193 Works

Data from: Diversity and disparity through time in the adaptive radiation of Antarctic notothenioid fishes

Marco Colombo, Malte Damerau, Reinhold Hanel, Walter Salzburger & Michael Matschiner
According to theory, adaptive radiation is triggered by ecological opportunity that can arise through the colonization of new habitats, the extinction of antagonists or the origin of key innovations. In the course of an adaptive radiation, diversification and morphological evolution are expected to slow down after an initial phase of rapid adaptation to vacant ecological niches, followed by speciation. Such ‘early bursts’ of diversification are thought to occur because niche space becomes increasingly filled over...

Data from: The microbiota of diapause: how host-microbe associations are formed after dormancy in an aquatic crustacean

Alexandra A. Mushegian, Jean-Claude Walser, Karen E. Sullam & Dieter Ebert
1. A critical question in symbiosis research is where and how organisms obtain beneficial microbial symbionts in different ecological contexts. Microbiota of juveniles are often derived directly from their mother or from the immediate environment. The origin of beneficial symbionts, however, is less obvious in organisms with diapause and dispersal stages, such as plants with dormant seeds and animals in ephemeral or strongly seasonal habitats. In these cases, parents and offspring are separated in time...

Data from: Dissecting the genetic architecture of a stepwise infection process

Matthew D Hall, Jarkko Routtu & Dieter Ebert
How a host fights infection depends on an ordered sequence of steps, beginning with attempts to prevent a pathogen from establishing an infection, through to steps that mitigate a pathogen’s control of host resources, or minimising the damage caused during infection. Yet empirically characterising the genetic basis of these steps remains challenging. Although each step is likely to have a unique genetic and environmental signature, and may, therefore, respond to selection in a specific way,...

Data from: Consistent cooperation in a cichlid fish is caused by maternal and developmental effects rather than heritable genetic variation

Claudia Kasper, Mathias Koelliker, Erik Postma & Barbara Taborsky
Studies on the evolution of cooperative behaviour are typically confined to understanding its adaptive value. It is equally essential, however, to understand its potential to evolve, requiring knowledge about the phenotypic consistency and genetic basis of cooperative behaviour. While previous observational studies reported considerably high heritabilities of helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding vertebrates, experimental studies disentangling the relevant genetic and non-genetic components of cooperative behaviour are lacking. In a half-sibling breeding experiment, we investigated the...

Data from: Phylogeography of the snake pipefish, Entelurus aequoreus (Family: Syngnathidae) in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

Ines Braga Goncalves, Luca Cornetti, Abraham S. Couperus, Cindy J. G. Van Damme & Kenyon B. Mobley
The snake pipefish, Entelurus aequoreus, is a widespread marine species occurring in pelagic and coastal environments in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Recently, the snake pipefish underwent a short-lived, yet substantial, increase in abundance and range expansion into arctic waters. However, little is known about the species’ population structure or if different ecotypes contributed to this outbreak. Specimens (n=178) were sampled from 25 locations from six regions spanning 1.9 million km2. A fragment of the mitochondrial...

Data from: Fluorescent sperm in a transparent worm: validation of a GFP marker to study sexual selection

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Tim Janicke, Dita B. Vizoso, Micha Eichmann & Lukas Schärer
Background: Sexual selection has initially been thought to occur exclusively at the precopulatory stage in terms of contests among males and female mate choice, but research over the last four decades revealed that it often continues after copulation through sperm competition and cryptic female choice. However, studying these postcopulatory processes remains challenging because they occur internally and therefore are often difficult to observe. In the transparent free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano, a recently established transgenic line...

Data from: Barriers to access improved water and sanitation in poor peri-urban settlements of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Eliachie L.E. Angoua, Kouassi Dongo, Michael R. Templeton, Jakob Zinsstag, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliachie Larissa & Eliachie Larissa Eméline Angoua
Achieving access to safe water and sanitation still pose major challenges in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa countries, despite all the progress achieved in the last decade. This study assessed the ability of populations living in poor peri-urban settlements to access improved water and sanitation and identified factors influencing this access, in order to guide sustainable mitigating solutions to address associated health and environmental risks. We conducted a cross-sectional study in six poor peri-urban settlements...

Data from: Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness

Janine W. Y. Wong, Christophe Lucas & Mathias Kölliker
The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In...

Data from: Quantifying episodes of sexual selection: insights from a transparent worm with fluorescent sperm

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Tim Janicke, Dita Brigida Vizoso, Patrice David & Lukas Schärer
Sexual selection operates through consecutive episodes of selection that ultimately contribute to the observed variance in reproductive success between individuals. Understanding the relative importance of these episodes is challenging, particularly because the relevant post-copulatory fitness components are often difficult to assess. Here we investigate different episodes of sexual selection on the male sex function, by assessing how (pre-copulatory) mating success, and (post-copulatory) sperm-transfer efficiency and sperm-fertilising efficiency contribute to male reproductive success. Specifically, we used...

