306 Works

The cost of travel: how dispersal ability limits local adaptation in host-parasite interactions

Pieter Johnson, Dana Calhoun, Wynne Moss, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Tawni Riepe, Joshua Hallas, Thomas Parchman, Chris Feldman, Josh Cropanzano, Jay Bowerman, Tyler Achatz, Vasyl Tkach & Janet Koprivnikar
Classical theory suggests that parasites will exhibit higher fitness in sympatric relative to allopatric host populations (local adaptation). However, evidence for local adaptation in natural host-parasite systems is often equivocal, emphasizing the need for cross-infection experiments conducted over realistic geographic scales and comparisons among species with varied life history traits. Here, we conducted cross-infection experiments to test how two trematode (flatworm) species (Paralechriorchis syntomentera and Ribeiroia ondatrae) with differing dispersal abilities varied in the strength...

Analysis Data for \"Identifying and characterizing pesticide use on 9,000 fields of organic agriculture\"

Ashley Larsen, Sofie McComb, Claire Powers & Sofie McComb
We identify the location of ~9,000 organic fields from 2013 — 2019 using field-level crop and pesticide use data, along with state certification data, for Kern County, CA, one of the US’ most valuable crop producing counties. We parse apart how being organic relative to conventional affects decisions to spray pesticides and, if spraying, how much to spray. We show the expected probability of spraying any pesticides is reduced by about 30 percentage points for...

Adaptation to viscous Snowball Earth Oceans is a path to complex multicellularity

Carl Simpson
Animals, fungi, and algae with complex multicellular bodies all evolved independently from unicellular ancestors. The early history of these major eukaryotic multicellular clades, if not their origins, co-occur with an extreme phase of global glaciations known as the Snowball Earth. Here, I propose that the long-term loss of low viscosity environments due to several rounds global glaciation drove the multiple origins of complex multicellularity in eukaryotes and the subsequent radiation of complex multicellular groups. Under...

Modulation of a protein-folding landscape revealed by AFM-based force spectroscopy notwithstanding instrumental limitations

Devin Edwards, Marc-Andre Leblanc & Thomas Perkins
Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying protein folding. Over the last decade, a key question has emerged: how are changes in intrinsic biomolecular dynamics altered by attachment to micron-scale force probes via flexible linkers? Here, we studied the folding/unfolding of α3D using AFM-based force spectroscopy. α3D offers an unusual opportunity as a prior smFRET study showed α3D’s molecular diffusion constant within the context of Kramers theory varies with pH. The resulting pH-dependence...

Genomic evidence that governmentally produced Cannabis sativa poorly represents genetic variation available in state markets

Daniela Vergara
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is the sole producer of Cannabis for research purposes in the United States, including medical investigation. Previous research established that cannabinoid profiles in the NIDA varieties lacked diversity and potency relative to the Cannabis produced commercially. Additionally, microsatellite marker analyses have established that the NIDA varieties are genetically divergent form varieties produced in the private legal market. Here, we analyzed the genome of multiple Cannabis varieties from diverse...

Data from: The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: an experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica

Rebecca Safran, Yoni Vortman, Brittany R. Jenkins, Joanna K. Hubbard, Matthew R. Wilkins, Rachel J. Bradley & Arnon Lotem
Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we...

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