195 Works

GMBA Mountain Inventory v2

Mark A. Snethlage, Jonas Geschke, Eva M. Spehn, Ajay Ranipeta, Nigel G. Yocco, Christian Körner, Walter Jetz, Markus Fischer & Davnah Urbach
A standardized delineation of the worlds’ mountains has many applications in research, education, and the science-policy interface. Here we provide a new inventory of 8616 mountain ranges developed under the auspices of the Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA). Building on an earlier compilation, the presented geospatial database uses a further advanced and generalized mountain definition and a semi-automated method to enable globally standardized, transparent delineations of mountain ranges worldwide. The inventory is presented on EarthEnv...

Data from: Bayesian divergence-time estimation with genome-wide SNP data of sea catfishes (Ariidae) supports Miocene closure of the Panamanian isthmus

Madlen Stange, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Walter Salzburger & Michael Matschiner
The closure of the Isthmus of Panama has long been considered to be one of the best defined biogeographic calibration points for molecular divergence-time estimation. However, geological and biological evidence has recently cast doubt on the presumed timing of the initial isthmus closure around 3 Ma but has instead suggested the existence of temporary land bridges as early as the Middle or Late Miocene. The biological evidence supporting these earlier land bridges was based either...

Data from: Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of clade ages supports trans-atlantic dispersal of cichlid fishes

Michael Matschiner, Zuzana Musilová, Julia M.I. Barth, Zuzana Starostová, Walter Salzburger, Mike Steel & Remco Bouckaert
Divergence-time estimation based on molecular phylogenies and the fossil record has provided insights into fundamental questions of evolutionary biology. In Bayesian node dating, phylogenies are commonly time calibrated through the specification of calibration densities on nodes representing clades with known fossil occurrences. Unfortunately, the optimal shape of these calibration densities is usually unknown and they are therefore often chosen arbitrarily, which directly impacts the reliability of the resulting age estimates. As possible solutions to this...

Data from: Disentangling structural genomic and behavioral barriers in a sea of connectivity

Julia M. I. Barth, David Villegas-Ríos, Carla Freitas, Even Moland, Bastiaan Star, Carl André, Halvor Knutsen, Ian Bradbury, Jan Dierking, Christoph Petereit, David Righton, Julian Metcalfe, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Esben M. Olsen, Sissel Jentoft & Julia M.I. Barth
Genetic divergence among populations arises through natural selection or drift and is counteracted by connectivity and gene flow. In sympatric populations, isolating mechanisms are thus needed to limit the homogenizing effects of gene flow to allow for adaptation and speciation. Chromosomal inversions act as an important mechanism maintaining isolating barriers, yet their role in sympatric populations and divergence with gene flow is not entirely understood. Here, we revisit the question whether inversions play a role...

Data from: Despite high levels of expression in thymic epithelial cells, miR-181a1 and miR-181b1 are not required for thymic development

Heather E. Stefanski, Yan Xing, Patricia A. Taylor, Stefano Maio, Jorge Henao-Meija, Adam Williams, Richard A. Flavell, Georg A. Hollander & Bruce R. Blazar
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be key modulators of post-transcriptional gene silencing in many cellular processes. In previous studies designed to understand the role of miRNAs in thymic development, we globally deleted miRNA exclusively in thymic epithelial cells (TECs), which are critical in thymic selection. This resulted in the loss of stromal cells that instruct T cell lineage commitment and affect thymocyte positive selection, required for mature T cell development. Since murine miR-181 is...

Data from: Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex

Alexandra A Weber, Bastien Mérigot, Sophie Valière & Anne Chenuil
Closely related species with divergent life-history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographic distribution of the broadcasters...

Data from: Melanin-based coloration of sneaker male Atlantic salmon is linked to viability and emergence timing of their offspring

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Jean-Marc Roussel, Jérôme Bugeon, Julien Tremblay, Dominique Ombredane & Guillaume Evanno
The ‘good genes’ hypothesis of sexual selection predicts that male ornaments are favoured by female mate choice because male ornament reveals genetic quality. In species with different male reproductive tactics, variation in genetic quality among ‘sneaking’ males has rarely been investigated, as usually ‘sneakers’ are thought not to be chosen by females. Here we focused on the alternative reproductive tactic in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) to test whether the skin colour of sneakers...

Data from: Structural alterations of the social brain: a comparison between schizophrenia and autism

Daniel Radeloff, Angela Ciaramidaro, Sabine Schlitt, Sven Bölte, Fritz Poustka, Daniela Hainz, Bernhard Weber, Michael Siniatchkin, Henrik Walter & Christine Margarete Freitag
Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia share a substantial number of etiologic and phenotypic characteristics. Still, no direct comparison of both disorders has been performed to identify differences and commonalities in brain structure. In this voxel based morphometry study, 34 patients with autism spectrum disorder, 21 patients with schizophrenia and 26 typically developed control subjects were included to identify global and regional brain volume alterations. No global gray matter or white matter differences were found between...

