42 Works

Data from: Biogeography of ocean acidification: differential field performance of transplanted mussels to upwelling-driven variation in carbonate chemistry

Bruce Menge, Francis Chan, Jeremy Rose, Eric Sanford, Peter Raimondi, Carol Blanchette & Tarik Gouhier
Ocean acidification (OA) represents a serious challenge to marine ecosystems. Laboratory studies addressing OA indicate broadly negative effects for marine organisms, particularly those relying on calcification processes. Growing evidence also suggests OA combined with other environmental stressors may be even more deleterious. Scaling these laboratory studies to ecological performance in the field, where environmental heterogeneity may mediate responses, is a critical next step toward understanding OA impacts on natural communities. We leveraged an upwelling-driven pH...

Quantifying climate change impacts to City of Santa Barbara water supplies

Jessica Jagdeo, Juan Espinoza, Lydia Bleifuss & Camila Bobroff
Climate change affects water supply through changes in precipitation, temperature, and evapotranspiration. The City of Santa Barbara’s water supply relies largely on water held in Lake Cachuma and Gibraltar Reservoir, located in the upper Santa Ynez River watershed. Quantifying climate change impacts to this watershed is critical to planning for future water supply. This project modeled the potential impacts of climate change on the Santa Ynez River watershed out to 2058 using the Soil and...

Species diversity of fungal endophytes across a stress gradient for plants

Ryoko Oono, Danielle Black, Eric Slessarev, Burton Sickler, Amanda Strom & Austen Apigo
Foliar fungal endophytes are one of the most diverse guilds of symbiotic fungi found in the photosynthetic tissues of every plant lineage, but it is unclear how plant environments and leaf resource availability shape their diversity. We explored correlations between leaf nutrient availability and endophyte diversity among Pinus muricata and Vaccinium ovatum plants growing across a soil nutrient gradient spanning a series of coastal terraces in Mendocino, California. Endophyte richness decreased in plants with higher...

Data from: Dermal denticle assemblages in coral reef sediments correlate with conventional shark surveys

Erin Dillon, Kevin Lafferty, Douglas McCauley, Darcy Bradley, Richard Norris, Jennifer Caselle, Graziella DiRenzo, Jonathan Gardner & Aaron O'Dea
It is challenging to assess long-term trends in mobile, long-lived, and relatively rare species such as sharks. Despite ongoing declines in many coastal shark populations, conventional surveys might be too fleeting and too recent to describe population trends over decades to millennia. Placing recent shark declines into historical context should improve management efforts as well as our understanding of past ecosystem dynamics. A new paleoecological approach for surveying shark abundance on coral reefs is to...

Data from: Laboratory culture of the California Sea Firefly Vargula tsujii (Ostracoda: Cypridinidae): developing a model system for the evolution of marine bioluminescence

Jessica A. Goodheart, Geetanjali Minsky, Mira N. Brynjegard-Bialik, Michael S. Drummond, J. David Munoz, Timothy R. Fallon, Darrin T. Schultz, Jing-Ke Weng, Elizabeth Torres & Todd H. Oakley
Bioluminescence, or the production of light by living organisms via chemical reaction, is widespread across Metazoa. Laboratory culture of bioluminescent organisms from diverse taxonomic groups is important for determining the biosynthetic pathways of bioluminescent substrates, which may lead to new tools for biotechnology and biomedicine. Some bioluminescent groups may be cultured, including some cnidarians, ctenophores, and brittle stars, but those use luminescent substrates (luciferins) obtained from their diets, and therefore are not informative for determination...

Social context, but not individual personality, alters immigrant viability in a spider with mixed social structure

Jessica Purcell, Spencer Ingley, Jonathan Pruitt & Inon Scharf
Immigrant viability is a major determinant of the realized rate of gene flow across populations. For social organisms, the social context in which immigrants disperse across contrasting environments may have important implications for their viability post dispersal. Here, we use social spiders whose individual personalities as well as group personality compositions vary across sites to test whether the strength of selection against immigrants (i.e. mortality rates) differs depending on whether spiders are transplanted (1) as...

