137 Works

Data from: The role of immigration and local adaptation on fine-scale genotypic and phenotypic population divergence in a less mobile passerine

Vicente García-Navas, Esperanza S. Ferrer, Juan José Sanz & Joaquín Ortego
Dispersal and local patterns of adaptation play a major role on the ecological and evolutionary trajectory of natural populations. In this study, we employ a combination of genetic (25 microsatellite markers) and field-based information (seven study years) to analyse the impact of immigration and local patterns of adaptation in two nearby (< 7 km) blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) populations. We used genetic assignment analyses to identify immigrant individuals and found that dispersal rate is female-biased...

Data from: Population divergence in chemical signals and the potential for premating isolation between islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard, (Podarcis gaigeae)

Anna Runemark, Marianne Gabirot & Erik I Svensson
When sexually selected traits diverge due to different local selective environments premating isolation might arise as a correlated response. However, sexually selected traits might also diverge by stochastic forces. Here, we show that odour-based mate preferences and scent composition have diverged between islet- and mainland populations of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae. We quantified the degree of scent-mediated premating isolation between populations. Islet lizards preferred scent from islet lizards, whereas the mainland populations were less...

Data from: Fungal disease incidence along tree diversity gradients depends on latitude in European forests

Diem Nguyen, Bastien Castagneyrol, Helge Bruelheide, Filippo Bussotti, Virginie Guyot, Hervé Jactel, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Fernando Valladares, Jan Stenlid & Johanna Boberg
European forests host a diversity of tree species that are increasingly threatened by fungal pathogens, which may have cascading consequences for forest ecosystems and their functioning. Previous experimental studies suggest that foliar and root pathogen abundance and disease severity decrease with increasing tree species diversity, but evidences from natural forests are rare. Here, we tested whether foliar fungal disease incidence was negatively affected by tree species diversity in different forest types across Europe. We measured...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics, species diversity, and biogeography of the Andean lizards Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae)

Noemi Goicoechea, Jose M. Padial, Juan C. Chaparro, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher & Ignacio De La Riva
The family Gymnophthalmidae comprises ca. 220 described species of Neotropical lizards distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. It includes 36 genera, among them Proctoporus, which contains six currently recognized species occurring across the yungas forests and wet montane grasslands of the Amazonian versant of the Andes from central Peru to central Bolivia. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships and species limits of Proctoporus and closely related taxa by analyzing 2121 base pairs of mitochondrial (12S,...

Data from: Predicting forest management effects on oak–rodent mutualisms

Teresa Morán-López, Thorsten Wiegand, Juan Manuel Morales, Fernando Valladares & Mario Díaz
Wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus are the main dispersers of acorns in highly managed Mediterranean holm-oak woodlands. Mice mobilize and cache acorns to store them for winter consumption. They carry acorns away from potential competitors, face predation risks during mobilization, and cache acorns in areas where pilfering risks are low. However, mice can act either as net predators or as moderately efficient dispersers, depending on the way landscape management affects intraspecific competition for acorns and shelter...

Different qPCR master mixes influence telomere primer binding within and between bird species

Francisco Morinha, Paula Magalhães & Guillermo Blanco
The analysis of telomere dynamics in birds is a growing research field providing important findings on ecological and environmental variations in individuals' aging, fitness and lifespan. Real‐time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has gained much interest for the evaluation of telomere length in birds. However, the assessment of several key preanalytical and analytical factors to optimize the method for achieving reproducible results, and the influence of these factors on the conclusions of each study, have been generally...

Genomic footprints of a biological invasion: introduction from Asia and dispersal in Europe of the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva)

Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Simon Blanchet, Julien Cote, Ali Serkhan Tarkan, Eva Záhorská, Rodolphe Gozlan & Christophe Eizaguirre
Facilitated by the intensification of global trading, the introduction and dispersal of species to areas in which they are historically non-native is nowadays common. From an evolutionary standpoint, invasions are paradoxical: not only non-native environments could be different from native ones for which introduced individuals would be ill-adapted, but also small founding population size should be associated with reduced adaptive potential. As such, biological invasions are considered valuable real-time evolutionary experiments. Here, we investigated the...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Maternal effects and urbanization: Variation of yolk androgens and immunoglobulin in city and forest blackbirds

Jesko Partecke, Gergely Hegyi, Patrick S. Fitze, Julien Gasparini & Hubert Schwabl
Wildlife inhabiting urban environments exhibit drastic changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour. It has often been argued that these phenotypic responses could be the result of micro-evolutionary changes following the urbanization process. However, other mechanisms such as phenotypic plasticity, maternal effects and developmental plasticity could be involved as well. To address maternal effects as potential mechanisms, we compared maternal hormone and antibody concentrations in eggs between city and forest populations of European blackbirds (Turdus merula),...

