49 Works

Data from: Decreased brain connectivity in smoking contrasts with increased connectivity in drinking

Wei Cheng, Edmund T. Rolls, Trevor W. Robbins, Weikang Gong, Zhaowen Liu, Wujun Lv, Jingnan Du, Hongkai Wen, Liang Ma, Erin Burke Quinlan, Hugh Garavan, Eric Artiges, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Michael N. Smolka, Gunter Schumann, Keith Kendrick & Jianfeng Feng
In a group of 831 participants from the general population in the Human Connectome Project, smokers exhibited low overall functional connectivity, and more specifically of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex which is associated with non-reward mechanisms, the adjacent inferior frontal gyrus, and the precuneus. Participants who drank a high amount had overall increases in resting state functional connectivity, and specific increases in reward-related systems including the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Increased impulsivity was...

Data from: Environmental levels of oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds feminize digit ratios in male rats and their unexposed male progeny

Jacques Auger, Dominique Le Denmat, Raymond Berges, Ludivine Doridot, Benjamin Salmon, Marie Chantal Canivenc-Lavier & Florence Eustache
Digit length ratios, especially the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), are associated with various pathological and behavioural conditions in many species including humans and are dependent upon prenatal androgen to oestrogen balance. It is unknown whether digit ratios are modified by environmental exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disruptors. We studied the effect on adult male Wistar rat digit ratios of a gestational exposure to the oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds bisphenol A (BPA), genistein and vinclozolin,...

Data from: Diffusion tensor imaging reveals diffuse white matter injuries in locked-in syndrome patients

Mylène L. Leonard, Felix R. Renard, Laura H. Harsan, Julien P. Pottecher, Marc B. Braun, Francis S. Schneider, Pierre F. Froehlig, Frédéric B. Blanc, Daniel R. Roquet, Sophie A. Achard, Nicolas M. Meyer & Stéphane K. Kremer
Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a state of quadriplegia and anarthria with preserved consciousness, which is generally triggered by a disruption of specific white matter fiber tracts, following a lesion in the ventral part of the pons. However, the impact of focal lesions on the whole brain white matter microstructure and structural connectivity pathways remains unknown. We used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) and tract-based statistics to characterise the whole white matter tracts in seven...

Data from: Immune checkpoint inhibitor–related myositis and myocarditis in patients with cancer

Mehdi Touat, Thierry Maisonobe, Samuel Knauss, Omar Ben Hadj Salem, Baptiste Hervier, Karine Auré, Tali-Anne Szwebel, Nora Kramkimel, Claire Lethrosne, Jean-Frédéric Bruch, Pauline Laly, Jacques Cadranel, Nicolas Weiss, Anthony Béhin, Yves Allenbach, Olivier Benveniste, Timothée Lenglet, Dimitri Psimaras, Werner Stenzel & Sarah Léonard-Louis
Objective: To report the clinicopathological features and outcome of myositis in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (irMyositis). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients diagnosed with irMyositis in tertiary centers in Paris, France, and Berlin, Germany, from January 2015, to July 2017. Main outcomes were clinical manifestations and muscle histology, which included MHC-I, C5b-9, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 immunohistochemical stains. Results: Ten patients with metastatic cancer were included; median age was...

Data from: In vivo dynamics of skeletal muscle Dystrophin in zebrafish embryos revealed by improved FRAP analysis

Fernanda Bajanca, Vinicio Gonzalez-Perez, Sean J. Gillespie, Cyriaque Beley, Luis Garcia, Eric Theveneau, Richard P. Sear & Simon M. Hughes
Dystrophin forms an essential link between sarcolemma and cytoskeleton, perturbation of which causes muscular dystrophy. We analysed Dystrophin binding dynamics in vivo for the first time. Within maturing fibres of host zebrafish embryos, our analysis reveals a pool of diffusible Dystrophin and complexes bound at the fibre membrane. Combining modelling, an improved FRAP methodology and direct semi-quantitative analysis of bleaching suggests the existence of two membrane-bound Dystrophin populations with widely differing bound lifetimes: a stable,...