Data from: Population genetic analyses using 10 new polymorphic microsatellite loci confirms genetic subdivision within the olm, Proteus anguinus

Judit Vörös, Sylvain Ursenbacher & Dusan Jelic
We provide a comparative population genetic study of the elusive amphibian, Proteus anguinus, by comparing the genetic diversity and divergence among four cave populations (96 individuals) sampled in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia. We developed 10 variable microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing and applied them to the four selected populations belonging to four different cave systems. The results showed strong genetic differentiation between the four caves corroborating with previous findings suggesting that Proteus might comprises several...

Whole genome resequencing data enables a targeted SNP panel for conservation and aquaculture of Oreochromis cichlid fishes

Adam Ciezarek, Antonia Ford, Graham Etherington, Nasser Kasozi, Milan Malinsky, Tarang Mehta, Luca Penso-Dolfin, Benjamin Ngatunga, Asilatu Shechonge, Rashid Tamatamah, Wilfried Haerty, Federica Di Palma, Martin Genner & Turner George
Cichlid fish of the genus Oreochromis form the basis of the global tilapia aquaculture and fisheries industries. Broodstocks for aquaculture are often collected from wild populations, which in Africa may be from locations containing multiple Oreochromis species. However, many species are difficult to distinguish morphologically, hampering efforts to maintain good quality farmed strains. Additionally, non-native farmed tilapia populations are known to be widely distributed across Africa and to hybridize with native Oreochromis species, which themselves...

Emergence and function of cortical offset responses in sound termination detection

Magdalena Solyga & Tania R Barkat
Offset responses in auditory processing appear after a sound terminates. They arise in neuronal circuits within the peripheral auditory system, but their role in the central auditory system remains unknown. Here we ask what the behavioral relevance of cortical offset responses is and what circuit mechanisms drive them. At the perceptual level, our results reveal that experimentally minimizing auditory cortical offset responses decreases the mouse performance to detect sound termination, assigning a behavioral role to...

Chironomid assemblages and inferred summer temperature, late Rissian, Eemian and earliest Würmian, S Germany

Alex Bolland, Oliver Kern, Andreas Koutsodendris, Jörg Pross & Oliver Heiri
The data herein presents a new chironomid record and associated chironomid-based temperature reconstruction covering the mid Eemian to the end of the first Würmian stadial (ca. 125–105 ka), augmented by results for the late Rissian glaciation and the early Brörup interstadial from the Füramoos palaeolake, southern Germany. There is an unconformity in the sediment core analysed between the late Rissian sediments and the mid Eemian sediments. These data also include non-chironomid invertebrate remains, including Ceratopogonidae,...

Data from: Functional diversity and habitat preferences of native grassland plants and ground-dwelling invertebrates in private gardens along an urbanisation gradient

Brigitte Braschler
Urbanisation influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions. However, private domestic gardens provide habitats for many species. Challenging conditions in urban gardens may support species possessing certain traits, but exclude other species. Functional diversity is therefore often altered in urban gardens. We surveyed native grassland plants and ground-dwelling invertebrates (snails, slugs, spiders, millipedes, woodlice, ants, rove beetles), and compiled data on urbanisation (distance to city centre, percentage of sealed area) and garden characteristics. We furthermore derived data...

Data from: No carbon \"bet hedging\" in pine seedlings under prolonged summer drought and elevated CO2

Christoph Bachofen, Barbara Moser, Günter Hoch, Jaboury Ghazoul, Tom Wohlgemuth & Thomas Wohlgemuth
More frequent drought episodes are expected to cause higher mortality in isohydric tree species such as pines, because individuals close their stomata early during drought in order to maintain constant needle water potentials. It has been suggested that trees delay the ensuing carbon starvation by actively storing carbon at the expense of growth (“bet hedging”). Because such a strategy is only adaptive in drought-prone regions, we hypothesise that the degree of carbon “bet hedging” should...

Data from: Spatial population genetic structure of a bacterial parasite in close coevolution with its host

Jason P. Andras, Peter D. Fields & Dieter Ebert
Knowledge of a species’ population genetic structure can provide insight into fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes including gene flow, genetic drift, and adaptive evolution. Such inference is of particular importance for parasites, as an understanding of their population structure can illuminate epidemiological and coevolutionary dynamics. Here we describe the population genetic structure of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a parasite that infects planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia. This system has become a model for investigations...

