90 Works

Data from: High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins

Kyle H. Elliott, Robert E. Ricklefs, Anthony J. Gaston, Scott A. Hatch, John R. Speakman & Gail K. Davoren
Flight is a key adaptive trait. Despite its advantages, flight has been lost in several groups of birds, notably among seabirds, where flightlessness has evolved independently in at least five lineages. One hypothesis for the loss of flight among seabirds is that animals moving between different media face tradeoffs between maximizing function in one medium relative to the other. In particular, biomechanical models of energy costs during flying and diving suggest that a wing designed...

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of Eumorpha (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and the evolution of anti-predator larval eyespots

Francesca V. Ponce, Jesse W. Breinholt, Thomas Hossie, Jesse R. Barber, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs & Akito Y. Kawahara
Many insects possess conspicuous external circular ring markings that resemble the eye of a vertebrate. These ‘eyespots’ typically function to startle or otherwise deter predators, but few studies have examined how eyespots have evolved. We study the evolution of the posterior larval eyespot in the charismatic New World hawkmoth genus Eumorpha. While Eumorpha has a range of posterior larval eyespot shapes and sizes, little is known of how this trait has evolved because phylogenetic relationships...

Organic farming benefits birds most in regions with more intensive agriculture

David Anthony Kirk, Amanda Martin & Kathryn Freemark Lindsay
1. Organic farming is considered beneficial for biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes but the role of agricultural land use intensity (‘agricultural intensity’), particularly at regional scales, has often been neglected. 2. We used breeding season bird abundance estimates from paired organic-conventional fields in Saskatchewan (31 pairs), Ontario (36), and Québec (15), Canada to test two alternative predictions: That the positive effect of organic farming on bird abundance was; a) smaller when controlling for overall effects...

Data from: Is repeatability of metabolic rate influenced by social separation? a test with a teleost fish

Huang Yan, Shijian Fu, Steven Cooke & Jigang Xia
Metabolic rates are typically thought to have important influences on fitness and more broadly be relevant to the ecology and evolution of animals. Previous studies demonstrate that metabolic rates are repeatable to a certain extent under constant conditions, but how social conditions influence the repeatability of metabolic rate remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the repeatability of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the highly-social crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after being socially separated for...

Data from: Delusions of grandeur: seed count is not a good fitness proxy under individual variation in phenology

Lina Wen & Andrew Simons
The concept of fitness is central to evolutionary biology, yet it is difficult to define and to measure. In plant biology, fitness is often measured as seed count. However, under an array of circumstances, seed count may be a biased proxy of fitness; for example, when individuals vary in allocation to sexual vs. asexual reproduction. A more subtle example, but also likely to be important in natural populations, is when interindividual variation in conditions during...

Direct mapping of curve-crossing dynamics in IBr by attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

Yuki Kobayashi, Kristina Chang, Tao Zeng, Daniel Neumark & Stephen Leone
Herein is the experimental data set for the publication titled "Direct mapping of curve-crossing dynamics in IBr by attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy." The abstract of the paper is as follows: The electronic character of photoexcited molecules can abruptly change at avoided crossings and conical intersections. Here, we report direct mapping of the coupled interplay between electrons and nuclei in a prototype molecule, iodine monobromide (IBr), using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A few-femtosecond visible pulse resonantly...

The influence of a priori grouping on inference of genetic clusters: simulation study and literature review of the DAPC method

Joshua Miller, Catherine Cullingham & Rhiannon Peery
Inference of genetic clusters is a key aim of population genetics, sparking development of numerous analytical methods. Within these, there is a conceptual divide between finding de novo structure versus assessment of a priori groups. Recently developed, Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), combines discriminant analysis (DA) with principal component (PC) analysis. When applying DAPC, the groups used in the DA (specified a priori or described de novo) need to be carefully assessed. While DAPC...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in norms of reaction of phenology in the greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza

