78 Works

Data from: Host-associated genomic differentiation in congeneric butterflies: now you see it, now you don’t

Alexander S. Mikheyev, Carolyn S. McBride, Ulrich G. Mueller, Camille Parmesan, Melanie R. Smee, Constanti Stefanescu, Brian Wee & Michael C. Singer
Ecotypic variation among populations may become associated with widespread genomic differentiation, but theory predicts that this should happen only under particular conditions of gene flow, selection and population size. In closely related species, we might expect the strength of host-associated genomic differentiation (HAD) to be correlated with the degree of phenotypic differentiation in host-adaptive traits. Using microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and controlling for isolation by distance between populations, we sought HAD...

Data from: Two new phragmotic ant species from Africa: morphology and next-generation sequencing solve a caste association problem in the genus Carebara Westwood

Georg Fischer, Frank L. Azorsa, Francisco Hita Garcia, Alexander S. Mikheyev, Evan P. Economo, Frank Azorsa, Alexander Mikheyev & Evan Economo
Phragmotic or “door head” ants have evolved independently in several ant genera across the world, but in Africa only one case has been documented until now. Carebara elmenteitae (Patrizi) is known from only a single phragmotic major worker collected from sifted leaf-litter near Lake Elmenteita in Kenya, but here the worker castes of two species collected from Kakamega Forest, a small rainforest in Western Kenya, are studied. Phragmotic major workers were previously identified as Carebara...

Data from: Smaller beaks for colder winters: Thermoregulation drives beak size evolution in Australasian songbirds

Nicholas R. Friedman, Lenka Harmáčková, Evan P. Economo & Vladimir Remes
Birds’ beaks play a key role in foraging, and most research on their size and shape has focused on this function. Recent findings suggest that beaks may also be important for thermoregulation, and this may drive morphological evolution as predicted by Allen's rule. However, the role of thermoregulation in the evolution of beak size across species remains largely unexplored. In particular, it remains unclear whether the need for retaining heat in the winter or dissipating...

Data from: A test of trophic and functional island biogeography theory with the avifauna of a continental archipelago

Samuel R. P-J. Ross, Nicholas R. Friedman, Julia Janicki & Evan P. Economo
1. The classical MacArthur-Wilson theory of island biogeography (TIB) emphasizes the role of island area and isolation in determining island biotas, but is neutral with respect to species differences that could affect community assembly and persistence. Recent extensions of island biogeography theory address how functional differences among species may lead to non-random community assembly processes and different diversity-area scaling patterns. First, the trophic TIB considers how diversity scaling varies across trophic position in a community,...

Data from: Macroecology and macroevolution of the latitudinal diversity gradient in ants

Evan P. Economo, Nitish Narula, Nicholas R. Friedman, Michael D. Weiser & Benoit Guénard
The latitudinal diversity gradient—the tendency for more species to occur toward the equator—is the dominant pattern of life on Earth, yet the mechanisms responsible for it remain largely unexplained. Recently, the analysis of global data has led to advances in understanding, but these advances have been mostly limited to vertebrates and trees and have not provided consensus answers. Here, we synthesize large-scale geographic, phylogenetic, and fossil data for an exemplar invertebrate group—ants—and investigate whether the...

Data from: Evolution of the latitudinal gradient in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole

Evan P. Economo, Jen-Pan Huang, Georg Fischer, Eli M. Sarnat, Nitish Narula, Milan Janda, Benoit Guénard, John T. Longino & L. Lacey Knowles
Aim: The latitudinal diversity gradient is the dominant pattern of life on Earth, but a consensus understanding of its origins has remained elusive. The analysis of recently diverged, hyper-rich invertebrate groups provides an opportunity to investigate latitudinal patterns with the statistical power of large trees while minimizing potentially confounding variation in ecology and history. Here, we synthesize global phylogenetic and macroecological data on a hyperdiverse (>1100 species) ant radiation, Pheidole, and test predictions of three...

Data from: Colonize, radiate, decline: unraveling the dynamics of island community assembly with Fijian trap-jaw ants

Cong Liu, Eli M. Sarnat, Nicholas R. Friedman, Francisco Hita Garcia, Clive Darwell, Douglas Booher, Yasuhiro Kubota, Alexander Mikheyev & Evan P. Economo
The study of island community assembly has been fertile ground for developing and testing theoretical ideas in ecology and evolution. The eco-evolutionary trajectory of lineages after colonization has been a particular interest, as this is a key component of understanding community assembly. In this system, existing ideas such as the taxon cycle posit that lineages pass through a regular sequence of eco-evolutionary changes after colonization, with lineages shifting toward reduced dispersal ability, increased ecological specialization,...

