15 Works

The interplay of fungal and bacterial microbiomes on rainforest frogs following a disease outbreak

Donald McKnight, Roger Huerlimann, Deborah Bower, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ross Alford & Kyall Zenger
Emerging infectious diseases are a serious threat to wildlife populations, and there is growing evidence that host microbiomes play important roles in infection dynamics, possibly even mitigating diseases. Nevertheless, most research on this topic has focused only on bacterial microbiomes, while fungal microbiomes have been largely neglected. To help fill this gap in our knowledge, we examined both the bacterial and fungal microbiomes of four sympatric Australian frog species which had different population-level responses to...

Molecular phylogeny reveals the past transoceanic voyages of drywood termites (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae)

Aleš Buček, Simon Hellemans & Thomas Bourguignon
Termites are major decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems and the second most diverse lineage of social insects. The Kalotermitidae form the second-largest termite family and are distributed across tropical and subtropical ecosystems, where they typically live in small colonies confined to single wood items inhabited by individuals with no foraging abilities. How the Kalotermitidae have acquired their global distribution patterns remains unresolved. Similarly, it is unclear whether foraging is ancestral to Kalotermitidae or was secondarily acquired...

Ca2+ activity maps of astrocytes tagged by axo-astrocytic AAV transfer

Leonidas Georgiou, Anaí Echeverría, Achilleas Georgiou & Bernd Kuhn
Astrocytes exhibit localized Ca2+ microdomain (MD) activity thought to be actively involved in information processing in the brain. However, functional organization of Ca2+ MDs in space and time in relationship to behavior and neuronal activity is poorly understood. Here, we first show that Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) particles transfer anterogradely from axons to astrocytes. Then we use this axo-astrocytic AAV transfer to express genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators at high contrast circuit-specifically. In combination with two-photon microscopy...

Data from: Using ultraconserved elements to reconstruct the termite tree of life

Simon Hellemans, Menglin Wang, Nonno Hasegawa, Jan Šobotník, Rudolf H. Scheffrahn & Thomas Bourguignon
The phylogenetic history of termites has been investigated using mitochondrial genomes and transcriptomes. However, both sets of markers have specific limitations. Mitochondrial genomes represent a single genetic marker likely to yield phylogenetic trees presenting incongruences with species trees, and transcriptomes can only be obtained from well-preserved samples. In contrast, ultraconserved elements (UCEs) include a great many independent markers that can be retrieved from poorly preserved samples. Here, we designed termite-specific baits targeting 50,616 UCE loci....

The skeletomuscular system of the mesosoma of Formica rufa workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Lazzat Aibekova, Brendon Boudinot, Rolf Beutel, Adrian Richter, Roberto Keller, Francisco Hita Garcia & Evan Economo
The mesosoma is the power core of the ant, containing critical structural and muscular elements for the movement of the head, legs, and metasoma. It has been hypothesized that adaptation to ground locomotion and the loss of flight led to the substantial rearrangements in the mesosoma in worker ants, and that it is likely the ant mesosoma has undergone functional modifications as ants diversified into different ecological and behavioral niches. Despite this importance, studies on...

A roadmap to reconstructing muscle architecture from CT data

Julian Katzke, Pavel Puchenkov, Evan P. Economo & Heiko Stark
Skeletal muscle is responsible for voluntary force generation across animals, and muscle architecture largely determines the parameters of mechanical output. The ability to analyze muscle performance through muscle architecture is thus a key step towards better understanding the ecology and evolution of movements and morphologies. In pennate skeletal muscle, volume, fiber lengths and attachment angles to force transmitting structures comprise the most relevant parameters of muscle architecture. Measuring these features through tomographic techniques offers an...

3D Cybertype datasets for: Pheidole klaman sp. N.: A new addition from Ivory Coast to the Afrotropical pulchella species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)

Francisco Hita Garcia, Julian Katzke & Evan P. Economo
In this study we update the taxonomy of the Pheidole pulchella species group for the Afrotropical region and we describe the new species P. klaman sp. nov. We integrate the new species into the existing taxonomic system by providing an updated identification key for the whole group and updating the known distribution ranges of its members. We provide high quality focus stacking images, along with X–ray micro–CT scanned digital 3D representations, of major and minor...

A large-scale assessment of ant diversity across the Brazilian Amazon Basin: integrating geographic, ecological, and morphological drivers of sampling bias

Joudellys Andrade-Silva, Fabricio Baccaro, Lívia Prado, Benoit Guenard, Dan Warren, Jamie Kass, Evan Economo & Rogerio Silva
Tropical ecosystems are often biodiversity hotspots, and invertebrates represent the main underrepresented component of diversity in large-scale analyses. This problem is partly related to the scarcity of data widely available to conduct these studies and the lack of systematic organization of knowledge about invertebrates’ distributions in biodiversity hotspots. Here, we introduce and analyze a comprehensive data compilation of Amazonian ant diversity. Using records from 1817 to 2020 from both published and unpublished sources, we describe...

