32 Works

Data from: Host associated bacterial community succession during amphibian development

Tiffany L. Prest, Abigail K. Kimball, Jordan G. Kueneman & Valerie J. Mckenzie
Amphibians undergo significant developmental changes during their life cycle, as they typically move from a primarily aquatic environment to a more terrestrial one. Amphibian skin is a mucosal tissue that assembles communities of symbiotic microbiota. However, it is currently not well understood as to where amphibians acquire their skin symbionts, and whether the sources of microbial symbionts change throughout development. In this study, we utilized data collected from four wild boreal toad populations (Anaxyrus boreas);...

Data from: Spatial variation of the rain-snow temperature threshold across the Northern Hemisphere

Keith S. Jennings, Taylor S. Winchell, Ben Livneh & Noah P. Molotch
We present the first continuous map of rain-snow air temperature thresholds over the Northern Hemisphere land surface, underlining the spatial variability of precipitation phase partitioning. Land surface models typically discriminate between rain and snow using a simple, spatially uniform air temperature threshold, but observations indicate the threshold is not static. Our analysis of a 29-year observational dataset (n = 17.8 million) shows the threshold varies significantly, averaging 1.0°C and ranging from -0.4°C to 2.4°C for...

Data from: Structure and function of the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota of Neotropical butterflies

Alison Ravenscraft, Michelle Berry, Tobin Hammer, Kabir Peay & Carol Boggs
The relationship between animals and their gut flora is simultaneously one of the most common and most complex symbioses on Earth. Despite its ubiquity, our understanding of this invisible but often critical relationship is still in its infancy. We employed adult Neotropical butterflies as a study system to ask three questions: First, how does gut microbial community composition vary across host individuals, species and dietary guilds? Second, how do gut microbiota compare to food microbial...

Data from: Risky business: linking Toxoplasma gondii infection and entrepreneurship behaviours across individuals and countries

Stefanie K. Johnson, Fitza A. Markus, Daniel A. Lerher, Dana M. Calhoun, Marissa A. Beldon, Elsa T. Chan & Pieter T. J. Johnson
Disciplines such as business and economics often rely on the assumption of rationality when explaining complex human behaviours. However, growing evidence suggests that behaviour may concurrently be influenced by infec- tious microorganisms. The protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, infects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide and has been linked to behavioural alterations in humans and other vertebrates. Here we integrate primary data from college students and business professionals with national-level information on cultural attitudes toward business to...

Data from: Elementary sensory-motor transformations underlying olfactory navigation in walking fruit flies

Efrén Álvarez-Salvado, Angela M. Licata, Erin G. Connor, Margaret K. McHugh, Benjamin M.N. King, Nicholas Stavropoulos, Jonathan D. Victor, John P. Crimaldi, Katherine I. Nagel & Benjamin MN King
Odor attraction in walking Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to relate neural function to behavior, but the algorithms underlying attraction are unclear. Here we develop a high-throughput assay to measure olfactory behavior in response to well-controlled sensory stimuli. We show that odor evokes two behaviors: an upwind run during odor (ON response), and a local search at odor offset (OFF response). Wind orientation requires antennal mechanoreceptors, but search is driven solely by odor. Using dynamic...

Data from: Marine protected areas enhance structural complexity but do not buffer the consequences of ocean warming for an overexploited precious coral

Ignasi Montero-Serra, Joaquim Garrabou, Daniel F. Doak, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux & Cristina Linares
1. Global warming and overexploitation both threaten the integrity and resilience of marine ecosystems. Many calls have been made to at least partially offset climate change impacts through local conservation management. However, a mechanistic understanding of the interactions of multiple stressors is generally lacking for habitat-forming species; preventing the development of sound conservation strategies. 2. We examined the effectiveness of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) at enhancing structural complexity and resilience to climate change on...

Data from: Strong linkages between depth, longevity and demographic stability across marine sessile species

Ignasi Montero-Serra, Cristina Linares, Daniel F. Doak, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux & Joaquim Garrabou
Understanding the role of the environment in shaping the evolution of life histories remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. We synthesize longevity patterns of marine sessile species and find strong positive relationships between depth and maximum lifespan across multiple sessile marine taxa, including corals, bivalves, sponges and macroalgae. Using long-term demographic data on marine sessile and terrestrial plant species, we show that extreme longevity leads to strongly dampened population dynamics. We also used...

