302 Works

Data from: Ovary development and cold tolerance of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) in the central plains of Kansas, United States

Elizabeth R. Everman, Philip J. Freda, Mariah Brown, Adam J. Schieferecke, Gregory J. Ragland & Theodore J. Morgan
Environmental challenges presented by temperature variation can be overcome through phenotypic plasticity in small invasive ectotherms. We tested the effect of thermal exposure to 21, 18, and 11°C throughout the whole life cycle of individuals, thermal exposure of adults reared at 25°C to 15 and 11°C for a 21-d period, and long (14:10 hr) and short (10:14 hr) photoperiod on ovary size and development in Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) cultured from a recently established...

Data from: Identifying environmental drivers of greenhouse gas emissions under warming and reduced rainfall in boreal-temperate forests

Catarina S. C. Martins, Loïc Nazaries, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Catriona A. Macdonald, Ian C. Anderson, Sarah E. Hobbie, Rhodney T. Venterea, Peter B. Reich, Brajesh K. Singh & Rodney T. Venterea
1.Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are predicted to increase as a consequence of fossil fuel emissions and the impact on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Forest ecosystems in general, and forest soils in particular, can be sinks or sources for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Environmental studies traditionally target soil temperature and moisture as the main predictors of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) flux from different ecosystems; however, these emissions are primarily biologically...

Data from: Fruit secondary compounds mediate the retention time of seeds in the guts of Neotropical fruit bats

Justin W. Baldwin & Susan R. Whitehead
Plants often recruit frugivorous animals to transport their seeds, however gut passage can have varying effects on plant fitness depending on the physical and chemical treatment of the seed, the distance seeds are transported, and the specific site of deposition. One way in which plants can mediate the effects of gut passage on fitness is by producing fruit secondary compounds that influence gut retention time. Using frugivorous bats (Carollia perspicillata: Phyllostomidae) and Neotropical plants in...

Data from: Feces nitrogen release induced by different large herbivores in a dry grassland

Jingzhi Wang, Deli Wang, Chunqiang Li, Timothy R. Seastedt, Cunzhu Liang, Ling Wang, Wei Sun, Maowei Liang & Yu Li
Large herbivores have pronounced effects on nutrient cycling in grasslands. These organisms are known to alter the quality and quantity of plant production as well as the amounts and quality of plant litter and animal wastes. The generalization that the relative quality of detritus inputs is enhanced by herbivores is well known, but how this process is affected by diet selection processing and feces production of different large herbivores remains largely unstudied. Here, we measured...

Data from: RADseq dataset with 90% missing data fully resolves recent radiation of Petalidium (Acanthaceae) in the ultra-arid deserts of Namibia

Erin A. Tripp, Yi-Hsin Erica Tsai, Yongbin Zhuang & Kyle G. Dexter
Deserts, even those at tropical latitudes, often have strikingly low levels of plant diversity, particularly within genera. One remarkable exception to this pattern is the genus Petalidium (Acanthaceae), in which 37 of 40 named species occupy one of the driest environments on Earth, the Namib Desert of Namibia and neighboring Angola. To contribute to understanding this enigmatic diversity, we generated RADseq data for 47 accessions of Petalidium representing 22 species. We explored the impacts of...

Data from: Stress response, gut microbial diversity, and sexual signals correlate with social interactions

Iris I. Levin, David M. Zonana, Bailey K. Fosdick, Se Jin Song, Rob Knight & Rebecca J. Safran
Theory predicts that social interactions are dynamically linked to phenotype. Yet because social interactions are difficult to quantify, little is known about the precise details on how interactivity is linked to phenotype. Here, we deployed proximity loggers on North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) to examine intercorrelations among social interactions, morphology and features of the phenotype that are sensitive to the social context: stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and gut microbial diversity. We analysed relationships at...

Data from: Experimental investigation of alternative transmission functions: quantitative evidence for the importance of non-linear transmission dynamics in host-parasite systems

Sarah A. Orlofske, Samuel M. Flaxman, Maxwell B. Joseph, Andy Fenton, Brett A. Melbourne & Pieter T. J. Johnson
1. Understanding pathogen transmission is crucial for predicting and managing disease. Nonetheless, experimental comparisons of alternative functional forms of transmission remain rare, and those experiments that are conducted are often not designed to test the full range of possible forms. 2. To differentiate among ten candidate transmission functions, we used a novel experimental design in which we independently varied four factors—duration of exposure, numbers of parasites, numbers of hosts, and parasite density—in laboratory infection experiments....

Data from: Landscape genetic approaches to guide native plant restoration in the Mojave Desert

Daniel F. Shryock, Caroline A. Havrilla, Lesley A. DeFalco, Todd C. Esque, Nathan A. Custer & Troy E. Wood
Restoring dryland ecosystems is a global challenge due to synergistic drivers of disturbance coupled with unpredictable environmental conditions. Dryland plant species have evolved complex life-history strategies to cope with fluctuating resources and climatic extremes. Although rarely quantified, local adaptation is likely widespread among these species and potentially influences restoration outcomes. The common practice of reintroducing propagules to restore dryland ecosystems, often across large spatial scales, compels evaluation of adaptive divergence within these species. Such evaluations...

