17 Works

Data from: Ecological correlates of Himalayan musk deer Moschus leucogaster

Paras Bikram Singh, Pradip Saud, Kumar Mainali, Doug Cram, Arjun Thapa, Nar Bahadur Chhetri, Laxman P. Poudyal, Hem Sagar Baral, Zhigang Jiang & Douglas Cram
Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. However, musk deer establish and repeatedly use the same latrines for defecation. To quantify musk deer habitat correlates, we used observational spatial data based on presence-absence of musk deer latrines, as well as a range of fine spatial-scale ecological covariates. To...

Energy-water and seasonal variations in climate underlie the spatial distribution patterns of gymnosperms species richness in China

Bikram Pandey, Janak Khatiwada, Lin Zhang, Kaiwen Pan, Mohammed Dakhil, Qinli Xiong, Ram Yadav, Mohan Siwakoti, Akash Tariq, Olusanya Olatunji, Meta Justine, Xiaogang Wu, Xiaoming Sun, Ziyan Liao & Zebene Negesse
Studying the pattern of species richness is crucial in understanding the diversity and distribution of organisms in the earth. Climate and human influences are the major driving factors that directly influence the large-scale distributions of plant species, including gymnosperms. Understanding how gymnosperms respond to climate, topography, and human-induced changes is useful in predicting the impacts of global change. Here, we attempt to evaluate how climatic and human-induced processes could affect the spatial richness patterns of...

Effectiveness of community-based health education and home support program to reduce blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Nepal: A cluster-randomized trial

Mahesh Kumar Khanal, Pratiksha Bhandari, Raja Ram Dhungana, Pratik Bhandari, Lal Rawal, Yadav Gurung, K. N. Paudel, Amit Singh, Surya Devkota & Barbora De Courten
Background: Hypertension is a major global public health problem. Elevated blood pressure can cause cardiovascular and kidney diseases. We assessed the effectiveness of health education sessions and home support programs in reducing blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in a suburban community of Nepal. Methods: We conducted a community-based, open-level, parallel-group, cluster randomized controlled trial in Birendranagar municipality of Surkhet, Nepal. We randomly assigned four clusters (wards) into intervention and control arms. We provided...

Data from: Comparative ecological and behavioral study of Macaca assamensis and M. mulatta in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal

Sunil Khatiwada, Pavan Kumar Paudel, Mukesh K Chalise & Hideshi Ogawa
Resource partitioning reduces resource competition between different species within the same habitat, promoting their coexistence. To understand how such species, co-adapt to reduce conflicts, we examined the behaviour of two primates, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) and the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), from April 2017 to March 2018 in Sivapuri Nagarjun National Park (SNNP), Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We performed 1,580 and 1,261 scan sessions on wild, multi-male/multi-female groups of Assamese and rhesus macaques, respectively, at...

Applying the double observer methodology for assessing blue sheep population size in Nar Phu Valley, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

Kamal Thapa, Rodney Jackson, Lalu Gurung, Hari Acharya & Raj Gurung
This study was undertaken in spring, 2019 to assess the applicability of the Double-Observer survey method for estimating blue sheep Pseudois nayaur abundance in Nar-Phu valley of Manang District located in Annapurna Conservation Area of northern Nepal. Since counting large mammals in rugged mountain habitat poses a special challenge, we tested the efficacy of the Double Observer method for generating robust population estimates for this important protected area. The overall detection probability for observers (O1...

Speciation along the elevation gradient: divergence of Roscoea species within the south slope of the Himalayas

Jian-Li Zhao, Babu Ram Paudel, Xiang-Qin Yu, Jie Zhang & Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayas with dramatic elevation gradient is one of the global biodiversity hotspots. Although origin of biodiversity of the Himalayas is of great concern, the speciation process within the Himalayas is poorly known. Roscoea within the Himalayas serve as a good model system to test the speciation process along an elevation gradient. 32375 unlinked SNPs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and introgression analyses in D-statistics and Fastsimicoal2. Species distribution modeling (SDM) was used to...

Livestock farmers’ traits, perceptions and knowledge on vertebrate scavengers in Central Nepal

Aishwarya Bhattacharjee, Bipana Maiya Sadadev, Dikpal Krishna Karmacharya, Rishi Baral, Juan Manuel Pérez-García, Andrés Giménez Casalduero, José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata & José Daniel Anadón
1. There is a long-standing relationship between humans and vertebrate scavengers, as scavengers’ contributions take on regulating (e.g. nutrient recycling, disease control), material (e.g. competition, livestock depredation) and non-material (e.g. sky burials, ecotourism) roles in society. A social-ecological approach to studying biodiversity is increasingly needed, since the inclusion of local perceptions and knowledge has proven critical for effective conservation programs and ecosystem management. 2. We examine livestock farmers’ perceptions and knowledge related to vertebrate scavengers...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in alpine gingers: how do co-existing Roscoea (R. purpurea and R. tumjensis) conserve species integrity?

Babu Ram Paudel, Martin Burd, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Qingjun Li & Qing-Jun Li
Multiple barriers may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Understanding the relative strength of these barriers can illuminate the ecological factors that currently maintain species integrity and how these factors originally promoted speciation. Two Himalayan alpine gingers, Roscoea purpurea and R. tumjensis, occur sympatrically in central Nepal and have such similar morphology that it is not clear whether or how they maintain a distinct identity. Our quantitative measurements of the components of reproductive...

