303 Works

Data from: Multiple dimensions of bird beta diversity support that mountains are higher in the tropics

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas, Bette Loiselle & Christy McCain
Aim We examine latitudinal effects of breeding bird taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional β-diversity (Tβ, Pβ and Fβ, respectively) along elevational gradients to test predictions derived from Janzen’s (1967) classic ideas that tropical mountains represent stronger dispersal barriers than temperate mountains. Location Global Taxon Birds Methods Using a global dataset from 46 mountains, we examine latitudinal patterns of Tβ, Pβ, and Fβ, and their components: β rich and β repl. For each mountain and each dimension...

Why do parasites exhibit reverse latitudinal diversity gradients? Testing the roles of host diversity, habitat, and climate

Pieter Johnson & Sarah Haas
Aim: The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) – in which species richness decreases from the equator toward the poles – is among the most fundamental distributional patterns in ecology. Despite the expectation that the diversity of parasites tracks that of their hosts, available evidence suggests that many parasites exhibit reverse latitudinal gradients or no pattern, yet the rarity of large-scale datasets on host-parasite interactions calls into question the robustness of such trends. Here, we collected parasitological...

Data from: Food and habitat provisions jointly determine competitive and facilitative interactions among distantly related herbivores

Duofeng Pan, Xincheng Li, Kejia De, Ling Wang, Deli Wang, Qinfeng Guo, Chao Gao, Zhiwei Zhong, Zhu Hui, Zhongbao Shen & Timothy Seastedt
1. Interactions between distantly related herbivores exert powerful influences on ecosystems, but most studies to date have only considered unidirectional effects. Few have simultaneously examined the mutual effects that vertebrate herbivores and insect herbivores have on one another. 2. We conducted a set of manipulative experiments to evaluate the potential competition and facilitation between two pairs of distantly related herbivore taxa: an insect caterpillar (Gynaephora alpherakii) and two large vertebrate herbivores, yak (Bos grunniens) and...

Weather variation affects the dispersal of grasshoppers beyond their elevational ranges

Cesar Nufio, Andrew Prinster & Julian Resasco
Understanding how abiotic conditions influence dispersal patterns of organisms is important for understanding the degree to which species can track and persist in the face of changing climate. The goal of this study was to understand how weather conditions (temperature, precipitation and wind patterns) influence the dispersal patterns of multiple non-migratory grasshopper species from lower elevation grassland habitats in which they ­­complete their life-cycles to higher elevations that extend beyond their range limits. The study...

TSIS-1 SIM Recalibration of the SORCE-SIM Absolute Irradiance Scale

James Mothersbaugh, Jerald Harder, Steven Penton & Stèphane Bèland
This TSIS-Adjusted Value (TAV) SORCE-SIM irradiance calibration provides a TSIS1-SIM/SORCE-SIM ratio on the SORCE-SIM wavelength scale. This scale varies in spectral resolution from 1-34 nm over the spectral range. Irradiances are reported at a mean solar distance of 1 AU and zero relative line-of-sight velocity with respect to the Sun. The SORCE TSIS-1 Irradiance Calibration Ratio (STICR) is tabulated is the attached datasets, containingn the wavelength, number of spectra combined at this wavelength, SORCE mean...

The UCAR/CU CYGNSS Soil Moisture Product

Clara Chew & Eric Small
This dataset provides soil moisture retrievals, which have been gridded to 36 km, for the upper 5 cm of the soil surface at sparsely-sampled 6-hour intervals for +/- 38 degrees latitude for 2017 – present. Retrievals are derived from the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) constellation, which uses GNSS-Reflectometry to obtain L-band surface reflectivity observations over the land and ocean surface. This product, the UCAR/CU CYGNSS Soil Moisture Product, was jointly developed by the...

CMIP6 Zonal Velocity Volumes Near the Equator (3°S–3°N, 160°E–80°W, 0–400 m)

Kristopher Karnauskas
This data set is part of the larger Repeat Observations by Gliders in the Equatorial Region (ROGER) data set available here: https://doi.org/10.25810/pk4z-n050. ROGER was an NSF-funded project from 2012–2016 (OCE–1233282 and OCE–1232971). This page provides access to the data analyzed in the following publication: Karnauskas, K. B., J. Jakoboski, T. M. S. Johnston, W. B. Owens, D. L. Rudnick, and R. E. Todd (2020) The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in Three Generations of Global Climate Models...