Data from: Convergent evolution of sperm gigantism and the developmental origins of sperm size variability in Caenorhabditis nematodes

Anne Vielle, Nicolas Callemeyn-Torre, Clotilde Gimond, Nausicaa Poullet, Jeremy C. Gray, Asher D. Cutter & Christian Braendle
Sperm cells provide essential, if usually diminutive, ingredients to successful sexual reproduction. Despite this conserved function, sperm competition and coevolution with female traits can drive spectacular morphological change in these cells. Here, we characterize four repeated instances of convergent evolution of sperm gigantism in Caenorhabditis nematodes using phylogenetic comparative methods on 26 species. Species at the extreme end of the 50-fold range of sperm-cell volumes across the genus have sperm capable of comprising up to...

Data from: Developmental venous anomaly in diffuse glioma adult patients: a clinically relevant coexistence?

Alexandre Roux, Myriam Edjlali, Sayuri Porelli, Arnault Tauziede, Marc Zanello, Edouard Dezamis, Gilles Zha-Bi, Marc Sanson, Stéphanie Puget, Laurent Capelle, Pascale Varlet, Catherine Oppenheim & Johan Pallud
Objective: To determine the prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in diffuse glioma adult patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study (2010-2016) of consecutive adult patients harboring a supratentorial diffuse glioma in two centers: Sainte-Anne Hospital (experimental and control sets), and Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (external validation set). We included 219 diffuse glioma patients (experimental set), 252 brain metastasis patients (control set), and 200 diffuse glioma patients (validation set). The inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years at...

Data from: Acute ischemic stroke thrombi have an outer shell that impairs fibrinolysis

Lucas Di Meglio, Jean-Philippe Desilles, Veronique Ollivier, Mialitiana Solo Nomenjanahary, Sara Di Meglio, Catherine Deschildre, Stephane Loyau, Jean-Marc Olivot, Raphael Blanc, Michel Piotin, Marie-Christine Bouton, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé & Mikael Mazighi
Objectives. Thrombi responsible for large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are characterized by a low recanalization rate after intravenous thrombolysis. To test whether AIS thrombi have inherent common features that limit their susceptibility to thrombolysis, we analyzed the composition and ultrastructural organization of AIS thrombi causing LVO. Methods. A total of 199 endovascular thrombectomy-retrieved thrombi were analyzed by immunohistology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subjected to ex vivo thrombolysis...

Lee and Daunizeau choice data from: Trading mental effort for confidence in the metacognitive control of value-based decision-making

Douglas Lee & Jean Daunizeau
Why do we carefully ponder some decisions, but not others? In this work, we derive a computational model of the metacognitive control of decisions or MCD. In brief, we assume that fast and automatic processes first provide an initial (and largely uncertain) representation of options' values, yielding prior estimates of decision difficulty. This uncertain value representation is then refined by deploying cognitive (e.g., attentional, mnesic) resources, the allocation of which is controlled by an effort-confidence...

Sphingomyelinase Disables Inactivation in Endogenous PIEZO1 Channels

Jian Shi, Adam Hyman, Dario De Vecchis, Jiehan Chong, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Simon Futers, Myriam Rouahi, Anne Negre-Salvayre, Nathalie Augé, Antreas Kalli & David Beech
Endogenous PIEZO1 channels of native endothelium lack the hallmark inactivation often seen when these channels are overexpressed in cell lines. Because prior work showed that the force of shear stress activates sphingomyelinase in endothelium, we considered if sphingomyelinase is relevant to endogenous PIEZO1. Patch clamping was used to quantify PIEZO1-mediated signals in freshly isolated murine endothelium exposed to the mechanical forces caused by shear stress and membrane stretch. Neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitors and genetic disruption of...

Data from: Using long-term experimental evolution to uncover the patterns and determinants of molecular evolution of an Escherichia coli natural isolate in the streptomycin treated mouse gut

Mathilde Lescat, Launay Adrien, Mohamed Ghalayini, Mélanie Magnan, Jérémy Glodt, Coralie Pintard, Sara Dion, Erick Denamur, Olivier Tenaillon & Adrien Launay
Though microbial ecology of the gut is now a major focus of interest, little is known about the molecular determinants of microbial adaptation in the gut. Experimental evolution coupled with whole genome sequencing can provide insights of the adaptive process. In vitro experiments have revealed some conserved patterns: intermediate convergence, epistatic interactions between beneficial mutations and mutations in global regulators. To test the relevance of these patterns and to identify the selective pressures acting in...

NFAT transcriptome in T-ALL

Christine Tran Quang & Diana Passaro
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy with few available targeted therapies. We previously reported that the phosphatase calcineurin (Cn) is required for LIC (leukemia Initiating Capacity) potential of T-ALL pointing to Cn as an interesting therapeutic target. Calcineurin inhibitors have however unwanted side effects. NFAT transcription factors play crucial roles downstream of calcineurin during thymocyte development, T cell differentiation, activation and energy. Here we elucidate NFAT functional relevance in T-ALL. Using murine...