Data from: A wood-warbler produced through both interspecific and intergeneric hybridization

David P.L. Toews, Henry M. Streby, Lowell Burket, Scott A. Taylor & David P. L. Toews
Hybridization between divergent taxa can provide insight into the breakdown of characters used in mate choice, as well as reproductive compatibility across deep evolutionary timescales. Hybridization can also occur more frequently in declining populations, as there is a smaller pool of conspecific mates from which to choose. Here we report an unusual combination of factors that has resulted in a rare, three-species hybridization event amongst two genera of warblers, one of which is experiencing significant...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Influences of fire–vegetation feedbacks and post-fire recovery rates on forest landscape vulnerability to altered fire regimes

Alan J. Tepley, Enrique Thomann, Thomas T. Veblen, George L.W. Perry, Andrés Holz, Juan Paritsis, Thomas Kitzberger, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira & George L. W. Perry
1. In the context of on-going climatic warming, forest landscapes face increasing risk of conversion to non-forest vegetation through alteration of their fire regimes and their post-fire recovery dynamics. However, this pressure could be amplified or dampened, depending on how fire-driven changes to vegetation feed back to alter the extent or behavior of subsequent fires. 2. Here we develop a mathematical model to formalize understanding of how fire–vegetation feedbacks and the time to forest recovery...

Data from: Disentangling elevational richness: a multi-scale hierarchical Bayesian occupancy model of Colorado ant communities

Tim M. Szewczyk & Christy M. McCain
Understanding the forces that shape the distribution of biodiversity across spatial scales is central in ecology and critical to effective conservation. To assess effects of possible richness drivers, we sampled ant communities on four elevational transects across two mountain ranges in Colorado, USA, with seven or eight sites on each transect and twenty repeatedly sampled pitfall trap pairs at each site each for a total of 90 days. With a multi-scale hierarchical Bayesian community occupancy...

Data from: Composition of micro-eukaryotes on the skin of the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) and patterns of correlation between skin microbes and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Jordan G. Kueneman, Sophie Weiss & Valerie J. McKenzie
Global amphibian decline linked to fungal pathogens has galvanized research on applied amphibian conservation. Skin-associated bacterial communities of amphibians have been shown to mediate fungal skin infections and the development of probiotic treatments with antifungal bacteria has become an emergent area of research. While exploring the role of protective bacteria has been a primary focus for amphibian conservation, we aim to expand and study the other microbes present in amphibian skin communities including fungi and...

Data from: Explosion-generated infrasound recorded on ground and airborne microbarometers at regional distances

Eliot F. Young, Daniel C. Bowman, Jonathan M. Lees, Viliam Klein, Steven J. Arrowsmith & Courtney Ballard
Recent work in deploying infrasound (low frequency sound) sensors on aerostats and free flying balloons has shown them to be viable alternatives to ground stations. However, no study to date has compared the performance of surface and free floating infrasound microbarometers with respect to acoustic events at regional (100s of kilometers) range. The prospect of enhanced detection of aerial explosions at similar ranges, such as those from bolides, has not been investigated either. We examined...

Data from: Experimental habitat fragmentation disrupts nematode infections in Australian skinks

Julian Resasco, Matthew E. Bitters, Saul A. Cunningham, Hugh I. Jones, Valerie J. McKenzie & Kendi F. Davies
Habitat conversion and fragmentation threaten biodiversity and disrupt species interactions. While parasites are recognized as ecologically important, the impacts of fragmentation on parasitism are poorly understood relative to other species interactions. This lack of understanding is in part due to confounding landscape factors that accompany fragmentation. Fragmentation experiments provide the opportunity to fill this knowledge gap by mechanistically testing how fragmentation affects parasitism while controlling landscape factors. In a large-scale, long-term experiment, we asked how...

Data from: Multiple mechanisms confer stability to isolated populations of a rare endemic plant

Reilly R. Dibner, Megan L. Peterson, Allison M. Louthan & Daniel F. Doak
The persistence of small populations remains a puzzle for ecology and conservation. Especially interesting is how naturally small, isolated populations are able to persist in the face of multiple environmental forces that create fluctuating conditions and should, theory predicts, lead to high probabilities of extirpation. We used a combination of long term census data and a five-year demographic study of a naturally rare, endemic plant, Yermo xanthocephalus, to evaluate the importance of several possible mechanisms...

Data from: Information-theoretic analysis of realistic odor plumes: what cues are useful for determining location?

Sebastian D. Boie, Erin G. Connor, Margaret McHugh, Katherine I. Nagel, G. Bard Ermentrout, John P. Crimaldi & Jonathan D. Victor
Many species rely on olfaction to navigate towards food sources or mates. Olfactory navigation is a challenging task since odor environments are typically turbulent. While time-averaged odor concentration varies smoothly with the distance to the source, instaneous concentrations are intermittent and obtaining stable averages takes longer than the typical intervals between animals’ navigation decisions. How to effectively sample from the odor distribution to determine sampling location is the focus on this article. To investigate which...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: FEATHER: automated analysis of force spectroscopy unbinding and unfolding data via a Bayesian algorithm

Patrick R. Heenan & Thomas T. Perkins
Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) provides a powerful tool to explore the dynamics and energetics of individual proteins, protein-ligand interactions, and nucleic acid structures. In the canonical assay, a force probe is retracted at constant velocity to induce a mechanical unfolding/unbinding event. Next, two energy landscape parameters, the zero-force dissociation rate constant (ko) and the distance to the transition state (Δx‡), are deduced by analyzing the most probable rupture force as a function of the loading...