CMIP6 Zonal Velocity Sections Along 93°W (3°S–3°N, 0–500 m)

Kristopher Karnauskas
This data set is part of the larger Repeat Observations by Gliders in the Equatorial Region (ROGER) data set available here: https://doi.org/10.25810/pk4z-n050. ROGER was an NSF-funded project from 2012–2016 (OCE–1233282 and OCE–1232971). This page provides access to the data analyzed in the following publication: Karnauskas, K. B., J. Jakoboski, T. M. S. Johnston, W. B. Owens, D. L. Rudnick, and R. E. Todd (2020) The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in Three Generations of Global Climate Models...

MAVEN/IUVS interpolated Limb data and predicted MCD data for the derivation of homopause altitude

MAVEN/IUVS interpolated Limb data and predicted MCD data for the derivation of homopause altitude. See dataset_README_Yoshida2020.txt for additional information.

Taylor Valley Stream Hydrology TLS B-421 PS23 SV01

Dianne McKnight, Michael Gooseff, Keith Williams & Marianne Okal

Passive and Active Spectrum Sharing (PASS)

Kevin K. Gifford
PASS is an NSF-funded project (ECCS-2030233)[1]. This page provides access to the noise-floor survey SigMF[2][3] data sets generated as part of the project. The University of Colorado Boulder (CU) Passive and Active Spectrum Sharing (PASS) project directly addresses the related problems of protecting passive users while enabling secure, dynamic spectrum sharing between passive and active systems. The PASS project is an interdisciplinary collaboration with deep expertise in spectrum science, spectrum sharing, wireless systems, and system...

Taylor Valley Stream Hydrology TLS B-421 PS24 SV01

DIANE MCKNIGHT, Michael Gooseff, Marianne Okal & Keith Williams

Discrete Aurora on Mars: Insights into their distribution and activity from MAVEN/IUVS observations

Sonal Jain & Nicholas Schneider
The IUVS aurora data is the set of Level1C files that has a format similar to that the IUVS team has been publishing to the public using the NASA planetary data system's atmosphere node. The PDS website doesn't contain data for nightside observations whereas this data set is explicitly from nightside observation used in the aurora study that has been submitted (soon to be published) to ascientific journal. Detail of the data structure can be...

Ultra-sensitive multi-species spectroscopic breath analysis for real-time health monitoring and diagnostics

Ya-Chu Chan, Jun Ye, Qizhong Liang, Jutta Toscano, P. Bryan Changala & David J. Nesbitt
Abstract from associated manuscript: Abstract from the manuscript: Breath analysis enables rapid, non-invasive diagnostics, as well as long-term monitoring, of human health through the identification and quantification of exhaled biomarkers. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the remarkable capabilities of mid-infrared (mid-IR) cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) applied to breath analysis. We simultaneously detect and monitor as a function of time four breath biomarkers - CH3OH, CH4, H2O and HDO - as well...

Data from: Of poisons and parasites: the defensive role of tetrodotoxin against infections in newts

Pieter T. J. Johnson, Dana M. Calhoun, Amber N. Stokes, Calvin B. Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J. Briggs, Jason T. Hoverman, Vasyl V. Tkach, Jaap C. De Roode & Jacobus C. De Roode
1. Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. 2. Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly colored and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which...

Data from: Sound settlement: noise surpasses land cover in explaining breeding habitat selection of secondary cavity-nesting birds

Nathan J. Kleist, Robert P. Guralnick, Alexander Cruz & Clinton D. Francis
Birds breeding in heterogeneous landscapes select nest sites by cueing in on a variety of factors from landscape features and social information to the presence of natural enemies. We focus on determining the relative impact of anthropogenic noise on nest site occupancy, compared to amount of forest cover, which is known to strongly influence the selection process. We examine chronic, industrial noise from natural gas wells directly measured at the nest box as well as...

Data from: Butterfly community ecology: the influences of habitat type, weather patterns, and dominant species in a temperate ecosystem

Natalie Robinson, Stephen Armstead & M. Deane Bowers
We compared variation in butterfly communities across 3 years at six different habitats in a temperate ecosystem near Boulder, Colorado, USA. These habitats were classified by the local Open Space consortium as: Grasslands, Tallgrass, Foothills Grasslands, Foothills Riparian, Plains Riparian, and Montane Woodland. Rainfall and temperature varied considerably during these years. We surveyed butterflies using the Pollard-Yates method of invertebrate sampling, and compared abundance, species richness, and diversity across habitats and years. Communities were most...