Genome-wide SNP genotyping reveals hidden population structure of an acroporid species at a subtropical coral island: Implications for coral restoration

Yuna Zayasu, Takeshi Takeuchi, Tomofumi Nagata, Megumi Kanai, Manabu Fujie, Mayumi Kawamitsu, Chuya Shinzato, Noriyuki Satoh, Wakana Chinen, Chuya Shinzato & Noriyuki Satoh
It is essential to consider genetic composition for both conventional coral restoration management and for expanding new interventions to counter the significant global decline in living corals. Population genetic structure at fine spatial scale should be carefully evaluated before implementing strategies to achieve self-sustaining ecosystems via coral restoration. Here, we investigated the population genetic structure of two acroporid species at Kume Island, Okinawa, Japan. 140 colonies of Acropora digitifera from 7 study sites, and 81...

Breaking a species barrier by enabling hybrid recombination

G. Ozan Bozdag, Jasmine Ono, Jai A. Denton, Emre Karakoc, Neil Hunter, Jun-Yi Leu & Duncan Greig
Hybrid sterility maintains reproductive isolation between species by preventing them from exchanging genetic material. Anti-recombination can contribute to hybrid sterility when different species’ chromosome sequences are too diverged to cross-over efficiently during hybrid meiosis, resulting in chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy. The genome sequences of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus have diverged by about 12% and their hybrids are sexually sterile: nearly all of their gametes are aneuploid and inviable. Previous methods to increase...

Electrocharging face masks with corona discharge treatment

Mahesh Bandi, Noriko Ishizu, Hyung-Been Kang, M. M. Bandi, N. Ishizu & H.-B. Kang
We detail an experimental method to electrocharge N95 facepiece respirators and face masks (FMs) made from a variety of fabrics (including non-woven polymer and knitted cloth) using corona discharge treatment (CDT). We present practical designs to construct a CDT system from commonly available parts and detail calibrations performed on different fabrics to study their electrocharging characteristics. After confirming the post-CDT structural integrity of fabrics, measurements showed that all non-woven polymer electret and only some knitted...

Mesozoic origin and out-of-India radiation of ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae)

Kazunori Yamahira, Satoshi Ansai, Ryo Kakioka, Hajime Yaguchi, Takeshi Kon, Hirozumi Kobayashi, Javier Montenegro, Shingo Fujimoto, Ryosuke Kimura, Yusuke Takehana, Davin Setiamarga, Yasuoki Takami, Rieko Tanaka, Ken Maeda, Hau Tran, Noriyuki Koizumi, Shinsuke Morioka, Vongvichith Bounsong, Katsutoshi Watanabe, Prachya Musikasinthorn, Sein Tun, L. K. C Yun, Kawilarang Masengi, VK Anoop, Rajeev Raghavan … & Jun Kitano
The Indian subcontinent has an origin geologically different from Eurasia, but many terrestrial animal and plant species on it have congeneric or sister species in other parts of Asia, especially in the Southeast. This faunal and floral similarity between India and Southeast Asia is explained by either of the two biogeographic scenarios, ‘into-India’ or ‘out-of-India.’ Phylogenies based on complete mitochondrial genome and five nuclear genes were undertaken for ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae) to examine which of these...

The impact of estimator choice: Disagreement in clustering solutions across K estimators for Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure across a wide range of empirical datasets

Kathryn Stankiewicz, Kate Vasquez Kuntz, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Didier Aurelle, Joaquim Garrabou, Yuichi Nakajima, Mikael Dahl, Yuna Zayasu, Sabri Jaziri, Federica Costantini & Iliana Baums
The software program STRUCTURE is one of the most cited tools for determining population structure. To infer the optimal number of clusters from STRUCTURE output, the ΔK method is often applied. However, a recent study relying on simulated microsatellite data suggested that this method has a downward bias in its estimation of K and is sensitive to uneven sampling. If this finding holds for empirical datasets, conclusions about the scale of gene flow may have...