Harry Hitsman & Andrew Simons
Variable environments may result in the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity when cues reliably indicate an appropriate phenotype-environment match. Although adaptive plasticity is well established for phenological traits expressed across environments, local differentiation in norms of reaction is less well studied. The switch from the production of regular fronds to overwintering “turions” in the greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza is vital to fitness and is expressed as a norm of reaction induced by falling temperatures associated...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

A new model of forelimb ecomorphology for predicting the ancient habitats of fossil turtles

Thomas Dudgeon, Marissa Livius, Noel Alfonso, Stéphanie Tessier & Jordan Mallon
Various morphological proxies have been used to infer habitat preferences among fossil turtles and their early ancestors, but most are tightly linked to phylogeny, thereby minimizing their predictive power. One particularly widely used model incorporates linear measurements of the forelimb (humerus + ulna + manus) but, in addition to the issue of phylogenetic correlation, it does not estimate the likelihood of habitat assignment. Here, we introduce a new model that uses intramanual measurements (digit III...

Autumn larval cold tolerance does not predict the northern range limit of a widespread butterfly species

Heather Kharouba, Philippe Tremblay, Heath MacMillan & Heather Kharouba
Climate change is driving range shifts, and a lack of cold tolerance is hypothesized to constrain insect range expansion at poleward latitudes. However, few, if any, studies have tested this hypothesis during autumn when organisms are subjected to sporadic low temperature exposure but may not have become cold tolerant yet. In this study, we integrated organismal thermal tolerance measures into species distribution models for larvae of the Giant Swallowtail butterfly, Papilio cresphontes, living at the...

Data from: Grouping substitution types into different relaxed molecular clocks

Hui-Jie Lee, Hirohisa Kishino, Nicolas Rodrigue & Jeffrey L. Thorne
Different types of nucleotide substitutions experience different patterns of rate change over time. We propose clustering context-dependent (or context-independent) nucleotide substitution types according to how their rates change and then using the grouping for divergence time estimation. With our models, relative rates among types that are in the same group are fixed, whereas absolute rates of the types within a group change over time according to a shared relaxed molecular clock. We illustrate our procedure...

Data from: Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity loss

Joseph R. Bennett, Richard F. Maloney, Tammy E. Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P. Possingham & Phillip J. Seddon
There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and...

Data from: Demasculinization of male guppies increases resistance to a common and harmful ectoparasite

Felipe Dargent, Adam R. Reddon, William T. Swaney, Gregor F. Fussmann, Simon M. Reader, Marilyn E. Scott & Mark R. Forbes
Parasites are detrimental to host fitness and therefore should strongly select for host defence mechanisms. Yet, hosts vary considerably in their observed parasite loads. One notable source of inter-individual variation in parasitism is host sex. Such variation could be caused by the immunomodulatory effects of gonadal steroids. Here we assess the influence of gonadal steroids on the ability of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to defend themselves against a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli). Adult male...

Data from: Delaying conservation actions matters for species vulnerable to climate change

Ilona Naujokaitis-Lewis, Lars Y. Pomara & Benjamin Zuckerberg
1. Most climate change adaptation efforts emphasize where to implement management actions, whereas timing remains largely overlooked. The rate of modern climate change introduces urgency in evaluating whether delaying conservation actions compromises their efficacy for reaching important conservation targets. 2. We evaluated the importance of multiple climate change adaptation strategies including timing of actions on preventing extinctions for a threatened climate-sensitive species, the Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus). We parameterised a range-wide population viability analysis...