Data from: Maternal programming of offspring in relation to food availability in an insect (Forficula auricularia)

Shirley Raveh, Dominik Vogt & Mathias Koelliker
Maternal effects can induce adjustments in offspring phenotype to the environment experienced by the mother. Of particular interest is if mothers can program their offspring to cope best under matching environmental conditions, but the evidence for such anticipatory maternal effects (AME) is limited. In this study, we manipulated experimentally the food availability experienced by mothers and their offspring in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia). Offspring produced by females that had access to high- or low-food...

Data from: Two-year impact of community-based health screening and parenting groups on child development in Zambia: follow-up to a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Peter C. Rockers, Arianna Zanolini, Bowen Banda, Mwaba Moono Chipili, Robert C. Hughes, Davidson H. Hamer & Günther Fink
Background: Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. Methods and Findings: We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258...

Data from: Real-time social selection maintains honesty of a dynamic visual signal in cooperative fish

Judith C. Bachmann, Fabio Cortesi, Matthew D. Hall, N. Justin Marshall, Walter Salzburger & Hugo F. Gante
Our understanding of animal communication has been largely driven by advances in theory since empirical evidence has been difficult to obtain. Costly signaling theory became the dominant paradigm explaining the evolution of honest signals, according to which communication reliability relies on differential costs imposed on signalers to distinguish animals of different quality. On the other hand, mathematical models disagree on the source of costs at the communication equilibrium. Here we present an empirical framework to...

Data from: Mouth dimorphism in scale-eating cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika advances individual fitness

Adrian Indermaur, Anya Theis, Bernd Egger & Walter Salzburger
Random asymmetry, that is the co-existence of left- and right-sided (or -handed) individuals within a population, is a particular case of natural variation; what triggers and maintains such dimorphisms remains unknown in most cases. Here, we report a field-based cage experiment in the scale-eating Tanganyikan cichlid Perissodus microlepis (Boulenger, 1898), which occurs in two morphs in nature: left-skewed and right-skewed individuals with respect to mouth orientation. Using underwater cages stocked with scale-eaters and natural prey...

Data from: Daphnia females adjust sex allocation in response to current sex ratio and density

Isobel Booksmythe, Nina Gerber, Dieter Ebert & Hanna Kokko
Cyclical parthenogenesis presents an interesting challenge for the study of sex allocation, as individuals’ allocation decisions involve both the choice between sexual and asexual reproduction, and the choice between sons and daughters. Male production is therefore expected to depend on ecological and evolutionary drivers of overall investment in sex, and those influencing male reproductive value during sexual periods. We manipulated experimental populations, and made repeated observations of natural populations over their growing season, to disentangle...

Data from: Melanin-based coloration of sneaker male Atlantic salmon is linked to viability and emergence timing of their offspring

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Jean-Marc Roussel, Jérôme Bugeon, Julien Tremblay, Dominique Ombredane & Guillaume Evanno
The ‘good genes’ hypothesis of sexual selection predicts that male ornaments are favoured by female mate choice because male ornament reveals genetic quality. In species with different male reproductive tactics, variation in genetic quality among ‘sneaking’ males has rarely been investigated, as usually ‘sneakers’ are thought not to be chosen by females. Here we focused on the alternative reproductive tactic in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) to test whether the skin colour of sneakers...

Data from: Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex

Alexandra A Weber, Bastien Mérigot, Sophie Valière & Anne Chenuil
Closely related species with divergent life-history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographic distribution of the broadcasters...

Data from: A complex mode of aggressive mimicry in a scale-eating cichlid fish

Nicolas Boileau, Fabio Cortesi, Bernd Egger, Moritz Muschick, Adrian Indermaur, Anya Theis, Heinz H. Büscher & Walter Salzburger
Aggressive mimicry is an adaptive tactic of parasitic or predatory species that closely resemble inoffensive models in order to increase fitness via predatory gains. Although similarity of distantly related species is often intuitively implicated with mimicry, the exact mechanisms and evolutionary causes remain elusive in many cases. Here, we report a complex aggressive mimicry strategy in Plecodus straeleni, a scale-eating cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, which imitates two other cichlid species. Employing targeted sequencing on...

Data from: Bayesian divergence-time estimation with genome-wide SNP data of sea catfishes (Ariidae) supports Miocene closure of the Panamanian isthmus

Madlen Stange, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Walter Salzburger & Michael Matschiner
The closure of the Isthmus of Panama has long been considered to be one of the best defined biogeographic calibration points for molecular divergence-time estimation. However, geological and biological evidence has recently cast doubt on the presumed timing of the initial isthmus closure around 3 Ma but has instead suggested the existence of temporary land bridges as early as the Middle or Late Miocene. The biological evidence supporting these earlier land bridges was based either...

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