Potential risk zone for anthropogenic mortality of carnivores in Gandaki province, Nepal

Binaya Adhikari, Kedar Baral, Shivish Bhandari, Michelle Szydlowski, Ripu Kunwar, Saroj Panthi, Bijaya Neupane & Raj Koirala
Anthropogenic pressures in human-dominated landscapes often contribute to wildlife mortality. Carnivores are especially vulnerable to human-induced mortality due to the perceived threat to livestock and humans. Despite having widespread conservation implications, carnivore mortality data has been largely underutilized within Nepal. This study utilized Maxent to identify high-risk areas and explore the contribution of habitat attributes associated with carnivore mortality using the casualty database within the Gandaki province of central Nepal. We categorized the risk to...

Insect pollinators in different habitats of Shivapuri‐Nagarjun National Park, Nepal

Urmila Dyola, Chitra Baniya, Pushpa Acharya, Pradip Subedi, Anjeela Pandey & Kumar Sapkota
Insect pollinators are important means for a stable ecosystem. The habitat types play a crucial role in the community composition, abundance, diversity, and species richness of the pollinators. The present study in Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park explored the species richness and abundances of insect pollinators in four different habitats and different environmental variables in determining the community composition of the pollinators. Data were collected from 1500 m–2700 m using colour pan traps and hand sweeping methods....

Tree-to-tree interactions slow down Himalayan treeline shifts as inferred from tree spatial patterns

Shalik Ram Sigdel, Eryuan Liang, Yafeng Wang, Binod Dawadi & Jesús Julio Camarero
Aim: The spatial patterns of tree populations reflect multiple ecological processes. However, little is known whether these patterns mediate responses to climate in marginal tree populations as those forming alpine treelines. Harsh conditions at these ecotones imply the existence of positive interactions which should lead to tree clustering. In fact, densification in response to climate warming is more widely reported than upward shifts in most treelines. This suggests that more intense tree-to-tree interactions could buffer...

Data from: Flower colour and phylogeny along an altitudinal gradient in the Himalaya of Nepal

Mani Shrestha, Adrian Dyer, Prakash Bhattarai, Martin Burd & Adrian G. Dyer
1. Both the phylogenetic structure and trait composition of flowering plant communities may be expected to change with altitude. In particular, floral colours are thought to vary with altitude because Hymenoptera typically decline in importance as pollinators while Diptera and Lepidoptera become more important at higher elevations. Thus, ecological filtering among elevation zones and competitive processes among co-occurring species within zones could influence the floral chromatic cues present at low and high elevations. 2. We...

Data from: Population genomics of wild and laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Andrew R Whiteley, Anuradha Bhat, Emilia P Martins, Richard L Mayden, M Arunachalam, Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, A.T.A. Ahmed, Jiwan Shrestha, Matthew Clark, Derek Stemple & Louis Bernatchez
Understanding a wider range of genotype-phenotype associations can be achieved through ecological and evolutionary studies of traditional laboratory models. Here, we conducted the first large-scale geographic analysis of genetic variation within and among wild zebrafish (Danio rerio) populations occurring in Nepal, India, and Bangladesh and we genetically compared wild populations to several commonly used lab strains. We examined genetic variation at 1,832 polymorphic EST-based SNPs and the cytb mitochondrial gene in 13 wild populations and...

Estimating occupancy of Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) in a protected and non-protected area of Nepal

Sandhya Sharma, Hari Sharma, Chanda Chaulagain, Hem Katuwal & Jerrold Belant
Chinese pangolin is the world’s most heavily trafficked small mammal for luxury food and traditional medicine. Although their populations are declining worldwide, it is difficult to monitor their population status because of its rarity and nocturnal behavior. We used site occupancy (presence/absence) sampling of pangolin sign (i.e. active burrows) in a protected (Gaurishankar Conservation Area) and non-protected area (Ramechhap district) of central Nepal with multiple environmental covariates to understand factors that may influence occupancy of...

Examining the needle in the haystack: Evolutionary relationships in the mistletoe genus Loranthus Jacq. (Loranthaceae)

Daniel Nickrent, Huei-Jiun Su, Ruo-Zhu Lin, Mohan Prasad Devkota, Jer-Ming Hu & Gerhard Glatzel
The genus Loranthus Jacq. (Loranthaceae) consists of ca. nine Old World species distributed from eastern Asia to Europe. Loranthus, the type of the family, has had a complex taxonomic history that continues today, partly because most mistletoes in the family have resided in this genus. For this reason, there are over 1800 Loranthus species names, the vast majority of which are synonyms for mistletoes in other genera. The present work sampled representatives of nine species...

Fine-scale ecological and anthropogenic variables predict the habitat use and detectability of sloth bears in the Churia habitat of east Nepal

Manoj Pokharel, Asmit Subba, Dipa Rai, Simrik Bhandari & Yadav Ghimirey
Once widespread throughout the tropical forests of the Indian Subcontinent, the sloth bears have suffered a rapid range collapse and local extirpations in the recent decades. A significant portion of their current distribution range is situated outside of the protected areas (PAs). These unprotected sloth bear populations are under tremendous human pressures, but little is known about the patterns and determinants of their occurrence in most of these regions. The situation is more prevalent in...

Data from: Population genomics of wild and laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Andrew R Whiteley, Anuradha Bhat, Emilia P Martins, Richard L Mayden, M Arunachalam, Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, A.T.A. Ahmed, Jiwan Shrestha, Matthew Clark, Derek Stemple & Louis Bernatchez
Understanding a wider range of genotype-phenotype associations can be achieved through ecological and evolutionary studies of traditional laboratory models. Here, we conducted the first large-scale geographic analysis of genetic variation within and among wild zebrafish (Danio rerio) populations occurring in Nepal, India, and Bangladesh and we genetically compared wild populations to several commonly used lab strains. We examined genetic variation at 1,832 polymorphic EST-based SNPs and the cytb mitochondrial gene in 13 wild populations and...

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