Data from: Mechanisms of severe dieback and mortality in a classically drought-tolerant shrubland species (Arctostaphylos glauca)

Laura Drake-Schultheis
PREMISE Mortality events involving drought and pathogens in natural plant systems are on the rise due to global climate change. In the Santa Ynez mountain range in Santa Barbara County, California, USA, big berry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca) has experienced canopy dieback related to both a multi-year drought, and infection from fungal pathogens in the Botryosphaeriaceae family. METHODS A full factorial greenhouse experiment with four treatment groups (drought + inoculation; drought – inoculation; watering + inoculation;...

Data from: The future of food from the sea

Tracey Mangin, Christopher Costello, Ling Cao, Stefan Gelcich, Miguel A. Cisneros-Mata, Christopher M. Free, Halley E. Froehlich, Christopher D. Golden, Gakushi Ishimura, Jason Maier, Ilan Macadam-Somer, Michael C. Melnychuk, Masanori Miyahara, Carryn L. De Moor, Rosamond Naylor, Linda Nøstbakken, Elena Ojea, Erin O’Reilly, Ana M. Parma, Andrew J. Plantinga, Shakuntala H. Thilsted & Jane Lubchenco
Global food demand is on the rise and serious questions remain about whether supply can increase sustainably. Land-based expansion is possible, but may exacerbate climate change and biodiversity loss and compromise the delivery of other ecosystem services. As food from the sea represents only 17% of current edible meat production, we ask: How much food can we expect the ocean to sustainably produce by 2050? We examine the main food-producing sectors in the ocean—wild fisheries,...

Disease hotspots or hot species? Infection dynamics in multi-host metacommunities controlled by species identity, not source location

Mark Wilber, Pieter Johnson & Cheryl Briggs
Pathogen persistence in host communities is influenced by processes operating at the individual host to landscape-level scale, but isolating the relative contributions of these processes is challenging. We developed theory to partition the influence of host species, habitat patches, and landscape connectivity on pathogen persistence within metacommunities of hosts and pathogens. We used this framework to quantify the contributions of host species composition and habitat patch identity on the persistence of an amphibian pathogen across...

Data from: The importance of street trees to urban avifauna

Eric Wood & Sevan Esaian
Street trees are public resources planted in a municipality’s right-of-way and are a considerable component of urban forests throughout the world. Street trees provide numerous benefits to people. However, many metropolitan areas have a poor understanding of the value of street trees to wildlife, which presents a gap in our knowledge of conservation in urban ecosystems. Greater Los Angeles (LA) is a global city harboring one of the most diverse and extensive urban forests on...

Habitat complexity dampens selection on prey activity level

Carl Keiser, Spencer Ingley, Benjamin Toscano, Inon Scharf & Jonathan Pruitt
Conspecific prey individuals often exhibit persistent differences in behavior (i.e., animal personality) and consequently vary in their susceptibility to predation. How this form of selection varies across environmental contexts is essential to predicting ecological and evolutionary dynamics, yet remains currently unresolved. Here, we use three separate predator–prey systems (sea star–snail, wolf spider–cricket, and jumping spider–cricket) to independently examine how habitat structural complexity influences the selection that predators impose on prey behavioral types. Prior to conducting...

Kelp forests at the end of the earth: 45 years later

Alan Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Tom Bell, Jennifer Caselle, Claudio Campagna, Mathias Hune, Alex Munoz, Pelayo Salinas-De-Leon, Enric Sala & Paul Dayton
The kelp forests of southern South America are some of the least disturbed on the planet. The remoteness of this region has, until recently, spared it from many of the direct anthropogenic stressors that have negatively affected these ecosystems elsewhere. Re-surveys of 11 locations at the easternmost extent of Tierra del Fuego originally conducted in 1973 showed no significant differences in the densities of adult and juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera kelp or kelp holdfast diameter between...

Impacts of rodent eradication on seed predation and plant community biomass on a tropical atoll

Ana Miller-Ter Kuile, Devyn Orr, An Bui, Rodolfo Dirzo, Maggie Klope, Douglas McCauley, Carina Motta & Hillary Young
Invasive rodent eradications are frequently undertaken to curb island biodiversity loss. However, the breadth of rodents’ ecological impact, even after eradication, is not always fully recognized. For example, the most widespread invasive rodent, the black rat (Rattus rattus), while omnivorous, eats predominantly seeds and fruit. Yet, the effects of seed predation release after eradication on plant communities and ecological functions are not well understood, posing a gap for island restoration. We examined the role of...

