369 Works

Host controls of within-host disease dynamics: insight from an invertebrate system

Tara Stewart Merrill, Zoi Rapti & Carla Cáceres
Within-host processes (representing the entry, establishment, growth and development of a parasite inside its host) may play a key role in parasite transmission but remain challenging to observe and quantify. We develop a general model for measuring host defenses and within-host disease dynamics. Our stochastic model breaks the infection process down into the stages of parasite exposure, entry, and establishment and provides associated probabilities for a host’s ability to resist infections with barriers and clear...

Data for: Dorsal premammillary projection to periaqueductal gray controls escape vigor from innate and conditioned threats

Peter Schuette, Weisheng Wang, Mimi La-Vu, Brooke Tobias, Marta Ceko, Philip Kragel, Fernando Reis, Shiyu Ji, Megha Sehgal, Sandra Maesta-Pereira, Meghmik Chakerian, Alcino Silva, Newton Canteras, Tor Wager, Jonathan Kao & Avishek Adhikari
Escape from threats has paramount importance for survival. However, it is unknown if a single circuit controls escape from innate and conditioned threats. The hypothalamic dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) may control escape, as it is strongly activated by escape-inducing threats and projects to the region most implicated in escape, the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG). We show that in mice cholecystokinin (cck)-expressing PMd cells are activated during escape, but not other defensive behaviors. PMd-cck ensemble activity...

Age predicts risky investment better than residual reproductive value

David Delaney, Luke Hoekstra & Fredric Janzen
Life-history theory predicts that investment into reproduction should increase as future reproductive opportunities (i.e., residual reproductive value, RRV) decrease. Researchers have thus intuitively used age as a proxy for RRV and assume RRV decreases with age when interpreting age-specific investment. Yet, age is an imperfect proxy for RRV and may even be a poor correlate in some systems. We used a 30-year study of the nesting ecology of painted turtles ( Chrysemys picta ) to...

Data from: Age-at-injury influences the glial response to traumatic brain injury in the cortex of male juvenile rats

Rachel Rowe, Tabitha Green, Sean Murphy & J. Bryce Ortiz
Glia influence neuronal development and aging. Few translational studies have examined how age at injury affects the glial response to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that rats injured before sexual maturity would exhibit a greater glial response, that persists into early adulthood, compared to rats injured near the onset of sexual maturity. Postnatal day (PND)17 and PND35 rats received midline fluid percussion injury or sham surgery. In three cortical regions (peri-injury, S1BF, perirhinal), we...

Data from \"2021 State of Open at the University of Colorado Boulder\" Report

Ryan Caillet, Melissa Cantrell, Andrew Johnson, Aditya Ranganath & Jordan Wrigley
This data set contains five data files that were used to produce the "2021 State of Open at the University of Colorado Boulder" report: 1. CUBoulderOAFund2013_2020.csv contains data from articles funded by the CU Boulder Libraries Open Access Fund from 2013 to 2020. This data was collected by CU Boulder Libraries personnel from successful applications to the Open Access Fund. 2. CUBoulderPublishedData2014_2020.csv contains data from the CU Boulder Faculty Reports of Professional Activities from 2014...

Quantifying microburst wind and turbulence enhancement in canyons

Katja Friedrich & Luchetti Nicholas
This data set contains model output from NCARS's Weather and Research Forecasting(WRF) model run in large-eddy simulation (LES) mode (WRF v3.6). A series of idealized simulations were conducted with the center of microburst downdrafts were placed 1.3 and 3.3 km upwind of a series of canyon types differing in length and slope angle. These canyon simulations are compared to microburst outflow boundary characteristics in flat terrain deriving topographic multiplier and differences in horizontal winds (wsp),...

Drivers of global variation in land ownership - dataset

Patrick Kavanagh, Michael Gavin, Hannah Haynie, Geoff Kushnick, Bruno Vilela, Ty Tuff, Claire Bowern, Bobbi Low, Carol Ember, Kathryn Kirby & Carlos Botero
Land ownership shapes natural resource management and social–ecological resilience, but the factors determining ownership norms in human societies remain unclear. Here we conduct a global empirical test of long‐standing theories from ecology, economics and anthropology regarding potential drivers of land ownership and territoriality. Prior theory suggests that resource defensibility, subsistence strategies, population pressure, political complexity and cultural transmission mechanisms may all influence land ownership. We applied multi‐model inference procedures based on logistic regression to cultural...

Overlooked costs of coloniality: Mislaid eggs and the double Incubation of separate nests

Amanda Hund
The evolution of colonial breeding remains an outstanding question in evolutionary biology, in part due to our limited understanding of the costs and benefits of group living. We document 85 cases of Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica erythrogaster laying, and subsequently abandoning, eggs in empty, unclaimed nests located adjacent to active nests during a six-year study. The frequency of this behavior was positively correlated with total available nests, a metric that increases with colony size. In...