Richness and resilience in the Pacific: DNA metabarcoding enables parallelized evaluation of biogeographic patterns

Susan Kennedy, Jerilyn Calaor, Yazmín Zurápiti, Julian Hans, Masashi Yoshimura, Juanita Choo, Jeremy Andersen, Jackson Callaghan, George Roderick, Henrik Krehenwinkel, Haldre Rogers, Rosemary Gillespie & Evan Economo
Islands make up a large proportion of Earth’s biodiversity, yet are also some of the most sensitive systems to environmental perturbation. Biogeographic theory predicts that geologic age, area, and isolation typically drive islands’ diversity patterns, and thus potentially impact non-native spread and community homogenization across island systems. One limitation in testing such predictions has been the difficulty of performing comprehensive inventories of island biotas and distinguishing native from introduced taxa. Here, we use DNA metabarcoding...

Diversification of the orchid genus Tridactyle: origin of endemism on the oceanic islands of São Tomé & Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea

Tania D'haijere, Esra Kaymak, Arthur Boom, Olivier Hardy, Tariq Stévart & Patrick Mardulyn
Aim: Oceanic islands have played an important role in our understanding of the diversification of organisms, and phylogenetic estimates have been used in this context to investigate the origin of island diversity and its relationship to the continent. Using a typical orchid genus rich in island endemics and with widespread continental relatives, we aim to compare alternative hypotheses of diversification with a focus on island endemism. Location: Tropical Africa and the Gulf of Guinea Islands...

The effects of light intensity and flow speed on biogeochemical variability within a fringing coral reef in Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan

Max Rintoul, Travis Courtney, Julia Dohner, Sarah Giddings, Samuel Kekuewa, Stephen Monismith, Ariel Pezner, Andreas Andersson & Satoshi Mitarai
Global warming and ocean acidification are driving gradual declines in seawater dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH. Predicting how these changes will affect shallow, near-shore environments including coral reefs is challenging due to high natural variability on both spatial (10 m to km) and temporal (diel to seasonal) scales. To make predictions, it is first necessary to identify and quantify the drivers of this natural variability. While significant efforts have been devoted to characterising the influence...

Data from: Periodic environmental disturbance drives repeated ecomorphological diversification in an adaptive radiation of Antarctic fishes

Elyse Parker, Katerina L. Zapfe, Jagriti Yadav, Bruno Frédérich, Christopher D. Jones, Evan P. Economo, Sarah Federman, Thomas J. Near & Alex Dornburg
The ecological theory of adaptive radiation has profoundly shaped our conceptualization of the rules that govern diversification. However, while many radiations follow classic early burst patterns of diversification as they fill ecological space, the longer-term fates of these radiations depend on many factors, such as climatic stability. In systems with periodic disturbances, species-rich clades can contain nested adaptive radiations of subclades with their own distinct diversification histories, and how adaptive radiation theory applies in these...

Termite dispersal is influenced by their diet

Simon Hellemans, Jan Šobotník, Gilles Lepoint, Martin Mihaljevič, Yves Roisin & Thomas Bourguignon
Termites feed on vegetal matter at various stages of decomposition. Lineages of wood- and soil-feeding termites are distributed across terrestrial ecosystems located between 45°N and 45°S of latitude, a distribution they acquired through many transoceanic dispersal events. While wood-feeding termites often live in the wood on which they feed and are efficient at dispersing across oceans by rafting, soil-feeders are believed to be poor dispersers. Therefore, their distribution across multiple continents requires an explanation. Here,...

Data for: Termite nest evolution fostered social parasitism by termitophilous rove beetles

Nobuaki Mizumoto, Thomas Bourguignon & Taisuke Kanao
Colonies of social insects contain large amounts of resources often exploited by specialized social parasites. While some termite species host numerous parasitic arthropod species, called termitophiles, others host none. The reason for this large variability remains unknown. Here we report that the evolution of termitophily in rove beetles is linked to termite nesting strategies. We compared one-piece nesters, whose entire colony life is completed within a single wood piece, to foraging species, which exploit multiple...

The global distribution of known and undiscovered ant biodiversity

Jamie Kass, Benoit Guénard, Kenneth Dudley, Clinton Jenkins, Fumika Azuma, Brian Fisher, Catherine Parr, Heloise Gibb, John Longino, Philip Ward, Anne Chao, David Lubertazzi, Michael Weiser, Walter Jetz, Robert Guralnick, Rumsaïs Blatrix, James Des Lauriers, David Donoso, Christos Georgiadis, Kiko Gomez, Peter Hawkes, Robert Johnson, John Lattke, Joe MacGown, William Mackay … & Evan Economo
Invertebrates constitute the majority of animal species and are critical for ecosystem functioning and services. Nonetheless, global invertebrate biodiversity patterns and their congruences with vertebrates remain largely unknown. We resolve the first high-resolution (~20-km) global diversity map for a major invertebrate clade, ants, using biodiversity informatics, range modeling, and machine learning to synthesize existing knowledge and predict the distribution of undiscovered diversity. We find that ants and different vertebrate groups have distinct features in their...

Registration Year

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  • Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
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