Data from: Flexibility of fetal tolerance: Immune function during pregnancy varies between ecologically distinct populations

Carmen Hové, Benjamin Trumble, Amy Anderson, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven & Aaron Blackwell
Background and objectives: Among placental mammals, females undergo immunological shifts during pregnancy to accommodate the fetus (i.e. fetal tolerance). Fetal tolerance has primarily been characterized within post-industrial populations experiencing evolutionarily novel conditions (e.g. reduced pathogen exposure), which may shape maternal response to fetal antigens. This study investigates how ecological conditions affect maternal immune status during pregnancy by comparing the direction and magnitude of immunological changes associated with each trimester among the Tsimane (a subsistence population...

Polyethylene upcycling to long-chain alkylaromatics by tandem hydrogenolysis/aromatization

Fan Zhang, Manhao Zeng, Ryan Yappert, Jiakai Sun, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Anne LaPointe, Baron Peters, Mahdi Abu-Omar & Susannah Scott
The current scale of plastics production and the accompanying waste disposal problems represent a largely untapped opportunity for chemical upcycling. Tandem catalytic conversion by Pt/g-Al2O3 converts various polyethylene grades in high yields (up to 80 wt%) to low molecular-weight liquid/wax products, in the absence of added solvent or H2, with little production of light gases. The major components are valuable long-chain alkylaromatics and alkylnaphthenes (average ca. C30, Ð = 1.1). Coupling exothermic hydrogenolysis with endothermic...

Microbial predictors of healing and short-term effect of debridement on the microbiome of chronic wounds

Samuel Verbanic, Yuning Shen, Juhee Lee, John Deacon & Irene Chen
Chronic wounds represent a large and growing disease burden. Infection and biofilm formation are two of the leading impediments of wound healing, suggesting an important role for the microbiome of these wounds. However, microbial taxa that may impact healing are poorly understood. Debridement is an effective treatment for chronic wounds, but the effect on the microbiome is unknown. Based on prior literature, we hypothesized that anaerobic organisms are exposed to the surface by debridement, contributing...

Reductions in the dietary niche of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the Holocene to the Anthropocene.

Emma Elliott Smith, M. Tim Tinker, Emily Whistler, Douglas Kennett, René Vellanoweth, Diane Gifford-Gonzalez, Mark Hylkema & Seth Newsome
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal hunted to near extinction during the 1800s. Despite their well-known importance as a keystone species, we know little about historical sea otter ecology. Here, we characterize the ecological niche of ancient southern sea otters (E. lutris nereis) using d13C and d15N analysis of bones recovered from archaeological sites spanning ~7,000 to 350 years before present (N=112 individuals) at five regions along the coast of California. These...

Engineering crack tortuosity in polymer-polymer composites through ordered pores

Megan Valentine, Craig Hawker, Luke Gockowski, Neil Dolinski, Roberto Chavez, Noy Cohen, Fabian Eisenreich, Stefan Hecht & Robert McMeeking
Multimaterial additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is an enabling tool for exploring structure-property relationships. In this work, a recently developed multimaterial printing approach, solution mask liquid lithography (SMaLL), is used to produce polymer-polymer composites inspired by tough, hierarchical structures found in nature. Triphasic composites comprised of a hard exterior “cuticle”, a soft interior “core,” and controlled pore size/structure are printed in a single step and their mechanical properties evaluated. The results of these tests demonstrate...

Mixed-species herding levels the landscape of fear

Keenan Stears, Melissa Schmitt, Christopher Wilmers & Adrian Shrader
Prey antipredator behaviours are influenced by perceived predation risk in a landscape and social information gleaned from herd mates regarding predation risk. It is well documented that high-quality social information about risk can come from heterospecific herd mates. Here, we integrate social information with the landscape of fear to quantify how these landscapes are modified by mixed-species herding. To do this, we investigated zebra vigilance in single- and mixed-species herds across different levels of predation...

