14 Works

Simulation of sheared granular layers activated by fluid pressurization

Nho Gia Hien Nguyen, Luc Scholtès, Yves Guglielmi, Frédéric Victor Donzé, Zady Ouraga & Mountaka Souley
Fluid pressurization of critically stressed sheared zones can trigger slip mechanisms at play in many geological rupture processes, including earthquakes or landslides. The increasing fluid pressure reduces the effective stress, giving possibility to the shear zone to reactivate. Nonetheless, the mechanisms that dictate the mode of slip, from aseismic steady creep to seismic dynamic rupture, remain poorly understood. By using discrete element modeling, we simulate pore-pressure-step creep test experiments on a sheared granular layer under...

Narwhals react to ship noise and airgun pulses embedded in background noise

Outi Tervo, Susanna Blackwell, Susanne Ditlevsen, Alexander Conrad, Adeline Samson, Eva Garde, Rikke Hansen & Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Anthropogenic activities are increasing in the Arctic posing a threat to species with high seasonal site-fidelity, such as the narwhal Monodon monoceros. In this controlled sound exposure study, six narwhals were live-captured and instrumented with animal-borne tags providing movement and behavioural data, and exposed to concurrent ship noise and airgun pulses. All narwhals reacted to sound exposure by reduced buzzing rates, where the response was dependent on the magnitude of exposure defined as 1/distance to...

Do ecological specialization and functional traits explain the abundance–frequency relationship? Arable weeds as a case study

Guillaume Fried, Laura Armengot, Jonathan Storkey, Bérenger Bourgeois, Sabrina Gaba, Cyrille Violle & François Munoz
Aim: The abundance-frequency relationship (AFR) is among the most-investigated pattern in biogeography, yet the relative contributions of niche-based processes related to ecological strategies, and of neutral processes related to spatial colonization-extinction dynamics, remains uncertain. Here, we tested the influences of ecological specialization and functional traits on local abundance and regional frequency, to determine the contribution of niche-based processes. Location: France and the UK. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: We used two arable weed surveys covering 1544...

Polarimetric ApRES data on a profile across Dome C, East Antarctica, 2013-2014

Hugh Corr, Catherine Ritz & Carlos Martin
The radar data collected in 2013-2014 at Dome C, East Antarctica, aims to understand bulk preferred crystal orientation fabric near a dome. We measure changes in englacial birefringence and anisotropic scattering in 21 sites along a 36 km long profile across Dome C. These optical properties are obtained by analysing radar returns for different antenna orientations. More details can be found in Ershadi et al, 2021. Funding was provided by BAS National Capability and IPEV...

Dataset for: Fast retreat of Pope, Smith, and Kohler glaciers in West Antarctica observed by satellite interferometry

Pietro Milillo, Eric Rignot, Paola Rizzoli, Bernd Scheuchl, Jeremie Mouginot, Jose Luis Bueso Bello, Pau Prats Iraola & Luigi Dini
Pope, Smith, and Kohler glaciers, in the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica, have experienced enhanced ocean-induced ice-shelf melt, glacier acceleration, ice thinning, and grounding line retreat in the past thirty years, in a glaciological setting with retrograde bedrock slopes conducive to marine ice sheet instability. Here we present observations of the grounding line retreat of these glaciers since 2014 using a constellation of interferometric radar satellites with a short revisit cycle combined with precision...

Effects of population density on static allometry between horn length and body mass in mountain ungulates

Christophe Pelabon, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Steeve Côté, Carole Toigo, Mathieu Garel & Anne Loison
Little is known about the effects of environmental variation on allometric relationships of condition-dependent traits, especially in wild populations. We estimated sex-specific static allometry between horn length and body mass in four populations of mountain ungulates that experienced periods of contrasting density over the course of the study. These species displayed contrasting sexual dimorphism in horn size; high dimorphism in Capra ibex and Ovis canadensis and low dimorphism in Rupicapra rupicapra and Oreamnos americanus. The...

Lags in phenological acclimation of mountain grasslands after recent warming

Billur Bektaş, Wilfried Thuiller, Amélie Saillard, Philippe Choler, Julien Renaud, Marie-Pascale Colace, Raphael Della Vedova & Tamara Münkemüller
1. In the current biodiversity crisis, one of the crucial questions is how quickly plant communities can acclimate to climate warming and longer growing seasons to buffer the impairment of community functioning. Answering this question is pivotal especially for mountain grasslands that experience harsh conditions but provide important ecosystem services to people. 2. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment along an elevation gradient (1920 m vs. 2450 m) in the French Alps to test the...