Data from: Molecular evolution of key metabolic genes during transitions to C4 and CAM photosynthesis

Eric W. Goolsby, Abigail J. Moore, Lillian P. Hancock, Jurriaan M. De Vos & Erika J. Edwards
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Next-generation sequencing facilitates rapid production of well-sampled phylogenies built from very large genetic datasets, which can then be subsequently exploited to examine the molecular evolution of the genes themselves. We present an evolutionary analysis of 83 gene families (19 containing carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) genes, 64 containing non-CCM genes) in the portullugo clade (Caryophyllales), a diverse lineage of mostly arid-adapted plants that contains multiple evolutionary origins of all known photosynthesis types in...

Data from: Forecasting range shifts of a cold-adapted species under climate change: are genomic and ecological diversity within species crucial for future resilience?

Spyros Theodoridis, Theofania S. Patsiou, Christophe Randin & Elena Conti
Cold-adapted taxa are experiencing severe range shifts due to climate change and are expected to suffer a significant reduction of their climatically suitable habitats in the next few decades. However, it has been proposed that taxa with sufficient standing genetic and ecologic diversity will better withstand climate change. These taxa are typically more broadly distributed in geographic and ecological niche space, therefore they are likely to endure higher levels of populations loss than more restricted,...

Data from: Real-time social selection maintains honesty of a dynamic visual signal in cooperative fish

Judith C. Bachmann, Fabio Cortesi, Matthew D. Hall, N. Justin Marshall, Walter Salzburger & Hugo F. Gante
Our understanding of animal communication has been largely driven by advances in theory since empirical evidence has been difficult to obtain. Costly signaling theory became the dominant paradigm explaining the evolution of honest signals, according to which communication reliability relies on differential costs imposed on signalers to distinguish animals of different quality. On the other hand, mathematical models disagree on the source of costs at the communication equilibrium. Here we present an empirical framework to...

Data from: Two-year impact of community-based health screening and parenting groups on child development in Zambia: follow-up to a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Peter C. Rockers, Arianna Zanolini, Bowen Banda, Mwaba Moono Chipili, Robert C. Hughes, Davidson H. Hamer & Günther Fink
Background: Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. Methods and Findings: We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258...

Data from: No carbon \"bet hedging\" in pine seedlings under prolonged summer drought and elevated CO2

Christoph Bachofen, Barbara Moser, Günter Hoch, Jaboury Ghazoul, Tom Wohlgemuth & Thomas Wohlgemuth
More frequent drought episodes are expected to cause higher mortality in isohydric tree species such as pines, because individuals close their stomata early during drought in order to maintain constant needle water potentials. It has been suggested that trees delay the ensuing carbon starvation by actively storing carbon at the expense of growth (“bet hedging”). Because such a strategy is only adaptive in drought-prone regions, we hypothesise that the degree of carbon “bet hedging” should...

Data from: A complex mode of aggressive mimicry in a scale-eating cichlid fish

Nicolas Boileau, Fabio Cortesi, Bernd Egger, Moritz Muschick, Adrian Indermaur, Anya Theis, Heinz H. Büscher & Walter Salzburger
Aggressive mimicry is an adaptive tactic of parasitic or predatory species that closely resemble inoffensive models in order to increase fitness via predatory gains. Although similarity of distantly related species is often intuitively implicated with mimicry, the exact mechanisms and evolutionary causes remain elusive in many cases. Here, we report a complex aggressive mimicry strategy in Plecodus straeleni, a scale-eating cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, which imitates two other cichlid species. Employing targeted sequencing on...

Data from: Daphnia females adjust sex allocation in response to current sex ratio and density

Isobel Booksmythe, Nina Gerber, Dieter Ebert & Hanna Kokko
Cyclical parthenogenesis presents an interesting challenge for the study of sex allocation, as individuals’ allocation decisions involve both the choice between sexual and asexual reproduction, and the choice between sons and daughters. Male production is therefore expected to depend on ecological and evolutionary drivers of overall investment in sex, and those influencing male reproductive value during sexual periods. We manipulated experimental populations, and made repeated observations of natural populations over their growing season, to disentangle...

Data from: Mouth dimorphism in scale-eating cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika advances individual fitness

Adrian Indermaur, Anya Theis, Bernd Egger & Walter Salzburger
Random asymmetry, that is the co-existence of left- and right-sided (or -handed) individuals within a population, is a particular case of natural variation; what triggers and maintains such dimorphisms remains unknown in most cases. Here, we report a field-based cage experiment in the scale-eating Tanganyikan cichlid Perissodus microlepis (Boulenger, 1898), which occurs in two morphs in nature: left-skewed and right-skewed individuals with respect to mouth orientation. Using underwater cages stocked with scale-eaters and natural prey...

Data from: Maternal programming of offspring in relation to food availability in an insect (Forficula auricularia)

Shirley Raveh, Dominik Vogt & Mathias Koelliker
Maternal effects can induce adjustments in offspring phenotype to the environment experienced by the mother. Of particular interest is if mothers can program their offspring to cope best under matching environmental conditions, but the evidence for such anticipatory maternal effects (AME) is limited. In this study, we manipulated experimentally the food availability experienced by mothers and their offspring in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia). Offspring produced by females that had access to high- or low-food...