PSP FIELDS Digital Fields Board (DFB) AC-coupled Searchcoil Magnetometer, SCM, Bandpass filtered, Low Frequency, High Gain, u-component, Sensor coordinates, Level 2 (L2), 0.873813 s Data

Stuart D. Bale, Thierry Dudok de Wit, David M. Malaspina, Alexandros Chasapis, Marc Pulupa, Timothy Quinn & Peter Schroeder
PSP FIELDS Digital Fields Board, DFB, SCMulfhg data. The DFB is the low frequency, less than 75 kHz, component of the FIELDS experiment on the Parker Solar Probe spacecraft. DFB AC bandpass data consist of peak and average values of the absolute value of bandpassed time series waveform data over a time interval equal to the reporting cadence. The AC bandpass data have the peak response frequency of each bin reported in the metadata. The...

Migratory divides coincide with reproductive barriers across replicated avian hybrid zones above the Tibetan Plateau

Elizabeth Scordato, Chris C. R. Smith, Georgy A. Semenov, Yu Liu, Matthew R. Wilkins, Wei Liang, Alexander Rubtsov, Gomboobaatar Sundev, Kazuo Koyama, Sheela P. Turbek, Michael B. Wunder, Craig A. Stricker & Rebecca Safran
Migratory divides are proposed to be catalysts for speciation across a diversity of taxa. However, it is difficult to test the relative contributions of migratory behavior vs. other divergent traits to reproductive isolation. Comparing hybrid zones with and without migratory divides offers a rare opportunity to directly examine the contribution of divergent migratory behavior to reproductive barriers. We show that across replicate sampling transects of two pairs of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) subspecies, strong reproductive...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Data from: Rapid speciation via the evolution of pre-mating isolation

Sheela Turbek, Melanie Browne, Adrián S. Di Giacomo, Cecilia Kopuchian, Wesley Hochachka, M. Cecilia Estalles, Darío Lijtmaer, Pablo Tubaro, Luís Fábio Silveira, Irby J. Lovette, Rebecca Safran, Scott Taylor & Leonardo Campagna
Behavioral isolation can catalyze speciation and permit the slow accumulation of additional reproductive barriers between co-occurring organisms. We illustrate how this process occurs by examining the genomic and behavioral bases of pre-mating isolation between two bird species (Sporophila hypoxantha and the recently discovered S. iberaensis) that belong to the capuchino seedeaters, a recent, rapid radiation characterized by variation in male plumage coloration and song. Though these two species co-occur without ecological barriers to reproduction, we...

Terrestrial lichen data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Merritt Turetsky & Jill Johnstone
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Data from: Gut microbiome composition and metabolomic profiles of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) reflect host ecology

Andres Gomez, Klara Petrzelkova, Carl J. Yeoman, Klara Vlckova, Jakub Mrázek, Ingrid Koppova, Franck Carbonero, Alexander Ulanov, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen Nelson, H. Rex Gaskins, Brenda Wilson, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh & Karen E. Nelson
The metabolic activities of gut microbes significantly influence host physiology; thus, characterizing the forces that modulate this micro-ecosystem is key to understanding mammalian biology and fitness. To investigate the gut microbiome of wild primates and determine how these microbial communities respond to the host's external environment, we characterized faecal bacterial communities and, for the first time, gut metabolomes of four wild lowland gorilla groups in the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. Results show that...

Data from: Long jumpers with and without a transtibial amputation have different 3D center of mass and joint take-off step kinematics

Johannes Funken, Steffen Willwacher, Kai Heinrich, Ralf Müller, Hiroaki Hobara, Alena Grabowski & Wolfgang Potthast
Long jumpers with below the knee amputation (BKA) have achieved remarkable performances, yet the underlying biomechanics resulting in these jump distances are unknown. We measured 3D motion and used multi-segment modelling to quantify and compare the center of mass (COM) and joint kinematics of three long jumpers with BKA and seven non-amputee long jumpers during the take-off step of the long jump. Despite having the same jump distances, athletes with BKA, who used their affected...

Data from: Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming

Erin Conlisk, Cristina Castanha, Matthew J. Germino, Thomas T. Veblen, Jeremy M. Smith & Lara M. Kueppers
1. Species distribution shifts in response to climate change require that recruitment increase beyond current range boundaries. For trees with long lifespans, the importance of climate-sensitive seedling establishment to the pace of range shifts has not been demonstrated quantitatively. 2. Using spatially explicit, stochastic population models combined with data from long-term forest surveys, we explored whether the climate-sensitivity of recruitment observed in climate manipulation experiments was sufficient to alter populations and elevation ranges of two...