Tepee Fire Fuel and Fuel Consumption

, Andrew T. Hudak, Joseph C Restaino, Michael Billmire, Nancy H. F. French, Roger D. Ottmar, Bridget Hass, Kyle Zarzana, Tristan Goulden & Rainer Volkamer
Data Overview Mapped attributes: Fuel consumption derived from ALS data Post-fire fuel load derived from ALS data Pre-fire fuel load derived from ALS data Fuel consumption derived from FCCS data Post-fire fuel load derived from FCCS data Pre-fire fuel load derived from FCCS data Supplements: ALS data extent Tepee fire perimeter Prior forest fuel treatments Description Landscape scale estimates of pre-fire fuel load and fuel consumption are valuable resources for land managers and scientists. We...

Data: Sex-specific effects of capital resources on reproductive timing and success in red squirrels

Jessica Haines, David Delaney, Andrea Wishart, Andrew McAdam, David Coltman, Jeffrey Lane, Ben Dantzer & Stan Boutin
Reproduction is an energetically expensive activity for both sexes. However, if males and females differ in their annual timing of reproduction, such that peak investment for one sex occurs during a more resource-limited period, there is an opportunity for sex-specific selection to act on the acquisition of energetic resources. Both male and female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) cache conifer cones, although males typically have larger caches than females. Peak energetic investment in reproduction...

Jang Bogo Dynasonde data on vertical speed for March-September 2015

Nikolay Zabotin & Liudmila Zabotina
Vertical Incidence Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR) equipped with the Dynasonde analysis software was installed at the Antarctic Jang Bogo Station (JBS, 74.62 S, 164.23 E geographic coordinates and 79.87 S geomagnetic latitude) in 2015. This specific dataset that was selected for the study of long-period wave activity in the ocean - Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) - atmosphere system is 5.5-month long, between March 2015 and September 2015. During this time interval periodicity of the sounding...

Data from: Microglia are necessary to regulate sleep after an immune challenge

Rachel Rowe & Tabitha Green
Microglia play a critical role in the neuroimmune response, but little is known about the role of microglia in sleep following an inflammatory trigger. Nevertheless, decades of research have been predicated on the assumption that an inflammatory trigger increases sleep through microglial activation. We hypothesized that mice (n = 30) with depleted microglia would sleep less following administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. Brains were collected and microglial morphology was assessed using quantitative skeletal...

Widespread Shallow Water Ice on Mars at High and Mid Latitudes

Sylvain Piqueux, Jennifer Buz, Christopher S. Edwards, Joshua L. Bandfield, Armin Kleinböhl, David M. Kass & Paul O. Hayne
The auxiliary information associated with "Widespread Shallow Water Ice on Mars at High and Mid Latitudes" by Piqueux et al. consists of a set of 2 maps (d_m.ascii and TI_SI.ascii) and 2 coordinate files (Lon.ascii and Lat.ascii). - d_m.ascii (720 x 360): Depth to the top of the water ice table, in meter - TI_SI.ascii (720 x 360): Upper (dry) regolith thermal inertia, in J m^2 K-1 s^-1/2 These maps are projected on a simple...

Dataset associated with: The ERM-1 membrane-binding domain directs erm-1 mRNA localization to the plasma membrane in the C. elegans embryo

Lindsay Winkenbach, Dylan Parker, Robert Williams & Erin Osborne Nishimura
mRNA localization and transport are integral in regulating gene expression. In Caenorhabditis elegans' embryos, the maternally inherited mRNA erm-1 (Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin) becomes concentrated in anterior blastomeres. erm-1 mRNA localizes within those blastomeres to the plasma membrane where the essential ERM-1 protein, a membrane-actin linker, is also found. We demonstrate that the localization of erm-1 mRNA to the plasma membrane is translation dependent and requires its encoded N-terminal, membrane-binding (FERM) domain. By perturbing translation through multiple methods,...

Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki UVI Calibrated Data PDS3 dataset

Shin-ya Murakami, Manabu Yamada, Atsushi Yamazaki, Kevin McGouldrick, Yukio Yamamoto & George L. Hashimoto
This dataset contains products acquired by the UVI instrument of the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO, also known as PLANET-C and AKATSUKI) spacecraft. This dataset conforms PDS3 Standard. This dataset uses the Committee on Data Management and Computation (CODMAC) data level numbering system. The UVI CDRs are considered Level 3 or Composite Data (equivalent to NASA Level 1B). The CDRs are reconstructed from Level 2 or Edited Data. This dataset consists entirely of FITS files. Calibrated...

Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki UVI Raw Data PDS3 dataset

Shin-ya Murakami, Manabu Yamada, Atsushi Yamazaki, Kevin McGouldrick, Yukio Yamamoto & George L. Hashimoto
This dataset contains products acquired by the UVI instrument of the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO, also known as PLANET-C and AKATSUKI) spacecraft. This dataset conforms PDS3 Standard. This dataset uses the Committee on Data Management and Computation (CODMAC) data level numbering system. The UVI EDRs are considered Level 2 or Edited Data (equivalent to NASA Level 1A). The EDRs are reconstructed from Level 1 or Raw Data. This dataset consists entirely of FITS files. Uncalibrated...

Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki IR2 Calibrated Data PDS3 dataset

Shin-ya Murakami, Takehiko Satoh, Kevin McGouldrick, Yukio Yamamoto & George L. Hashimoto
This dataset contains products acquired by the IR2 instrument of the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO, also known as PLANET-C and AKATSUKI) spacecraft. This dataset conforms PDS3 Standard. This dataset uses the Committee on Data Management and Computation (CODMAC) data level numbering system. The IR2 CDRs are considered Level 3 or Composite Data (equivalent to NASA Level 1B). The CDRs are reconstructed from Level 2 or Edited Data. This dataset consists entirely of FITS files. Calibrated...

Data from: How temperature shifts affect parasite production: testing the roles of thermal stress and acclimation

Sara H. Paull, Thomas R. Raffel, Bryan E. LaFonte & Pieter T. J. Johnson
1. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of temperature shifts with climate change will influence species interactions if species have differential acclimation responses. For example, if parasites acclimate to temperature shifts faster than their hosts, as might be expected due to their smaller sizes and faster metabolisms, temperature variability could lead to increased infection. However, this assumption might not hold if benefits of acclimation are counteracted by energetic costs or thermal stress, underscoring the need...

Data from: Lecanora anakeestiicola (Lecanorales): an unusual new fruticose species from Great Smoky Mountains National Park in eastern North America

James C. Lendemer & Erin A. Tripp
The sterile asexually reproducing lichen Lecanora anakeestiicola is described as new to science from the southern Appalachian Mountains. This species is known from two populations that occur on shaded outcrops of the Anakeesta Formation at high elevations. It can be recognized by its dimorphic thallus with flaccid, ecorticate pseudopodetia and by the production of usnic acid in addition to zeorin. It is similar to Lecanora phryganitis, a narrow endemic of the Pacific Coast, which differs...

Data from: Theoretical models of the influence of genomic architecture on the dynamics of speciation

Samuel M. Flaxman, Aaron C. Wacholder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
A long-standing problem in evolutionary biology has been determining whether and how gradual, incremental changes at the gene level can account for rapid speciation and bursts of adaptive radiation. Using genome-scale computer simulations, we extend previous theory showing how gradual adaptive change can generate nonlinear population transitions, resulting in the rapid formation of new, reproductively isolated species. We show that these transitions occur via a mechanism rooted in a basic property of biological heredity: the...

Data from: Competition for hummingbird pollination shapes flower color variation in Andean Solanaceae

Nathan Muchhala, Sönke Johnsen & Stacey Dewitt Smith
One classic explanation for the remarkable diversity of flower colors across angiosperms involves evolutionary shifts among different types of pollinators with different color preferences. However, the pollinator shift model fails to account for the many examples of color variation within clades that share the same pollination system. An alternate explanation is the competition model, which suggests that color divergence evolves in response to interspecific competition for pollinators, as a means to decrease interspecific pollinator movements....

Data from: QTL mapping identifies candidate alleles involved in adaptive introgression and range expansion in a wild sunflower

Kenneth D. Whitney, Karl W. Broman, Nolan C. Kane, Stephen M. Hovick, Rebecca A. Randell & Loren H. Rieseberg
The wild North American sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. debilis are participants in one of the earliest identified examples of adaptive trait introgression, and the exchange is hypothesized to have triggered a range expansion in H. annuus. However, the genetic basis of the adaptive exchange has not been examined. Here, we combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with field measurements of fitness to identify candidate H. debilis QTL alleles likely to have introgressed into H....

Data from: Environmental harshness is positively correlated with intraspecific divergence in mammals and birds

Carlos A. Botero, Roi Dor, Christy M. McCain & Rebecca J. Safran
Life on Earth is conspicuously more diverse in the tropics. Although this intriguing geographical pattern has been linked to many biotic and abiotic factors, their relative importance and potential interactions are still poorly understood. The way in which latitudinal changes in ecological conditions influence evolutionary processes is particularly controversial, as there is evidence for both a positive and a negative latitudinal gradient in speciation rates. Here, we identify and address some methodological issues (how patterns...

Data from: Genome skimming reveals the origin of the Jerusalem Artichoke tuber crop species: neither from Jerusalem nor an Artichoke

Dan G. Bock, Nolan C. Kane, Daniel P. Ebert & Loren H. Rieseberg
The perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, known as Jerusalem Artichoke or Sunchoke, was cultivated in eastern North America before European contact. As such, it represents one of the few taxa that can support an independent origin of domestication in this region. Its tubers were adopted as a source of food and forage when the species was transferred to the Old World in the early 1600s, and are still used today. Despite the cultural and economic importance...

Data from: Seasonality of precipitation interacts with exotic species to alter composition and phenology of a semi-arid grassland

Janet S. Prevéy & Timothy R. Seastedt
While modeling efforts suggest that invasive species will track climate changes, empirical studies are few. A relevant and largely unaddressed research question is: how will the presence of exotic species interact with precipitation change to alter ecosystem structure and function? We studied the effects of changes in seasonal timing of precipitation on species composition and resource availability in a grassland community in Colorado, USA. We examined how seasonal precipitation patterns affect the abundance of historically...

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