Data from: Spatial population genetic structure of a bacterial parasite in close coevolution with its host

Jason P. Andras, Peter D. Fields & Dieter Ebert
Knowledge of a species’ population genetic structure can provide insight into fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes including gene flow, genetic drift, and adaptive evolution. Such inference is of particular importance for parasites, as an understanding of their population structure can illuminate epidemiological and coevolutionary dynamics. Here we describe the population genetic structure of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a parasite that infects planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia. This system has become a model for investigations...

Data from: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors act at different spatial and temporal scales to shape population structure, distribution and speciation in Italian Barbus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae)

Luca Buornerba, Serena Zaccara, Giovanni B. Delmastro, Massimo Lorenzoni, Walter Salzburger, Hugo F. Gante & Luca Buonerba
Previous studies have given substantial attention to external factors that affect the distribution and diversification of freshwater fish in Europe and North America, in particular Pleistocene and Holocene glacial cycles. In the present paper we examine sequence variation at one mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (over 3 kbp) from populations sampled across several drainages of all species of Barbus known to inhabit Italian freshwaters (introduced B. barbus and native B. balcanicus, B. caninus, B. plebejus...

Data from: The temporal dynamics and infectiousness of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum infections in relation to parasite density

Hannah C. Slater, Amanda Ross, Ingrid Felger, Natalie E. Hofmann, Leanne Robinson, Jackie Cook, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Anders Björkman, Andre Lin Ouedraogo, Ulrika Morris, Mwinyi Msellem, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller, Fitsum Tadesse, Endalamaw Gadisa, Smita Das, Gonzalo Domingo, Melissa Kapulu, Janet Midega, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Cécile Nabet, Renaud Piarroux, Ogobara Doumbo, Safiatou Niare Doumbo, Kwadwo Koram … & Lucy C. Okell
Malaria infections occurring below the limit of detection of standard diagnostics are common in all endemic settings. However, key questions remain surrounding their contribution to sustaining transmission and whether they need to be detected and targeted to achieve malaria elimination. In this study we analyse a range of malaria datasets to quantify the density, detectability, course of infection and infectiousness of subpatent infections. Asymptomatically infected individuals have lower parasite densities on average in low transmission...

Data from: Comparative proteomics of stenotopic caddisfly Crunoecia irrorata identifies acclimation strategies to warming

Joshua Niklas Ebner, Danilo Ritz & Stefanie Von Fumetti
Species’ ecological preferences are often deduced from habitat characteristics thought to represent more or less optimal conditions for physiological functioning. Evolution has led to stenotopic and eurytopic species, the former having decreased niche breadths and lower tolerances to environmental variability. Species inhabiting freshwater springs are often described as being stenotopic specialists, adapted to the stable thermal conditions found in these habitats. Whether due to past local adaptation these species have evolved or have lost intra-generational...

Data from: Quantitative genetic inheritance of morphological divergence in a lake-stream stickleback ecotype pair: implications for reproductive isolation

Daniel Berner, Renaud Kaeuffer, Anne-Catherine Grandchamp, Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Katja Räsänen & Andrew P. Hendry
Ecological selection against hybrids between populations occupying different habitats might be an important component of reproductive isolation during the initial stages of speciation. The strength and directionality of this barrier to gene flow depends on the genetic architecture underlying divergence in ecologically relevant phenotypes. We here present line cross analyses of inheritance for two key foraging-related morphological traits involved in adaptive divergence between stickleback ecotypes residing parapatrically in lake and stream habitats within the Misty...

Raw nucleotide counts for clinal Misty Lake and stream stickleback samples

Daniel Berner & Quiterie Haenel
How ecological divergence causes strong reproductive isolation between populations in close geographic contact remains poorly understood at the genomic level. We here study this question in a stickleback fish population pair adapted to contiguous, ecologically different lake and stream habitats. Clinal whole-genome sequence data reveal numerous genome regions (nearly) fixed for alternative alleles over a distance of just a few hundred meters. This strong polygenic adaptive divergence must constitute a genome-wide barrier to gene flow...

Whole genome re-sequencing of mother and offspring D. magna genotypes

Luca Cornetti
Inbreeding refers to the fusion of related individuals' gametes, with self-fertilization (selfing) being an extreme form of inbreeding—involving gametes produced by the same individual. Selfing is expected to reduce heterozygosity by an average of 50 % in one generation; however, little is known about the empirical variation on a genome level surrounding this figure, and the factors that affect variation. We selfed genotypes of the cyclic parthenogen Daphnia magna and analyzed whole genomes of mothers...

Widespread intersex differentiation across the stickleback genome – the signature of sexually antagonistic selection?

Daniel Berner, Mirjam Bissegger, Telma Laurentino & Marius Roesti
Females and males within a species commonly have distinct reproductive roles, and the associated traits may be under perpetual divergent natural selection between the sexes if their sex-specific control has not yet evolved. We here explore whether such sexually antagonistic selection can be detected based on the magnitude of differentiation between the sexes across genome-wide genetic polymorphisms by whole-genome sequencing of large pools of female and male threespine stickleback fish. We find numerous autosomal genome...

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