duospinosa) sheds light on hexapod evolution

Chen Wu, Melissa D. Jordan, Richard D. Newcomb, Neil J. Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K. Dearden, Elizabeth J. Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P. Gardner, Ross N. Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K. Tooman, Mark I. Stevens & Thomas R. Buckley
Background: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. Results: Our genome assembly was ~375...

Data from: Species radiation by niche shifts in New Zealand’s rockcresses (Pachycladon, Brassicaceae)

Simon Joly, Peter B. Hennan & Peter J. Lockhart
Adaptive radiations such as the Darwin finches in the Galapagos or the cichlid fishes from the Eastern African Great Lakes have been a constant source of inspiration for biologists and a stimulus for evolutionary thinking. A central concept behind adaptive radiation is that of evolution by niche shifts, or ecological speciation. Evidence for adaptive radiations generally requires a strong correlation between phenotypic traits and the environment. But adaptive traits are often cryptic, hence making this...

Data from: Concerted versus independent evolution and the search for multiple refugia: comparative phylogeography of four forest beetles

Katharine Ann Marske, Richard A. B. Leschen & Thomas R. Buckley
Phylogeographic structure and its underlying causes are not necessarily shared among community members, with important implications for using individual organisms as indicators for ecosystem evolution, such as the identification of forest refugia. We used mitochondrial DNA (COI), Bayesian coalescent ancestral state reconstruction (implemented in BEAST) and ecological niche models (ENMs) to construct geo-spatial histories for four co-distributed New Zealand forest beetles (Leiodidae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae, Zopheridae) to examine the extent to which they have tracked environmental...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide

Yuanzhi Li, Bill Shipley, Jodi N. Price, Vinícius De L. Dantas, Riin Tamme, Mark Westoby, Andrew Siefert, Brandon S. Schamp, Marko J. Spasojevic, Vincent Jung, Daniel C. Laughlin, Sarah J. Richardson, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Schöb, Antonio Gazol, Honor C. Prentice, Nicolas Gross, Jacob Overton, Marcus V. Cianciaruso, Frédérique Louault, Chiho Kamiyama, Tohru Nakashizuka, Kouki Hikosaka, Takehiro Sasaki, Masatoshi Katabuchi … & Marco A. Batalha
How the patterns of niche occupancy vary from species-poor to species-rich communities is a fundamental question in ecology that has a central bearing on the processes that drive patterns of biodiversity. As species richness increases, habitat filtering should constrain the expansion of total niche volume, while limiting similarity should restrict the degree of niche overlap between species. Here, by explicitly incorporating intraspecific trait variability, we investigate the relationship between functional niche occupancy and species richness...

A spatially explicit model to simulate the population dynamics of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)

Mandy C. Barron, Andrew M. Liebhold, John M. Kean, Brian Richardson & Eckehard G. Brockerhoff
Removal of host plants is a 'tool' that can be used for the eradication of invasive alien plant pests. We developed a spatially explicit agent-based population model to simulate the population dynamics of the European strain of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, based on Robinet et al. (2008 - Journal of Animal Ecology 77, 966–973. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01417.x). The model was coded in the R language (R Core Team, 2017) and is deposited in this Dryad record. A...

Supporting data from: The distribution of leaf form among indigenous woody angiosperms in New Zealand

Tammo Reichgelt & William Lee
New Zealand’s woody indigenous eudicot flora comprises a variety of leaf shapes and features and occupies environments extending from subtropical to cold temperate climates. We used a dataset of over 300,000 occurrences of 557 indigenous woody eudicot species to investigate patterns and trends in the occurrence of six leaf features (leaf pubescence, leaf margin teeth, leaf size, leaf apex and base shape, and leaf length to width ratio) along critical climate gradients. Major climate variables...

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