Data from: Moth body size increases with elevation along a complete tropical elevational gradient for two hyperdiverse clades

Gunnar Brehm, Dirk Zeuss & Robert K. Colwell
The body size of an animal is probably its most important functional trait. For arthropods, environmental drivers of body size variation are still poorly documented and understood, especially in tropical regions. We use a unique dataset for two species-rich, phylogenetically independent moth taxa (Lepidoptera: Geometridae; Arctiinae), collected along an extensive tropical elevational gradient in Costa Rica, to investigate the correlates and possible causes of body-size variation. We studied 15,047 specimens (794 species) of Geometridae and...

Data from: Compromised external validity: federally produced cannabis does not reflect legal markets

Daniela Vergara, L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C. Ruthenburg, Kymron DeCesare, Donald P. Land, Kent E. Hutchison & Nolan C. Kane
As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use...

Data from: Evaluating the impact of domestication and captivity on the horse gut microbiome

Jessica L. Metcalf, Se Jin Song, James T. Morton, Sophie Weiss, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Frédéric Joly, Claudia Feh, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, Amnon Amir, Eske Willerslev, Rob Knight, Valerie McKenzie & Ludovic Orlando
The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly...

Data from: The ecology and evolution of seed predation by Darwin's finches on Tribulus cistoides on the Galápagos Islands

Sofía Carvajal-Endara, Andrew P. Hendry, Nancy C. Emery, Corey P. Neu, Diego Carmona, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, T. Jonathan Davies, Jaime A. Chaves & Marc T. J Johnson
Predator-prey interactions play a key role in the evolution of species traits through antagonistic coevolutionary arms-races. The evolution of beak morphology in the Darwin’s finches in response to competition for seed resources is a classic example of evolution by natural selection. The seeds of Tribulus cistoides are an important food source for the largest ground finch species (Geospiza fortis, G. magnirostris, and G. conirostris) in dry months, and the hard spiny morphology of the fruits...

Data from: Turning the crown upside down: gene tree parsimony roots the eukaryotic tree of life

Laura A. Katz, Jessica R. Grant, Laura Wegener Parfrey & J. Gordon Burleigh
The first analyses of gene sequence data indicated that the eukaryotic tree of life consisted of a long stem of microbial groups ‘topped’ by a crown containing plants, animals, and fungi and their microbial relatives. While more recent multigene concatenated analyses have refined the relationships among the many branches of eukaryotes, the root of the eukaryotic tree of life has remained elusive. Inferring the root of extant eukaryotes is challenging because of the age of...

Widely assumed phenotypic associations in Cannabis sativa lack a shared genetic basis

Daniela Vergara
The flowering plant Cannabis sativa, cultivated for centuries for multiple purposes, displays extensive variation in phenotypic traits in addition to its wide array of secondary metabolite production. Notably, Cannabis produces two well-known secondary-metabolite cannabinoids: cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which are the main products sought by consumers in the medical and recreational market. Cannabis has several suggested subspecies which have been shown to differ in chemistry, branching patterns, leaf morphology and other traits....

Nitrification and denitrification in the Community Land Model compared to observations at Hubbard Brook Forest

Cynthia Nevison, Christine Goodale, Peter Hess, William Wieder, Julius Vira & Peter Groffman
Models of terrestrial system dynamics often include nitrogen (N) cycles to better represent N limitation of terrestrial carbon (C) uptake but simulating the fate of N in ecosystems has proven challenging. Here, key soil N fluxes and flux ratios from the Community Land Model version 5.0 (CLM5.0) are compared to an extensive set of observations from the Hubbard Brook Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in New Hampshire. Simulated fluxes include microbial immobilization and plant...

Positive interactions between an exotic invader and moss biocrusts vary across life-stage and correspond with the effect of water pulses on soil nitrogen

Mandy Slate, Morgan McLeod & Ragan Callaway
The size and frequency of resource pulses can affect plant interactions and increase the abundance of invasive species relative to native species. We examined resource pulses generated during desiccation and rehydration of communities of native biological soil crust (biocrust) forming mosses, in the context of positive associations between biocrusts and the invasive forb, Centaurea stoebe. We surveyed Centaurea and biocrust cover and evaluated how interactions among Centaurea, biocrusts, and water pulses influenced plant biomass and...

Biodiversity-productivity relationships are key to nature-based climate solutions

Akira Mori, Laura Dee, Andrew Gonzalez, Haruka Ohashi, Jane Cowles, Alexandra Wright, Michel Loreau, Yann Hautier, Tim Newbold, Peter Reich, Tetsuya Matsui, Wataru Takeuchi, Kei-Ichi Okada, Rupert Seidl & Forest Isbell
The global impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked but the feedbacks between them are rarely assessed. Areas with greater tree diversity tend to be more productive, providing a greater carbon sink, and biodiversity loss could reduce these natural C sinks. Here, we quantify how tree and shrub species richness could affect biomass production at biome, national and regional scales. We find that greenhouse gas mitigation could help maintain tree diversity and thereby...

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