Data from: Disease and climate effects on individuals drive post-reintroduction population dynamics of an endangered amphibian

Maxwell B. Joseph & Roland A. Knapp
The emergence of novel pathogens often has dramatic negative effects on previously unexposed host populations. Subsequent disease can drive populations and even species to extinction. After establishment in populations, pathogens can continue to affect host dynamics, influencing the success or failure of species recovery efforts. However, quantifying the effect of pathogens on host populations in the wild is challenging because individual hosts and their pathogens are difficult to observe. Here we use long-term mark-recapture data...

Data from: Extensive phenotypic diversification coexists with little genetic divergence and a lack of population structure in the White Wagtail subspecies complex (Motacilla alba)

Georgy A. Semenov, Evgeniy A. Koblik, Yaroslav A. Red'kin & Alexander V. Badyaev
Geographically clustered phenotypes often demonstrate consistent patterns in molecular markers, particularly mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) traditionally used in phylogeographic studies. However distinct evolutionary trajectories among traits and markers can lead to their discordance. First, geographic structure in phenotypic traits and nuclear molecular markers can be co-aligned but inconsistent with mtDNA (mito-nuclear discordance). Alternatively, phenotypic variation can have little to do with patterns in neither mtDNA nor nuclear markers. Disentangling between these distinct patterns can provide insight...

Supporting Information: Toward learned chemical perception of force field typing rules

Camila Zanette, Caitlin C. Bannan, Christopher I. Bayly, Josh Fass, Michael K. Gilson, Michael R. Shirts, John D. Chodera & David L. Mobley
The Open Force Field Initiative seeks to to automate force field development in order to advance force fields and improve accuracy (openforcefield.org). An important part of this effort includes automating the determination of chemical perception --- that is, the way force field parameters are assigned to a molecule based on chemical environment. We developed a novel technology for this purpose, termed SMARTY. It generalizes atom typing by using direct chemical perception with SMARTS strings adopting...

Data from: Ovary development and cold tolerance of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) in the central plains of Kansas, United States

Elizabeth R. Everman, Philip J. Freda, Mariah Brown, Adam J. Schieferecke, Gregory J. Ragland & Theodore J. Morgan
Environmental challenges presented by temperature variation can be overcome through phenotypic plasticity in small invasive ectotherms. We tested the effect of thermal exposure to 21, 18, and 11°C throughout the whole life cycle of individuals, thermal exposure of adults reared at 25°C to 15 and 11°C for a 21-d period, and long (14:10 hr) and short (10:14 hr) photoperiod on ovary size and development in Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) cultured from a recently established...

Data from: Combining ground‐penetrating radar with terrestrial LiDAR scanning to estimate the spatial distribution of liquid water content in seasonal snowpacks

R. W. Webb, K.S. Jennings, M. Fend, N.P. Molotch, K. S. Jennings & N. P. Molotch
Many communities and ecosystems around the world rely on mountain snowpacks to provide valuable water resources. An important consideration for water resources planning is runoff timing, which can be strongly influenced by the physical process of water storage within and release from seasonal snowpacks. The aim of this study is to present a novel method that combines light detection and ranging with ground‐penetrating radar to nondestructively estimate the spatial distribution of bulk liquid water content...

Data from: Why are red flowers so rare? Testing the macroevolutionary causes of tippiness.

Julienne Ng & Stacey D. Smith
Traits that have arisen multiple times yet still remain rare present a curious paradox. A number of these rare traits show a distinct tippy pattern, where they appear widely dispersed across a phylogeny, are associated with short branches, and differ between recently diverged sister species. This phylogenetic pattern has classically been attributed to the trait being an evolutionary dead end, where the trait arises due to some short‐term evolutionary advantage, but it ultimately leads species...

Data from: Moth body size increases with elevation along a complete tropical elevational gradient for two hyperdiverse clades

Gunnar Brehm, Dirk Zeuss & Robert K. Colwell
The body size of an animal is probably its most important functional trait. For arthropods, environmental drivers of body size variation are still poorly documented and understood, especially in tropical regions. We use a unique dataset for two species-rich, phylogenetically independent moth taxa (Lepidoptera: Geometridae; Arctiinae), collected along an extensive tropical elevational gradient in Costa Rica, to investigate the correlates and possible causes of body-size variation. We studied 15,047 specimens (794 species) of Geometridae and...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    32

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    32

Affiliations

  • University of Colorado Boulder
    32
  • Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research
    3
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    3
  • New York University Langone Medical Center
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Barcelona
    2
  • Institut de Ciències del Mar
    2
  • Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals
    1
  • Rice University
    1
  • University of Washington
    1