The industrial solvent 1,4-Dioxane causes hyperalgesia by targeting capsaicin receptor TRPV1

Xiaoyi Mo, Qiang Liu, Luna Gao, Chang Xie, Xin Wei, Peiyuan Pang, Quan Tian, Yue Gao, Youjing Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Tianchen Xiong, Bo Zhong, Dongdong Li & Jing Yao
Background: The synthetic chemical 1,4-dioxane is used as industrial solvent, food and care product additive. 1,4-Dioxane has been noted to influence the nervous system in long-term animal experiments and in humans, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on animals were not previously known. Results: Here, we report that 1,4-dioxane potentiates the capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, thereby causing hyperalgesia in mouse model. This effect was abolished by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic deletion of TRPV1...

Data from: Development of the neurons controlling fertility in humans: new insights from 3D imaging and transparent fetal brains

Filippo Casoni, Samuel A. Malone, Morgane Belle, Federico Luzzati, Francis Collier, Cecile Allet, Erik Hrabovszky, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Vincent Prevot, Alain Chedotal & Paolo Giacobini
Fertility in mammals is controlled by hypothalamic neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). These neurons differentiate in the olfactory placodes during embryogenesis and migrate from the nose to the hypothalamus before birth. Information regarding this process in humans is sparse. Here, we adapted new tissue-clearing and whole-mount immunohistochemical techniques to entire human embryos/fetuses to meticulously study this system during the first trimester of gestation in the largest series of human fetuses examined to date. Combining...

Data from: Ploidy and domestication are associated with genome size variation in Palms

Bee F. Gunn, Luc Baudouin, Thierry Beulé, Pascal Ilbert, Christophe Duperray, Michael Crisp, Auguste Issali, Jean-Louis Konan & Alain Rival
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The genome size of a species (C-value) is associated with growth, development and adaptation to environmental changes. Angiosperm C-values range 1200-fold and frequently vary within species, although little is known about the impacts of domestication on genome size. Genome size variation among related species of palms is of evolutionary significance because changes characterize clades and may be associated with polyploidy, transposon amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements. Further knowledge of genome size will...

Data from: Longitudinal analysis of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease

Jean-Christophe Corvol, Fanny Artaud, Florence Cormier-Dequaire, Olivier Rascol, Franck Durif, Pascal Derckinderen, Ana-Raquel Marques, Frédéric Bourdain, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Fernando Pico, Lucette Lacomblez, Cecilia Bonnet, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Fabienne Ory-Magne, David Grabli, Stephan Klebe, Graziella Mangone, Hana You, Valérie Mesnages, Pei-Chen Lee, Alexis Brice, Marie Vidailhet & Alexis Elbaz
Objective: To investigate the longitudinal dose-effect relationship between dopamine replacement therapy and impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: We used data from a multicentre longitudinal cohort of consecutive PD patients with ≤5y disease duration at baseline followed annually up to 5y. ICDs were evaluated during face-to-face semi-structured interviews with movement disorder specialists. Generalized estimating equations Poisson models with robust variance were used to study the association between several time-dependent definitions of dopamine...

Data from: Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful strategical mechanisms involved in uncertain decision-making

Julie Giustiniani, Damien Gabriel, Magali Nicolier, Julie Monnin & Emmanuel Haffen
The ability to develop successful long-term strategies in uncertain situations relies on complex neural mechanisms. Although lesion studies have shown some of the mechanisms involved, it is still unknown why some healthy subjects are able to make the right decision whereas others are not. The aim of our study was to investigate neurophysiological differences underlying this ability to develop a successful strategy in a group of healthy subjects playing a monetary card game called the...

Data from: Large-scale functional networks identified from resting-state EEG using spatial ICA

Denis P. Schwartz, Stéphane Sockeel, Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac, Habib Benali & Denis Schwartz
Several methods have been applied to EEG or MEG signals to detect functional networks. In recent works using MEG/EEG and fMRI data, temporal ICA analysis has been used to extract spatial maps of resting-state networks with or without an atlas-based parcellation of the cortex. Since the links between the fMRI signal and the electromagnetic signals are not fully established, and to avoid any bias, we examined whether EEG alone was able to derive the spatial...