Data from: Microevolutionary processes impact macroevolutionary patterns

Jingchun Li, Jen-Pen Huang, Jeet Sukumaran & L Lacey Knowles
Background: Macroevolutionary modeling of species diversification plays important roles in inferring large-scale biodiversity patterns. It allows estimation of speciation and extinction rates and statistically testing their relationships with different ecological factors. However, macroevolutionary patterns are ultimately generated by microevolutionary processes acting at population levels, especially when speciation and extinction are considered protracted instead of point events. Neglecting the connection between micro- and macroevolution may hinder our ability to fully understand the underlying mechanisms that drive...

Data from: The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

Dena M. Smith & Jonathan D. Marcot
Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle...

Data from: Genomic regions underlying metabolic and neuronal signaling pathways are temporally consistent outliers in a moving avian hybrid zone

Dominique Wagner, Robert Curry, Nancy Chen, Irby Lovette & Scott Taylor
The study of hybrid zones can provide insight into the genetic basis of species differences that are relevant for the maintenance of reproductive isolation. Hybrid zones can also provide insight into climate change, species distributions, and evolution. The hybrid zone between black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (P. carolinensis) is shifting northward in response to increasing winter temperatures but is not increasing in width. This pattern indicates strong selection against chickadees with admixed genomes....

Genomic variation in the American pika: signatures of geographic isolation and implications for conservation

Kelly B. Klingler, Joshua P. Jahner, Thomas L. Parchman, Chris Ray & Mary M. Peacock
Distributional responses by alpine taxa to repeated, glacial-interglacial cycles throughout the last two million years have significantly influenced the spatial genetic structure of populations. These effects have been exacerbated for the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a small alpine lagomorph constrained by thermal sensitivity and a limited dispersal capacity. As a species of conservation concern, long-term lack of gene flow has important consequences for landscape genetic structure and levels of diversity within populations. Here, we use...

Parasite exposure and host susceptibility jointly drive the emergence of epidemics

Tara Stewart Merrill, Spencer Hall & Carla Cáceres
Parasite transmission is thought to depend on both parasite exposure and host susceptibility to infection; however, the relative contribution of these two factors to epidemics remains unclear. We used interactions between an aquatic host and its fungal parasite to evaluate how parasite exposure and host susceptibility interact to drive epidemics. In six lakes, we tracked the following factors from pre-epidemic to epidemic emergence: 1) parasite exposure (measured observationally as fungal spores attacking wild-caught hosts), 2)...

Latitudinal gradients in population growth do not reflect demographic responses to climate

Megan Peterson, Graham Bailes, Lauren Hendricks, Laurel Pfeifer-Meister, Paul Reed, Scott Bridgham, Bart Johnson, Robert Shriver, Ellen Waddle, Hannah Wroton, Daniel Doak, Bitty Roy & William Morris
Spatial gradients in population growth, such as across latitudinal or elevational gradients, are often assumed to primarily be driven by variation in climate, and are frequently used to infer species’ responses to climate change. Here, we use a novel demographic, mixed model approach to dissect the contributions of climate variables vs. other latitudinal or local site effects on spatiotemporal variation in population performance in three perennial bunchgrasses. For all three species, we find that performance...

Highlights from 10+ years of lichenological research in Great Smoky Mountains National Park: celebrating the United States National Park Service Centennial

Erin A. Tripp & James C. Lendemer
Great Smoky Mountains National Park is renowned as one of the most biologically diverse tracts of land in North America and is the most visited national park in the United States. The park comprises ∼830 square miles, epitomizes eastern temperate hardwood forests of North America, and serves as a refuge for nearly 20,000 documented species from microbes to plants and mammals. Lichens comprise one particularly diverse group of organisms in the park. In this study,...

Divergent sexual signals reflect costs of local parasites

Amanda Hund, Joanna K. Hubbard, Tomáš Albrecht, Yoni Vortman, Pavel Munclinger, Simona Krausová, Oldřich Tomášek & Rebecca J. Safran
Many closely related populations are distinguished by variation in sexual signals and this variation is hypothesized to play an important role in reproductive isolation and speciation. Within populations, there is considerable evidence that sexual signals provide information about the incidence and severity of parasite infections, but it remains unclear if variation in parasite communities across space could play a role in initiating or maintaining sexual trait divergence. To test for variation in parasite-associated selection, we...

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