21 Works

Data from: Major Histocompatibility Complex class IIb polymorphism influences gut microbiota composition and diversity

Daniel Bolnick, Lisa Snowberg, William Stutz, Greg Caporaso, Christian Lauber, Rob Knight, Daniel I. Bolnick, Chris Lauber, J. Gregory Caporaso, William E. Stutz & Lisa K. Snowberg
Individuals harbor diverse communities of symbiotic bacteria, which differ dramatically among host individuals. This heterogeneity poses an immunological challenge of distinguishing between mutualistic and pathogenic members of diverse and host-specific microbial communities. We propose that Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC) genotypes contribute to recognition and regulation of gut microbes, and thus MHC polymorphism contributes to microbial variation among hosts. Here, we confirm that, within a single wild vertebrate population of threespine stickleback, different MHC II...

Data from: The roles of demography and genetics in the early stages of colonization

Marianna Szűcs, Brett A. Melbourne, Ty Tuff & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Colonization success increases with the size of the founding group. Both demographic and genetic factors underlie this relationship, yet because genetic diversity normally increases with numbers of individuals, their relative importance remains unclear. Furthermore, their influence may depend on the environment and may change as colonization progresses from establishment through population growth and then dispersal. We tested the roles of genetics, demography and environment in the founding of Tribolium castaneum populations. Using three genetic backgrounds...

Data from: Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.

Gregory J. Baute, Nolan C. Kane, Christopher J. Grassa, Zhao Lai & Loren H. Rieseberg
• The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower, a globally important oilseed. • To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes,...

Data from: Fire-regime complacency and sensitivity to centennial- through millennial-scale climate change in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests, Colorado, U.S.A.

Philip E. Higuera, Christy E. Briles & Cathy Whitlock
1. Key uncertainties in anticipating future fire regimes are their sensitivity to climate change, and the degree to which climate will impact fire regimes directly, through increasing the probability of fire, versus indirectly, through changes in vegetation and landscape flammability. 2. We studied the sensitivity of subalpine forest fire regimes (i.e., fire frequency, fire severity) to previously documented climate variability over the past 6000 years, utilizing pollen and macroscopic charcoal from high-resolution lake-sediment records in...

Data from: A rich fossil record yields calibrated phylogeny for Acanthaceae (Lamiales) and evidence for marked biases in timing and directionality of intercontinental disjunctions

Erin A. Tripp & Lucinda A. McDade
More than a decade of phylogenetic research has yielded a well-sampled, strongly supported hypothesis of relationships within the large (> 4,000 species) plant family Acanthaceae. This hypothesis points to intriguing biogeographic patterns and asymmetries in sister clade diversity but, absent a time-calibrated estimate for this evolutionary history, these patterns have remained unexplored. Here, we reconstruct divergence times within Acanthaceae using fossils as calibration points, experimenting both with fossil selection and effects of invoking a maximum...

Data from: Natural enemy ecology: comparing the effects of predation risk, infection risk and disease on host behavior

Daniel L. Preston, Clara E. Boland, Jason T. Hoverman & Pieter T. J. Johnson
1. Growing interest in unifying the field of natural enemy ecology has revealed similarities between predation and parasitism. In parallel with predation, parasite infection – and even the threat of infection – can alter host traits and indirectly affect community interactions. Nonetheless, few studies have considered multiple mechanisms of natural enemy-induced behavioural alteration in parallel (e.g. effects before and after enemy contact) or the factors that drive variation in behavioural responses. 2. We first evaluated...

Data from: An experimental analysis of the heritability of variation in glucocorticoid concentrations in a wild avian population

Brittany R. Jenkins, Maren N. Vitousek, Joanna K. Hubbard & Rebecca J. Safran
Glucocorticoid hormones (CORT) are predicted to promote adaptation to variable environments, yet little is known about the potential for CORT secretion patterns to respond to selection in free-living populations. We assessed the heritable variation underlying differences in hormonal phenotypes using a cross-foster experimental design with nestling North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). Using a bivariate animal model, we partitioned variance in baseline and stress-induced CORT concentrations into their additive genetic and rearing environment components...

Data from: Tree phenology responses to winter chilling, spring warming, at north and south range limits

James S. Clarke, Carl Salk, Jerry M. Melillo, Jacqueline Mohan & James S. Clark
Increases in primary production may occur if plants respond to climate warming with prolonged growing seasons, but not if local adaptation, cued by photoperiod, limits phenological advance. It has been hypothesized that trees with diffuse porous xylem anatomy and early successional species may respond most to warming. Within species, northern populations may respond most due to the fact that growing seasons are relatively short. Species most sensitive to spring temperature may show little overall response...

Data from: Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail

Deanna M. Soper, Kayla C. King, Daniela Vergara & Curt M. Lively
Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilising, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of...

Data from: The trouble with triplets in biodiversity informatics: a data-driven case against current identifier practices

Robert Guralnick, Tom Conlin, John Deck, Brian Stucky, Nico Cellinese & Brian J. Stucky
The biodiversity informatics community has discussed aspirations and approaches for assigning globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to biocollections for nearly a decade. During that time, and despite misgivings, the de facto standard identifier has become the “Darwin Core Triplet”, which is a concatenation of values for institution code, collection code, and catalog number associated with biocollections material. Our aim is not to rehash the challenging discussions regarding which GUID system in theory best supports the biodiversity...

Data from: Mechanisms of plant–plant interactions: concealment from herbivores is more important than abiotic-stress mediation in an African savannah

Allison M. Louthan, Daniel F. Doak, Jacob R. Goheen, Todd M. Palmer & Robert M. Pringle
Recent work on facilitative plant–plant interactions has emphasized the importance of neighbours’ amelioration of abiotic stress, but the facilitative effects of neighbours in reducing plant apparency to herbivores have received less attention. Whereas theory on stress reduction predicts that competition should be more important in less stressful conditions, with facilitation becoming more important in harsh environments, apparency theory suggests that facilitation should be greater in the presence of herbivores, where it is disadvantageous to be...