Data from: NGS library preparation may generate artifactual integration sites of AAV vectors

Benjamin Cogné, Richard O. Snyder, Pierre Lindenbaum, Jean-Baptiste Dupont, Richard Redon, Philippe Moullier & Adrien Leger
rAAV_reference_sequencerAAV reference sequence in fasta, genbank and bed formatsFastq_Part1Part 1 of raw fastq dataFASTQ1.zipFastq_part2Part 2 of raw fastq dataFASTQ2.zipControl1_BAM_filesBAM files for Control1 obtained with FindMyVirusControl1.zipControl2_BAM_filesBAM files for Control1 obtained with FindMyVirusControl2.zipMouse1_BAM_FilesBAM files for Mouse1 obtained with FindMyVirusMouse1.zipMouse2_BAM_filesBAM files for Mouse2 obtained with FindMyVirusMouse2.zipMouse3_BAM_filesBAM files for Mouse3 obtained with FindMyVirusMouse3.zipMouse4_BAM_filesBAM files for Mouse4 obtained with FindMyVirusMouse4.zip

Data from: Electrically induced verbal perseveration: a striatal deafferentation model

Emmanuel Mandonnet, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Isabelle Poisson, Francois Rheault & Hugues Duffau
Objective: The present study aimed to elucidate the neural correlates of the deafferentation cognitive model of verbal perseveration (VP) by analyzing the connectomics of the sites where electrical stimulation elicited VP during awake left glioma surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the anatomical sites that generated VP when electrically stimulated, in a series of 21 patients operated on while awake for a left glioma. Each stimulation point was manually located on the postoperative MRI and then...

Data from: Correlational selection on pro- and anti-inflammatory effectors

Romain Guerreiro, Anne A. Besson, Jérôme Bellenger, Kévin Ragot, Gérard Lizard, Bruno Faivre & Gabriele Sorci
Parasites impose a permanent threat for hosts. As a consequence, immune defenses are important for host fitness. However, the immune response can also produce self-damage and impair host fitness if not properly regulated. Effectors that up- and down-regulate the immune response should, therefore, evolve in concert, and be under the action of correlational selection. To address this issue, we assessed the shape of the selection operating on pro- and anti-inflammatory effectors following an inflammatory challenge...

Data from: Predictors of new remote cerebral microbleeds after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke

Tim Bastian Braemswig, Kersten Villringer, Guillaume Turc, Hebun Erdur, Jochen B. Fiebach, Heinrich J. Audebert, Matthias Endres, Christian H. Nolte & Jan F. Scheitz
Objective: To assess the frequency, associated factors, and underlying vasculopathy of new remote cerebral microbleeds (CMB), as well as the risk of concomitant hemorrhagic complications related to new CMBs, after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in acute stroke patients. Methods: We conducted an observational study using data from our local thrombolysis registry. We included consecutive stroke patients with MRI (3-Tesla)-based IVT and a follow-up MRI the next day between 2008–2017 (n=396). Only CMBs located outside of the...

Data from: Population persistence under high mutation rate: from evolutionary rescue to lethal mutagenesis

Yoann Anciaux, Amaury Lambert, Ophelie Ronce, Lionel Roques & Guillaume Martin
Populations may genetically adapt to severe stress that would otherwise cause their extirpation. Recent theoretical work, combining stochastic demography with Fisher’s Geometric Model of adaptation, has shown how evolutionary rescue becomes unlikely beyond some critical intensity of stress. Increasing mutation rates may however allow adaptation to more intense stress, raising concerns about the effectiveness of treatments against pathogens. This previous work assumes that populations are rescued by the rise of a single resistance mutation. However,...

Data from: Should the WHO growth charts be used in France?

Pauline Scherdel, Jérémie Botton, Marie-Françoise Rolland-Cachera, Juliane Léger, Fabienne Pelé, Pierre Yves Ancel, Chantal Simon, Katia Castetbon, Benoit Salanave, Hélène Thibault, Sandrine Lioret, Sandrine Péneau, Gaelle Gusto, Marie-Aline Charles & Barbara Heude
Background: Growth charts are an essential clinical tool for evaluating a child's health and development. The current French reference curves, published in 1979, have recently been challenged by the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. Objective: To evaluate and compare the growth of French children who were born between 1981 and 2007, with the WHO growth charts and the French reference curves currently used. Design: Anthropometric measurements from French children, who participated in 12...

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