Data from: Current climate, but also long-term climate changes and human impacts, determine the geographic distribution of European mammal diversity

Ana Margarida Coelho Dos Santos, Marcus Cianciaruso, A. Marcia Barbosa, Luis Mauricio Bini, José Alexandre Diniz-Filho, Frederico Augusto Faleiro, Sidney Gouveia, Rafael Loyola, Nagore Medina, Thiago Rangel, Geiziane Tessarolo & Joaquín Hortal
Aim. Historical climate variations, current climate and human impacts are known to influence current species richness, but their effects on phylogenetic and trait diversity have been seldom studied. We investigated the relationship of these three factors with the independent variations of species, phylogenetic and trait diversity of European mammals. Considering the position of the 0ºC isotherm in the Last Glacial Maximum as a tipping point, we tested the following hypotheses: northern European assemblages host less...

Data from: Male rock lizards may compensate reproductive costs of an immune challenge affecting sexual signals

Gonzalo Rodríguez-Ruiz, Jesús Ortega, José Javier Cuervo, Pilar López, Alfredo Salvador & José Martín
Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One of these costs may be the trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. Experimental immune challenges in captivity show a reduction in the expression of sexual signals, but it is not clear whether these detrimental effects are important in nature and, more importantly, whether they have reproductive consequences. We designed a field experiment to...

Data from: Telomere attrition with age in a wild amphibian population

Gregorio Sánchez-Montes, Íñigo Martínez-Solano, Carmen Díaz-Paniagua, Antonio Vilches, Arturo H Ariño & Ivan Gomez-Mestre
Telomere shortening with age has been documented in many organisms, but few studies have reported telomere length measurements in amphibians, and no information is available for growth after metamorphosis, nor in wild populations. We provide both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of net telomere attrition with age in a wild amphibian population of natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita). Based on age-estimation by skeletochronology and qPCR telomere length measurements in the framework of an individual-based monitoring programme, we...

Data from: Change in sexual signalling traits outruns morphological divergence across an ecological gradient in the post‐glacial radiation of the songbird genus Junco

Guillermo Friis & Borja Mila
The relative roles of natural and sexual selection in promoting evolutionary lineage divergence remains controversial and difficult to assess in natural systems. Local adaptation through natural selection is known to play a central role in promoting evolutionary divergence, yet secondary sexual traits can vary widely among species in recent radiations, suggesting that sexual selection may also be important in the early stages of speciation. Here we compare rates of divergence in ecologically relevant traits (morphology)...

Reconstructing hotspots of genetic diversity from glacial refugia and subsequent dispersal in Italian common toads (Bufo bufo)

Andrea Chiocchio, Jan Arntzen, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Wouter De Vries, Roberta Bisconti, Alice Pezzarossa, Luigi Maiorano & Daniele Canestrelli
Genetic diversity feeds the evolutionary process and allows populations to adapt to environmental changes. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of why hotspots of genetic diversity are so 'hot'. Here, we analysed the relative contribution of bioclimatic stability and genetic admixture between divergent lineages in shaping spatial patterns of genetic diversity in the common toad Bufo bufo along the Italian peninsula. We combined population genetic, phylogeographic and species distribution modelling (SDM) approaches to map...

Impacts of ambient temperature and clutch size on incubation behaviour onset in a female-only incubator songbird

David Diez-Méndez, Juan José Sanz & Emilio Barba
Ambient temperature is assumed to be the major cue used by passerines to synchronize their laying and hatching dates to the expected peak of prey availability. While laying eggs, females are still able to fine-tune their hatching date following increasing or decreasing patterns of ambient temperature, mostly via changes in incubation onset. The onset of incubation behaviour in relation to the laying sequence could have later consequences for the duration of the incubation period and...

Genetic and ecomorphological divergence between sympatric Astyanax morphs from Central America

Carlos A. Garita-Alvarado, Marco Garduño-Sánchez, Marta Barluenga & Claudia Patricia Ornelas-García
Intraspecific ecological and morphological polymorphism can promote ecological speciation and the build-up of reproductive isolation. Here, we evaluate correlations among morphology, trophic ecology, and genetic differentiation between two divergent morphs (elongate and deep-body) of the fish genus Astyanax in the San Juan River basin in Central America, to infer the putative evolutionary mechanism shaping this system. We collected the two morphs from three water bodies and analyzed: 1) the correlation between body shape and the...

Made-up mouths with preen oil reveal genetic and phenotypic conditions of starling nestlings

Juan José Soler, Ester Martínez-Renau, Manuel Azcárate-García, Cristina Ruiz-Castellano, José Martín & Manuel Martin-Vivaldi
Animal colouration are due to pigments, nanostructures, or to the cosmetic use of natural products, and plays a central role in social communication. The role of cosmetic colouration has traditionally been focussed on scenarios of sexual selection, but it could also be used in other contexts. Here, by using spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor) as a model system, we explore the possibility that nestlings cosmetically used their intensely yellow coloured uropygial secretion to signal their genetic...

