339 Works

Positive interactions between an exotic invader and moss biocrusts vary across life-stage and correspond with the effect of water pulses on soil nitrogen

Mandy Slate, Morgan McLeod & Ragan Callaway
The size and frequency of resource pulses can affect plant interactions and increase the abundance of invasive species relative to native species. We examined resource pulses generated during desiccation and rehydration of communities of native biological soil crust (biocrust) forming mosses, in the context of positive associations between biocrusts and the invasive forb, Centaurea stoebe. We surveyed Centaurea and biocrust cover and evaluated how interactions among Centaurea, biocrusts, and water pulses influenced plant biomass and...

Biodiversity-productivity relationships are key to nature-based climate solutions

Akira Mori, Laura Dee, Andrew Gonzalez, Haruka Ohashi, Jane Cowles, Alexandra Wright, Michel Loreau, Yann Hautier, Tim Newbold, Peter Reich, Tetsuya Matsui, Wataru Takeuchi, Kei-Ichi Okada, Rupert Seidl & Forest Isbell
The global impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked but the feedbacks between them are rarely assessed. Areas with greater tree diversity tend to be more productive, providing a greater carbon sink, and biodiversity loss could reduce these natural C sinks. Here, we quantify how tree and shrub species richness could affect biomass production at biome, national and regional scales. We find that greenhouse gas mitigation could help maintain tree diversity and thereby...

Nitrification and denitrification in the Community Land Model compared to observations at Hubbard Brook Forest

Cynthia Nevison, Christine Goodale, Peter Hess, William Wieder, Julius Vira & Peter Groffman
Models of terrestrial system dynamics often include nitrogen (N) cycles to better represent N limitation of terrestrial carbon (C) uptake but simulating the fate of N in ecosystems has proven challenging. Here, key soil N fluxes and flux ratios from the Community Land Model version 5.0 (CLM5.0) are compared to an extensive set of observations from the Hubbard Brook Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in New Hampshire. Simulated fluxes include microbial immobilization and plant...

Data from: Phenological synchrony shapes pathology in host–parasite systems

Travis McDevitt-Galles, Wynne E. Moss, Dana M. Calhoun & Pieter T. J. Johnson
A key challenge surrounding ongoing climate shifts is to identify how they alter species interactions, including those between hosts and parasites. Because transmission often occurs during critical time windows, shifts in the phenology of either taxa can alter the likelihood of interaction or the resulting pathology. We quantified how phenological synchrony between vulnerable stages of an amphibian host (Pseudacris regilla) and infection by a pathogenic trematode (Ribeiroia ondatrae), determined infection prevalence, parasite load, and host...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Data from: Rapid speciation via the evolution of pre-mating isolation

Sheela Turbek, Melanie Browne, Adrián S. Di Giacomo, Cecilia Kopuchian, Wesley Hochachka, M. Cecilia Estalles, Darío Lijtmaer, Pablo Tubaro, Luís Fábio Silveira, Irby J. Lovette, Rebecca Safran, Scott Taylor & Leonardo Campagna
Behavioral isolation can catalyze speciation and permit the slow accumulation of additional reproductive barriers between co-occurring organisms. We illustrate how this process occurs by examining the genomic and behavioral bases of pre-mating isolation between two bird species (Sporophila hypoxantha and the recently discovered S. iberaensis) that belong to the capuchino seedeaters, a recent, rapid radiation characterized by variation in male plumage coloration and song. Though these two species co-occur without ecological barriers to reproduction, we...

Widely assumed phenotypic associations in Cannabis sativa lack a shared genetic basis

Daniela Vergara
The flowering plant Cannabis sativa, cultivated for centuries for multiple purposes, displays extensive variation in phenotypic traits in addition to its wide array of secondary metabolite production. Notably, Cannabis produces two well-known secondary-metabolite cannabinoids: cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which are the main products sought by consumers in the medical and recreational market. Cannabis has several suggested subspecies which have been shown to differ in chemistry, branching patterns, leaf morphology and other traits....

Memory array locations, delay times, and participant response

Kyra Schapiro, Kresimir Josic, Joshua Gold & Zachary Kilpatrick
Deliberative decisions based on an accumulation of evidence over time depend on working-memory, and working memory has limitations, but how these limitations affect deliberative decision-making is not understood. We used human psychophysics to assess the impact of working-memory limitations on the fidelity of a continuous decision variable. Participants decided the average location of multiple visual targets. This computed, continuous decision variable degraded with time and capacity in a manner that depended critically on the strategy...

The effects of ENSO and the North American monsoon on mast seeding in two Rocky Mountain conifer species

Andreas Wion, Ian Pearse, Kyle Rodman, Thomas Veblen & Miranda Redmond
We aimed to disentangle the patterns of synchronous and variable cone production (i.e., masting) and its relationship to climate in two conifer species native to dry forests of western North America. We used cone abscission scars to reconstruct ca. 15 years of recent cone production in Pinus edulis and Pinus ponderosa, and used redundancy analysis to relate time series of annual cone production to climate indices describing the North American monsoon and the El Niño...

Assessment of biogeographic variation in traits of Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) for use in restoration and agriculture

Peter Innes, André Gossweiler, Scott Jensen, Derek Tilley, Loren St. John, Thomas Jones, Stanley Kitchen & Brent S. Hulke
Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) is widely distributed across western North America and is currently used in native ecosystem restoration. There is also growing interest in de novo domestication of Lewis flax as a perennial oilseed crop. To better understand this species and facilitate both restoration and domestication, we used common gardens to assess bio-geographical variation in a variety of seed and growth traits from 37 flax accessions, consisting of 35 wild populations from the Intermountain...

Data from: Use of an exotic host plant shifts immunity, chemical defense, and viral burden in wild populations of a specialist insect herbivore

Nadya D. Muchoney, M. Deane Bowers, Adrian L. Carper, Peri A. Mason, Mike B. Teglas & Angela M. Smilanich
Defense against natural enemies constitutes an important driver of herbivore host range evolution in the wild. Populations of the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas phaeton (Nymphalidae), have recently incorporated an exotic plant, Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae), into their dietary range. To understand the tritrophic consequences of utilizing this exotic host plant, we examined immune performance, chemical defense, and interactions with a natural entomopathogen (Junonia coenia densovirus, Parvoviridae) across wild populations of this specialist herbivore. We measured three...

Terrestrial lichen data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Merritt Turetsky & Jill Johnstone
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Data from: Tritrophic interactions at a community level: effects of host-plant species quality on bird predation of caterpillars

Michael S. Singer, Timothy E. Farkas, Christian M. Skorik & Kailen A. Mooney
Effects of plant traits on herbivore-carnivore interactions are well documented in component communities, but are not well understood at the level of large, complex communities. We report on a two-year field experiment testing mechanisms by which variation in food quality among eight temperate forest tree species alters avian suppression of an assemblage of dietary generalist caterpillars. Plant quality and bird effects varied dramatically among tree species; high quality plants yielded herbivores of 50% greater mass...

Data from: Noise pollution filters bird communities based on vocal frequency

Clinton D. Francis, Catherine P. Ortega & Alexander Cruz
BACKGROUND: Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics are not only harmful to humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for the negative effects of noise on birds include the disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas....

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