The interplay of fungal and bacterial microbiomes on rainforest frogs following a disease outbreak

Donald McKnight, Roger Huerlimann, Deborah Bower, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ross Alford & Kyall Zenger
Emerging infectious diseases are a serious threat to wildlife populations, and there is growing evidence that host microbiomes play important roles in infection dynamics, possibly even mitigating diseases. Nevertheless, most research on this topic has focused only on bacterial microbiomes, while fungal microbiomes have been largely neglected. To help fill this gap in our knowledge, we examined both the bacterial and fungal microbiomes of four sympatric Australian frog species which had different population-level responses to...

Data from: Revision and microtomography of the Pheidole knowlesi group, an endemic ant radiation in Fiji (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)Myrmicinae)

Georg Fischer, Eli M. Sarnat & Evan P. Economo
The Fijian islands, a remote archipelago in the southwestern Pacific, are home to a number of spectacular endemic radiations of plants and animals. Unlike most Pacific archipelagos, these evolutionary radiations extend to social insects, including ants. One of the most dramatic examples of ant radiation in Fiji has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole. Most of the 17 native Fijian Pheidole belong to one of two species groups that descended from a single colonization, yet...

Data from: Time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of pteropods

Alice K. Burridge, Christine Hörnlein, Arie W. Janssen, Martin Hughes, Stephanie L. Bush, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Rebeca Gasca, Annelies C. Pierrot-Bults, Ellinor Michel, Jonathan A. Todd, Jeremy R. Young, Karen J. Osborn, Steph B.J. Menken, Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg & Steph B. J. Menken
Pteropods are a widespread group of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs and are uniquely suitable for study of long-term evolutionary processes in the open ocean because they are the only living metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. Pteropods have been proposed as bioindicators to monitor the impacts of ocean acidification and in consequence have attracted considerable research interest, however, a robust evolutionary framework for the group is still lacking. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and...

Data from: Pollination along an elevational gradient mediated both by floral scent and pollinator compatibility in the fig and fig‐wasp mutualism

Daniel Souto-Vilarós, Magali Proffit, Bruno Buatois, Michal Rindos, Mentap Sisol, Thomas Kuyaiva, Jan Michalek, Clive T. Darwell, Martine Hossaert-Mckey, George D. Weiblen, Vojtech Novotny, Simon T. Segar & Brus Isua
In the fig (Moraceae) and fig‐wasp (Agaonidae) mutualism, scent is believed to be of primary importance in pollinator attraction and maintenance of species specificity. Scent divergence between closely related Ficus species seems sufficient in promoting reproductive isolation through pollinator behaviour, starting the process of speciation. We investigated volatile organic compound (VOC) variation from figs in several Ficus species endemic to Papua New Guinea. Sister species of section Papuacyse and subspecies of Ficus trichocerasa substitute each...

Genomic and phenomic analysis of island ant community assembly

Clive Darwell, Georg Fischer, Eli Sarnat, Nicholas Friedman, Cong Liu, Guilherme Baiao, Alexander Mikheyev & Evan Economo
Island biodiversity has long fascinated biologists as it typically presents tractable systems for unpicking the eco-evolutionary processes driving community assembly. In general, two recurring themes are of central theoretical interest. First, immigration, diversification, and extinction typically depend on island geographical properties (e.g. area, isolation, and age). Second, predictable ecological and evolutionary trajectories readily occur after colonization, such as the evolution of adaptive trait syndromes, trends toward specialization, adaptive radiation, and eventual ecological decline. Hypotheses such...

Modern termites inherited the potential of collective construction from their common ancestor

Nobuaki Mizumoto & Thomas Bourguignon
Animal collective behaviors give rise to various spatial patterns, such as the nests of social insects. These structures are built by individuals following a simple set of rules, slightly varying within and among species, to produce a large diversity of shapes. However, little is known about the origin and evolution of the behavioral mechanisms regulating nest structures. In this study, we discuss the perspective of inferring the evolution of collective behaviors behind pattern formations using...

Data from: Macroevolutionary integration of phenotypes within and across ant worker castes

Nicholas R. Friedman, Beatrice Bennet, Georg Fischer, Eli Sarnat, Jen-Pan Huang, Lacey Knowles & Evan Economo
Phenotypic traits are often integrated into evolutionary modules: sets of organismal parts that evolve together. In social insect colonies the concepts of integration and modularity apply to sets of traits both within and among functionally and phenotypically differentiated castes. On macroevolutionary timescales, patterns of integration and modularity within and across castes can be clues to the selective and ecological factors shaping their evolution and diversification. We develop a set of hypotheses describing contrasting patterns of...