Genetic diversity, differentiation and historical origin of the isolated population of rooksCorvus frugilegusin Iberia

Pablo Salinas, Francisco Morinha, Ivan Literak, Javier García, Borja Milá & Guillermo Blanco
Current bird populations in southern temperate latitudes often represent relicts of glacial refugia from which northern populations expanded as the climate became suitable following the last glacial maximum, 18 000 years before present. Alternatively, these southern populations could be the result of the fragmentation of large distributions and other processes not related to glaciations, like recent recolonization from northern populations and human impact in historical times. Here, we investigate the origin of a small, isolated...

Data from: Tracking data and retrospective analyses of diet reveal the consequences of loss of marine subsidies for an obligate scavenger, the Andean condor

Sergio A. Lambertucci, Joan Navarro, Jose Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Keith A. Hobson, Pablo A.E. Alarcón, Guillermo Wiemeyer, Guillermo Blanco, Fernando Hiraldo & Jose Antonio Donazar
Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world’s oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet which, in turn, influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope...

Data from: Ageing and reproduction: antioxidant supplementation alleviates telomere loss in wild birds

Elisa P. Badas, Javier Martínez, Juan Rivero De Aguilar Cachafeiro, Francisco Miranda, Jordi Figuerola & Santiago Merino
Reproduction is inherently costly. Environmental stressors, such as infection and limited food resources, can compromise investment at each breeding attempt. For example, recent data on captive birds showed that increased reproductive effort accelerates ageing. However, the effects of nutritional status and infection on ageing remain unknown. Telomeres function as protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and changes in telomere length is a commonly used proxy for ageing. To partially address the mechanisms of...

Data from: Fractal geometry of a complex plumage trait reveals bird's quality

Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Roger Jovani & François Mougeot
Animal coloration is key in natural and sexual selection, playing significant roles in intra- and interspecific communication because of its linkage to individual behaviour, genetics and physiology. Simple animal traits such as the area or the colour intensity of homogeneous patches have been profusely studied. More complex patterns are widespread in nature, but they escape our understanding because their variation is difficult to capture effectively by standard, simple measures. Here, we used fractal geometry to...

Data from: MHC-I provides both quantitative resistance and susceptibility to blood parasites in blue tits in the wild

Juan Rivero-De Aguilar, Helena Westerdahl, Josue Martínez-De La Puente, Gustavo Tomas, Javier Martínez & Santiago Merino
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are central for the adaptive immune response against parasites. Here, we investigated potential associations among MHC-I alleles and blood parasite infections in a natural breeding population of a passerine bird, the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, in central Spain. We screened both infection status (presence/absence of infection) and infection intensity to the pathogenic blood parasites Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon. Three MHC-I alleles (UA104, UA108 and UA117) were associated with higher or lower...

Data from: Reliable effective number of breeders/adult census size ratios in seasonal-breeding species: opportunity for integrative demographic inferences based on capture-mark-recapture data and multilocus genotypes

Gregorio Sánchez-Montes, Jinliang Wang, Arturo H. Ariño, José Luis Vizmanos & Íñigo Martínez-Solano
The ratio of the effective number of breeders (Nb) to the adult census size (Na), Nb/ Na, approximates the departure from the standard capacity of a population to maintain genetic diversity in one reproductive season. This information is relevant for assessing population status, understanding evolutionary processes operating at local scales and unraveling how life-history traits affect these processes. However, our knowledge on Nb/Na ratios in nature is limited because estimation of both parameters is challenging....

Data from: Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of combined data

Johan A. A. Nylander, Fredrik Ronquist, John P. Huelsenbeck & Joséluis Nieves-Aldrey
The recent development of Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques has facilitated the exploration of parameter-rich evolutionary models. At the same time, stochastic models have become more realistic (and complex) and have been extended to new types of data, such as morphology. Based on this foundation, we developed a Bayesian MCMC approach to the analysis of combined data sets and explored its utility in inferring relationships among gall wasps based on...

Data from: Genetic assessment of population structure and connectivity in the threatened Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae) at different spatial scales

Pilar Casado-Amezúa, Stefano Goffredo, José Templado & Annie Machordom
Understanding dispersal patterns, population structure and connectivity among populations is helpful in the management and conservation of threatened species. Molecular markers are useful tools as indirect estimators of these characteristics. In this study we assess the population genetic structure of the endemic Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis in the Alboran Sea at local and regional scales, and at three localities outside of this basin. Bayesian clustering methods, traditional F-statistics and Dest statistics were used to determine...

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