Some prey are cryptic at rest but expose conspicuous colors when in motion. Previous findings suggest that these “flash displays” deceive would-be predators by providing false information about the color of prey, tricking them into continuing to look for prey with the conspicuous color when the prey have actually returned to their cryptic resting state. These results raise questions about the properties of flash coloration that make it effective. Here, using humans as visual foragers...
Behavioral responses to alarm cues in aquatic species are typically examined with emphasis on the potential survival benefits accrued by conspecific receivers. By contrast, heterospecific responses to alarm cues and changes in responses with ontogeny in fishes are relatively unexplored. Taking an ecological niche perspective, we hypothesized that the response patterns of fish to risky chemical cues should be closely related to their degree of niche differentiation, which increases with ontogeny. We tested this hypothesis...
Flash behavior, in which otherwise cryptic prey exhibit conspicuous coloration or noise when fleeing from potential predators, has been postulated to hinder location of prey once they become stationary. Here, using artificial computer-generated prey and humans as visual predators, we show that human subjects are more likely to abandon their search for prey that flash, compared to continuously cryptic fleeing controls. Survivorship of flashing prey was an additional 20% higher than the survivorship of continuously...
1. Most climate change adaptation efforts emphasize where to implement management actions, whereas timing remains largely overlooked. The rate of modern climate change introduces urgency in evaluating whether delaying conservation actions compromises their efficacy for reaching important conservation targets. 2. We evaluated the importance of multiple climate change adaptation strategies including timing of actions on preventing extinctions for a threatened climate-sensitive species, the Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus). We parameterised a range-wide population viability analysis...
Insects have evolved a diversity of hearing organs specialized to detect sounds critical for survival. We report on a unique structure on butterfly wings that enhances hearing. The Satyrini are a diverse group of butterflies occurring throughout the world. One of their distinguishing features is a conspicuous swelling of their forewing vein, but the functional significance of this structure is unknown. Here we show that wing vein inflations function in hearing. Using the Common Wood-Nymph,...
Individuals of the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria are well-known for their ability to spread from woody substrate to substrate on the forest floor through the growth of rhizomoprhs. Here we made 248 collections of A. gallica in one locality in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. To identify individuals, we genotyped collections with molecular markers and somatic compatibility testing. We found several different individuals in proximity to one another, but one genetic individual stood out as exceptionally large, covering...
Data from: When to monitor and when to act: value of information theory for multiple management units and limited budgetsJoseph R. Bennett, Sean L. Maxwell, Amanda E. Martin, Iadine Chadès, Lenore Fahrig & Benjamin Gilbert
1.The question of when to monitor and when to act is fundamental to applied ecology, and notoriously difficult to answer. Value of information (VOI) theory holds great promise to help answer this question for many management problems. However, VOI theory in applied ecology has only been demonstrated in single-decision problems, and has lacked explicit links between monitoring and management costs. 2.Here, we present an extension of VOI theory for solving multi-unit decisions of whether to...
Data from: Flexibility, variability and constraint in energy management strategies across vertebrate taxa revealed by long-term heart rate measurementsLewis G. Halsey, Jonathan A. Green, Sean D. Twiss, Walter Arnold, Sarah J. Burthe, Patrick J. Butler, Steve J. Cooke, David Gremillet, Thomas Ruf, Olivia Hicks, Katarzyna J. Minta, Tanya S. Prystay, Claudia A.F. Wascher, Vincent Careau, Steven J Cooke, Tania S Prystay & Claudia AF Wascher
1) Animals are expected to be judicious in the use of the energy they gain due to the costs and limits associated with its intake. The management of energy expenditure (EE) exhibited by animals has previously been considered in terms of three patterns: the constrained, independent and performance patterns of energy management. These patterns can be interpreted by regressing daily EE against maintenance EE measured over extended periods. From the multiple studies on this topic,...
University of Toronto3
Mokpo National University2
University of California, Davis2
University of Queensland1
Chongqing Normal University1
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna1
University of Wisconsin-Madison1
French National Centre for Scientific Research1