Data from: Expression of multiple sexual signals by fathers and sons in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow: Are advertising strategies heritable?

Yoni Vortman, Rebecca J. Safran, Tali Reiner Brodetzki, Roi Dor & Arnon Lotem
The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of...

Data from: How temperature shifts affect parasite production: testing the roles of thermal stress and acclimation

Sara H. Paull, Thomas R. Raffel, Bryan E. LaFonte & Pieter T. J. Johnson
1. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of temperature shifts with climate change will influence species interactions if species have differential acclimation responses. For example, if parasites acclimate to temperature shifts faster than their hosts, as might be expected due to their smaller sizes and faster metabolisms, temperature variability could lead to increased infection. However, this assumption might not hold if benefits of acclimation are counteracted by energetic costs or thermal stress, underscoring the need...

Data from: Seasonality of precipitation interacts with exotic species to alter composition and phenology of a semi-arid grassland

Janet S. Prevéy & Timothy R. Seastedt
While modeling efforts suggest that invasive species will track climate changes, empirical studies are few. A relevant and largely unaddressed research question is: how will the presence of exotic species interact with precipitation change to alter ecosystem structure and function? We studied the effects of changes in seasonal timing of precipitation on species composition and resource availability in a grassland community in Colorado, USA. We examined how seasonal precipitation patterns affect the abundance of historically...

Data from: QTL mapping identifies candidate alleles involved in adaptive introgression and range expansion in a wild sunflower

Kenneth D. Whitney, Karl W. Broman, Nolan C. Kane, Stephen M. Hovick, Rebecca A. Randell & Loren H. Rieseberg
The wild North American sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. debilis are participants in one of the earliest identified examples of adaptive trait introgression, and the exchange is hypothesized to have triggered a range expansion in H. annuus. However, the genetic basis of the adaptive exchange has not been examined. Here, we combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with field measurements of fitness to identify candidate H. debilis QTL alleles likely to have introgressed into H....

Data from: Theoretical models of the influence of genomic architecture on the dynamics of speciation

Samuel M. Flaxman, Aaron C. Wacholder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
A long-standing problem in evolutionary biology has been determining whether and how gradual, incremental changes at the gene level can account for rapid speciation and bursts of adaptive radiation. Using genome-scale computer simulations, we extend previous theory showing how gradual adaptive change can generate nonlinear population transitions, resulting in the rapid formation of new, reproductively isolated species. We show that these transitions occur via a mechanism rooted in a basic property of biological heredity: the...

Data from: Competition for hummingbird pollination shapes flower color variation in Andean Solanaceae

Nathan Muchhala, Sönke Johnsen & Stacey Dewitt Smith
One classic explanation for the remarkable diversity of flower colors across angiosperms involves evolutionary shifts among different types of pollinators with different color preferences. However, the pollinator shift model fails to account for the many examples of color variation within clades that share the same pollination system. An alternate explanation is the competition model, which suggests that color divergence evolves in response to interspecific competition for pollinators, as a means to decrease interspecific pollinator movements....

Data from: Lecanora anakeestiicola (Lecanorales): an unusual new fruticose species from Great Smoky Mountains National Park in eastern North America

James C. Lendemer & Erin A. Tripp
The sterile asexually reproducing lichen Lecanora anakeestiicola is described as new to science from the southern Appalachian Mountains. This species is known from two populations that occur on shaded outcrops of the Anakeesta Formation at high elevations. It can be recognized by its dimorphic thallus with flaccid, ecorticate pseudopodetia and by the production of usnic acid in addition to zeorin. It is similar to Lecanora phryganitis, a narrow endemic of the Pacific Coast, which differs...

Data from: Stepwise Threshold Clustering: a new method for genotyping MHC loci using next-generation sequencing technology

William E. Stutz & Daniel I. Bolnick
Genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are of great interest to biologists because of their important role in immunity and disease, and their extremely high levels of genetic diversity. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are quickly becoming the method of choice for high-throughput genotyping of multi-locus templates like MHC in non-model organisms. Previous approaches to genotyping MHC genes using NGS technologies suffer from two problems: 1) a “gray zone” where low frequency alleles...

Data from: Prevalence and beta diversity in avian malaria communities: host species is a better predictor than geography

Elizabeth S. C. Scordato & Melissa R. Kardish
1. Patterns of diversity and turnover in macroorganism communities can often be predicted from differences in habitat, phylogenetic relationships among species, and the geographic scale of comparisons. In this study, we asked if these factors also predict diversity and turnover in parasite communities. 2. We studied communities of avian malaria in two sympatric, ecologically similar, congeneric host species at three different sites. We asked if parasite prevalence and community structure varied with host population, host...

Data from: Fruit secondary compounds mediate the retention time of seeds in the guts of Neotropical fruit bats

Justin W. Baldwin & Susan R. Whitehead
Plants often recruit frugivorous animals to transport their seeds, however gut passage can have varying effects on plant fitness depending on the physical and chemical treatment of the seed, the distance seeds are transported, and the specific site of deposition. One way in which plants can mediate the effects of gut passage on fitness is by producing fruit secondary compounds that influence gut retention time. Using frugivorous bats (Carollia perspicillata: Phyllostomidae) and Neotropical plants in...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Colorado Boulder
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Indiana University Bloomington
  • Duke University
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of Florida
  • University of British Columbia
  • Beloit College
  • Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences
  • Princeton University