Data from: Bark beetles use a spring-loaded mechanism to produce variable song patterns

Amanda A Lindeman & Jayne E Yack
Many insects vary their song patterns to communicate different messages, but the underlying biomechanisms are often poorly understood. Here we report on the mechanics of sound production and variation in an elytro-tergal stridulator, male Dendroctonus valens bark beetles. Using ablation experiments coupled with high-speed video and audio recordings, we show that (1) chirps are produced using a stridulatory file on the left elytron (forewing) and a protrusion (plectrum) on the seventh abdominal segment, (2) chirps...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Microsatellite evidence for obligate autogamy, but abundant genetic variation in the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata (Campanulaceae)

P. William Hughes & Andrew M. Simons
Although high levels of self-fertilization (>85%) are not uncommon in nature, organisms reproducing entirely through selfing are extremely rare. Predominant selfers are expected to have low genetic diversity because genetic variation is distributed among rather than within lineages, and is readily lost through genetic drift. We examined genetic diversity at 22 microsatellite loci in 105 individuals from a population of the semelparous herb Lobelia inflata L., and found (1) no evidence of heterozygosity through outcrossing,...

Data from: Lesser snow goose helminths show recurring and positive parasite infection-diversity relations

Felipe Dargent, André Morrill, Ray T. Alisauskas, J. Daniel McLaughlin, Dave Shutler & Mark R. Forbes
The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow...

Data from: Feather corticosterone reveals effect of moulting conditions in the autumn on subsequent reproductive output and survival in an Arctic migratory bird

N. Jane Harms, Pierre Legagneux, H. Grant Gilchrist, Joël Bêty, Oliver P. Love, Mark R. Forbes, Gary R. Bortolotti & Catherine Soos
For birds, unpredictable environments during the energetically stressful times of moulting and breeding are expected to have negative fitness effects. Detecting those effects however, might be difficult if individuals modulate their physiology and/or behaviours in ways to minimize short-term fitness costs. Corticosterone in feathers (CORTf) is thought to provide information on total baseline and stress-induced CORT levels at moulting and is an integrated measure of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal activity during the time feathers are grown. We predicted...

Data from: Phenotype-limited distributions: short-billed birds move away during times that prey bury deeply

Sjoerd Duijns, Jan A. Van Gils, Jennifer Smart & Theunis Piersma
In our seasonal world, animals face a variety of environmental conditions in the course of the year. To cope with such seasonality, animals may be phenotypically flexible, but some phenotypic traits are fixed. If fixed phenotypic traits are functionally linked to resource use, then animals should redistribute in response to seasonally changing resources, leading to a ‘phenotype-limited’ distribution. Here, we examine this possibility for a shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica; a long-billed and sexually...

Data from: Differential predation drives the geographical divergence in multiple traits in aposematic frogs

Changku Kang, Thomas N. Sherratt, Ye Eun Kim, Yujin Shin, Jongyeol Moon, Uhram Song, Jae Yeon Kang, Kyungmin Kim & Yikweon Jang
Prey have evolved a range of traits to enhance their survival against predators. These traits often show geographical variation due to the differences in local predation pressure. To date, there exists ample evidence of the geographical variation in single anti-predator traits such as coloration induced by differential predation. However, predation pressure often induces the shift in a suite of (correlated) prey traits, such as coloration and behavior, rather than a single trait in nature. In...

Data from: Body size affects the evolution of hidden colour signals in moths

Changku Kang, Reza Zahiri & Thomas N. Sherratt
Many cryptic prey have also evolved hidden contrasting colour signals which are displayed to would-be predators. Given that these hidden contrasting signals may confer additional survival benefits to the prey by startling/intimidating predators, it is unclear why they have evolved in some species, but not in others. Here, we have conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of colour traits in the family Erebidae (Lepidoptera), and found that the hidden contrasting colour signals are...

Data from: How to quantify a distance-dependent landscape effect on a biological response

Paul Miguet, Lenore Fahrig & Claire Lavigne
To quantify the effect of the surrounding landscape context on a biological response at a site, most studies measure landscape variables within discs centred on this biological response (threshold-based method). This implicitly assumes that the effect of a unit area of the landscape is consistent up to a threshold distance beyond which it drops to zero. However, it seems more likely that the landscape effect declines with increasing distance from the biological response point. Here...

Data from: Annual movement patterns of endangered ivory gulls: the importance of sea ice

Nora C. Spencer, H. Grant Gilchrist & Mark L. Mallory
The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual...

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