Photosynthesis from stolen chloroplasts can support sea slug reproductive fitness

Paulo Cartaxana, Felisa Rey, Charlotte LeKieffre, Diana Lopes, Cedric Hubas, Jorge E. Spangenberg, Stéphane Escrig, Bruno Jesus, Gonçalo Calado, Rosário Domingues, Michael Kühl, Ricardo Calado, Anders Meibom & Sónia Cruz
Some sea slugs are able to steal functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their algal food sources, but the role and relevance of photosynthesis to the animal host remain controversial. While some researchers claim that kleptoplasts are slowly digestible ‘snacks’, others advocate that they enhance the overall fitness of sea slugs much more profoundly. Our analysis show light-dependent incorporation of 13C and 15N in the albumen gland and gonadal follicles of the sea slug Elysia timida, representing...

The tempo of greening in the European Alps: Spatial variations on a common theme

Philippe Choler, Arthur Bayle, Bradley Z. Carlson, Christophe Randin, Gianlucca Filippa & Edoardo Cremonese
The long-term increase of satellite-based proxies of vegetation cover is a well-documented response of seasonally snow-covered ecosystems to climate warming. However, observed greening trends are far from being uniform and substantial uncertainty remains concerning the underlying causes of this spatial variability. Here, we processed surface reflectance of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) to investigate trends and drivers of changes in the annual peak values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our study focuses...

Designing industry 4.0 implementation from the initial background and context of companies

Valérie Rocchi & Daniel Brissaud
Industry 4.0 is a promising concept that allows industries to meet customers’ demands with flexible and resilient processes, and highly personalised products. This concept is made up of different dimensions. For a long time, innovative digital technology has been thought of as the only dimension to succeed in digital transformation projects. Next, other dimensions have been identified such as organisation, strategy, and human resources as being key while rolling out digital technology in factories. From...

Power and limitations of environmental DNA metabarcoding for surveying leaf litter eukaryotic communities

Carla Martins Lopes, Délio Baêta, Thais Sasso, Agustín Vanzetti, Kelly Zamudio, Pierre Taberlet & Célio Haddad
Leaf litter habitats shelter a great variety of organisms, which play an important role in ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring species in leaf litter is challenging, especially in highly diverse environments such as tropical forests, because individuals may easily camouflage themselves or hide in the litter layer. Identifying species based on environmental DNA (eDNA) would allow us to assess biodiversity in this microhabitat, without the need for direct observation of individuals. We applied eDNA metabarcoding to...

DNA metabarcoding data: Altitudinal zonation of green algae biodiversity in the French Alps

Eric Coissac, Adeline Stewart, Delphine Rioux, Frédéric Boyer, Ludovic Gielly, François Pompanon, Amélie Saillard, Wilfried Thuiller, Jean-Gabriel Valay & Eric Maréchal
Mountain environments are marked by an altitudinal zonation of habitat types. They are home to a multitude of terrestrial green algae, who have to cope with abiotic conditions specific to high elevation, e.g., high UV irradiance, alternating desiccation, rain and snow precipitations, extreme diurnal variations in temperature and chronic scarceness of nutrients. Even though photosynthetic green algae are key primary producers colonizing open areas and potential markers of climate change, their overall biodiversity in the...

Global maps of current (1979-2013) and future (2061-2080) habitat suitability probability for 1,485 European endemic plant species

Robin Pouteau, Idoia Biurrun, Caroline Brunel, Milan Chytrý, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Trevor Fristoe, Rense Haveman, Carsten Hobohm, Florian Jansen, Holger Kreft, Jonathan Lenoir, Bernd Lenzner, Carsten Meyer, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Jens-Christian Svenning, Wilfried Thuiller, Patrick Weigelt, Thomas Wohlgemuth, Qiang Yang & Mark Van Kleunen
Aims: The rapid increase in the number of species that have naturalized beyond their native range is among the most apparent features of the Anthropocene. How alien species will respond to other processes of future global changes is an emerging concern and remains largely misunderstood. We therefore ask whether naturalized species will respond to climate and land-use change differently than those species not yet naturalized anywhere in the world. Location: Global Methods: We investigated future...

Assessing environmental DNA metabarcoding and camera trap surveys as complementary tools for biomonitoring of remote desert water bodies

Luca Fumagalli, Eduard Mas-Carrió, Judith Schneider, Battogtokh Nasanbat, Samiya Ravchig, Mmabaled Buxton, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Céline Stoffel, Claudio Augugliaro, Francisco Ceacero, Pierre Taberlet, Olivier Glaizot & Philippe Christe
Biodiversity assessments are indispensable tools for planning and monitoring conservation strategies. Camera traps (CT) are widely used to monitor wildlife and have proven their usefulness. Environmental DNA (eDNA)-based approaches are increasingly implemented for biomonitoring, combining sensitivity, high taxonomic coverage and resolution, non-invasiveness and easiness of sampling, but remain challenging for terrestrial fauna. However, in remote desert areas where scattered water bodies attract terrestrial species, which release their DNA into the water, this method presents a...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Grenoble Alpes University
  • University of Lausanne
  • University of Copenhagen
  • Université Laval
  • University of the Basque Country
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • Sao Paulo State University
  • Laboratoire Physiologie Cellulaire & Végétale
  • Université de Sherbrooke