Data from: Archaeological Central American maize genomes suggest ancient gene flow from South America

Logan Kistler, Heather B. Thakar, Amber M. VanDerwarker, Alejandra Domic, Anders Bergström, Richard J. George, Thomas K. Harper, Robin G. Allaby, Kenneth Hirth & Douglas J. Kennett
Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) domestication began in southwestern Mexico ~9,000 calendar years before present (cal. BP) and humans dispersed this important grain to South America by at least 7000 cal. BP as a partial domesticate. South America served as a secondary improvement center where the domestication syndrome became fixed and new lineages emerged in parallel with similar processes in Mesoamerica. Later, Indigenous cultivators carried a second major wave of maize southward from Mesoamerica, but...

Habitats and fish communities at mesophotic depths in the Mexican Pacific

Jordan A. Hollarsmith, Georgina Ramirez-Ortiz, Tallulah Winquist, Manuel Velasco-Lozano, Katherine DuBois, Hector Bonilla, Kyle Neumann & Ted Grosholz
Aim: Mesophotic ecosystems, found at the limit of light penetration in the ocean, are rich in biodiversity and harbor unique ecological communities. However, they remain among the least studied habitat zones on earth due to high costs and technological limitations. Here, we characterize mesophotic communities in two marine reserves across a range of habitat types, depths, and temperatures using submersible technologies, with the goal of understanding the processes that structure these communities across biogeographic regions....

High parasite diversity in the amphipod Gammarus lacustris in a subarctic lake

Jenny Shaw, Eirik Henriksen, Rune Knudsen, Jesper Kuhn, Armand Kuris, Kevin Lafferty, Anna Siwertsson, Miroslava Soldánová & Per-Arne Amundsen
Amphipods are often key species in aquatic food webs due to their functional roles in the ecosystem and as intermediate hosts for trophically transmitted parasites. Amphipods can also host many parasite species, yet few studies address the entire parasite community of a gammarid population, precluding a more dynamic understanding of the food web. We set out to identify and quantify the parasite community of Gammarus lacustris to understand the contributions of the amphipod and its...

Intrinsic quantized anomalous Hall effect in a moiré heterostructure

Marec Serlin, Charles Tschirhart, Hryhoriy Polshyn, Yuxuan Zhang, Jiacheng Zhu, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi & Andrea Young
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect combines topology and magnetism to produce precisely quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field. We report the observation of a QAH effect in twisted bilayer graphene aligned to hexagonal boron nitride. The effect is driven by intrinsic strong interactions, which polarize the electrons into a single spin and valley resolved moiré miniband with Chern number C = 1. In contrast to magnetically doped systems, the measured transport energy gap...

Dominance of endemics in the reef fish assemblages of the Hawaiian Archipelago

Alan Friedlander, Mary Donovan, Edward DeMartini & Brian Bowen
Aim: Species ranges provide a valuable foundation for resolving biogeographic regions, evolutionary processes, and extinction risks. To inform conservation priorities, here we develop the first bioregionalization based on reef fish abundance of the Hawaiian Archipelago, which spans nearly 10° of latitude across 2,400 km, including 8 high volcanic islands in the populated main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), and 10 low islands (atolls, shoals, and islets) in the remote northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI).. Location: The Hawaiian Archipelago....

Single cell transcriptomics of of Abedinium reveals a new early-branching dinoflagellate lineage

Elizabeth Cooney, Noriko Okamoto, Anna Cho, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Thomas Richards, Alexandra Worden, Alyson Santoro, Brian Leander & Patrick Keeling
Dinoflagellates possess many unique cellular characteristics with unresolved evolutionary histories including nuclei with greatly expanded genomes and chromatin packaged using histone-like proteins and dinoflagellate-viral nucleoproteins instead of histones, highly reduced mitochondrial genomes with extensive RNA editing, a mix of photosynthetic and cryptic secondary plastids, and tertiary plastids. Resolving the evolutionary origin of these traits requires understanding their ancestral states and early intermediates. Several deep-branching dinoflagellate lineages are good candidates for such reconstruction, however they tend...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • California State University Los Angeles
  • Chapman University
  • Washington State University
  • Stanford University
  • Oregon State University
  • University of California, San Diego
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • University of Florida