Rapid multi-generational acclimation of coralline algal reproductive structures to ocean acidification

Billy Moore, Steeve Comeau, Matthieu Bekaert, Amelie Cossias, Ashley Purdy, Ellis Larcombe, Frankie Puerzer, Malcolm McCulloch & Christopher Cornwall
The future of coral reef ecosystems is under threat because vital reef-accreting species such as coralline algae are highly susceptible to ocean acidification. Although ocean acidification is known to reduce coralline algal growth rates, its direct effects on the development of coralline algal reproductive structures (conceptacles) is largely unknown. Furthermore, the long-term, multi-generational response of coralline algae to ocean acidification is extremely understudied. Here, we investigate how mean pH, pH variability and the pH regime...

Intraspecific genetic variation matters when predicting seagrass distribution under climate change

Zi-Min Hu, Quan-Sheng Zhang, Jie Zhang, Kass Jamie, Mammola Stefano, Fresia Pablo, Draisma Stefano, Assis Jorge, Jueterbock Alexander, Yokota Masashi & Zhixin Zhang
Seagrasses play a vital role in structuring coastal marine ecosystems, but their distributional range and genetic diversity have declined rapidly over the past decades. In order to improve conservation of seagrass species, it is important to predict how climate change may impact their ranges. Such predictions are typically made with correlative species distribution models (SDMs), which can estimate a species’ potential distribution under present and future climatic scenarios given species’ presence data and climatic predictor...

Lineage-level distribution models lead to more realistic climate change predictions for a threatened crayfish

Zhixin Zhang, Jamie Kass, Stefano Mammola, Itsuro Koizumi, Xuecao Li, Kazunori Tanaka, Kousuke Ikeda, Toru Suzuki, Masashi Yokota & Nisikawa Usio
Aim: As climate change presents a major threat to biodiversity in the next decades, it is critical to assess its impact on species habitat suitability to inform biodiversity conservation. Species distribution models (SDMs) are a widely used tool to assess climate change impacts on species’ geographical distributions. As the term suggests, the species-level is the most commonly used taxonomic unit in SDMs. However, recently it has been demonstrated that SDMs considering taxonomic resolution below (or...

Simultaneous two-photon voltage or calcium imaging and multi-channel LFP recordings in barrel cortex of awake and anesthetized mice

Claudia Cecchetto, Stefano Vassanelli & Bernd Kuhn
Neuronal population activity, both spontaneous and sensory-evoked, generates propagating waves in cortex. However, high spatiotemporal-resolution mapping of these waves is difficult as calcium imaging, the work horse of current imaging, does not reveal subthreshold activity. Here, we present a platform combining voltage or calcium two-photon imaging with multi-channel local field potential (LFP) recordings in different layers of the barrel cortex from anesthetized and awake head-restrained mice. A chronic cranial window with access port allows injecting...

Molecular phylogeny reveals the past transoceanic voyages of drywood termites (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae)

Aleš Buček, Simon Hellemans & Thomas Bourguignon
Termites are major decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems and the second most diverse lineage of social insects. The Kalotermitidae form the second-largest termite family and are distributed across tropical and subtropical ecosystems, where they typically live in small colonies confined to single wood items inhabited by individuals with no foraging abilities. How the Kalotermitidae have acquired their global distribution patterns remains unresolved. Similarly, it is unclear whether foraging is ancestral to Kalotermitidae or was secondarily acquired...

Data from: Rapid microsatellite isolation from a butterfly by de novo transcriptome sequencing: performance and a comparison with AFLP-derived distances

Alexander S. Mikheyev, Tanya Vo, Brian Wee, Michael C. Singer & Camille Parmesan
BACKGROUND: The isolation of microsatellite markers remains laborious and expensive. For some taxa, such as Lepidoptera, development of microsatellite markers has been particularly difficult, as many markers appear to be located in repetitive DNA and have nearly identical flanking regions. We attempted to circumvent this problem by bioinformatic mining of microsatellite sequences from a de novo-sequenced transcriptome of a butterfly (Euphydryas editha). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By searching the assembled sequence data for perfect microsatellite repeats we...

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