Objectives: To characterize the full spectrum, relative frequency and prognosis of the neurological manifestations in Zika virus (ZIKV) postnatal infection. Methods: We conducted an observational study in consecutive ZIKV-infected patients presenting with neurological manifestations during the French West Indies 2016 outbreak. Results: Eighty-seven patients, including 6 children, were enrolled. Ninety-five percent of all cases required hospitalization. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most frequent manifestation (46.0%) followed by encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (20.7%), isolated single or multiple cranial...
Data from: Perinatal exposure to glyphosate and a glyphosate-based herbicide affect spermatogenesis in miceThu Ha Pham, Lohann Derian, Christine Kervarrec, Pierre-Yves Kernanec, Bernard Jégou, Fatima Smagulova & Aurore Gely-Pernot
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world. Several studies have investigated the effects of glyphosate and glyphosate-based-herbicides (GBHs) on male reproduction, but there is still little and conflicting evidence for its toxicity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of glyphosate, alone or in formula, on the male reproductive system. Pregnant mice were treated from E10.5 to 20 days postpartum (dpp) by adding glyphosate or a GBH (Roundup® 3 Plus) to their...
In evolutionary genomics, researchers have taken an interest in identifying substitutions that subtend convergent phenotypic adaptations. This is a difficult question that requires distinguishing foreground convergent substitutions that are involved in the convergent phenotype from background convergent substitutions. Those may be linked to other adaptations, may be neutral or may be the consequence of mutational biases. Furthermore, there is no generally accepted definition of convergent substitutions. Various methods that use different definitions have been proposed...
Data from: Changing landscapes of Southeast Asia and rodent-borne diseases: decreased diversity but increased transmission risksSerge Morand, Kim Blasdell, Frédéric Bordes, Philippe Buchy, Bernard Carcy, Kittipong Chaisiri, Yannick Chaval, Julien Claude, Jean-François Cosson, Marc Desquesnes, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Tawisa Jiyipong, Anamika Karnchanabanthoen, Pumhom Pornpan, Jean-Marc Rolain & Annelise Tran
The reduction in biodiversity through land use changes due to urbanization and agricultural intensification, appears linked to major epidemiological changes in many human diseases. Increasing disease risks and the emergence of novel pathogens appear to result from increased contact between wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. We investigate how increasing human domination of the environment may favor generalist and synanthropic rodent species and affect the diversity and prevalence of rodent-borne pathogens in Southeast Asia, a hotspot...
Data from: Risks of 23 specific malformations associated with prenatal exposure to ten antiepileptic drugsPierre-Olivier Blotière, Fanny Raguideau, Alain Weill, Elisabeth Elefant, Isabelle Perthus, Véronique Goulet, Florence Rouget, Mahmoud Zureik, Joël Coste & Rosemary Dray-Spira
Objective: To assess the association between exposure to monotherapy with 10 different antiepileptic drugs (AED) during the first two months of pregnancy and the risk of 23 major congenital malformations (MCMs). Methods: This nationwide cohort study, based on the French healthcare databases, included all pregnancies&[ge]20 weeks and ending between January 2011 and March 2015. Women were considered to be exposed when an AED had been dispensed between one month before and two months after the...
Data from: The temporal dynamics and infectiousness of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum infections in relation to parasite densityHannah C. Slater, Amanda Ross, Ingrid Felger, Natalie E. Hofmann, Leanne Robinson, Jackie Cook, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Anders Björkman, Andre Lin Ouedraogo, Ulrika Morris, Mwinyi Msellem, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller, Fitsum Tadesse, Endalamaw Gadisa, Smita Das, Gonzalo Domingo, Melissa Kapulu, Janet Midega, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Cécile Nabet, Renaud Piarroux, Ogobara Doumbo, Safiatou Niare Doumbo, Kwadwo Koram … & Lucy C. Okell
Malaria infections occurring below the limit of detection of standard diagnostics are common in all endemic settings. However, key questions remain surrounding their contribution to sustaining transmission and whether they need to be detected and targeted to achieve malaria elimination. In this study we analyse a range of malaria datasets to quantify the density, detectability, course of infection and infectiousness of subpatent infections. Asymptomatically infected individuals have lower parasite densities on average in low transmission...
Data from: Diffusion tensor imaging reveals diffuse white matter injuries in locked-in syndrome patientsMylène L. Leonard, Felix R. Renard, Laura H. Harsan, Julien P. Pottecher, Marc B. Braun, Francis S. Schneider, Pierre F. Froehlig, Frédéric B. Blanc, Daniel R. Roquet, Sophie A. Achard, Nicolas M. Meyer & Stéphane K. Kremer
Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a state of quadriplegia and anarthria with preserved consciousness, which is generally triggered by a disruption of specific white matter fiber tracts, following a lesion in the ventral part of the pons. However, the impact of focal lesions on the whole brain white matter microstructure and structural connectivity pathways remains unknown. We used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) and tract-based statistics to characterise the whole white matter tracts in seven...
Data from: Decreased brain connectivity in smoking contrasts with increased connectivity in drinkingWei Cheng, Edmund T. Rolls, Trevor W. Robbins, Weikang Gong, Zhaowen Liu, Wujun Lv, Jingnan Du, Hongkai Wen, Liang Ma, Erin Burke Quinlan, Hugh Garavan, Eric Artiges, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Michael N. Smolka, Gunter Schumann, Keith Kendrick & Jianfeng Feng
In a group of 831 participants from the general population in the Human Connectome Project, smokers exhibited low overall functional connectivity, and more specifically of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex which is associated with non-reward mechanisms, the adjacent inferior frontal gyrus, and the precuneus. Participants who drank a high amount had overall increases in resting state functional connectivity, and specific increases in reward-related systems including the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Increased impulsivity was...
Objectives. Thrombi responsible for large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are characterized by a low recanalization rate after intravenous thrombolysis. To test whether AIS thrombi have inherent common features that limit their susceptibility to thrombolysis, we analyzed the composition and ultrastructural organization of AIS thrombi causing LVO. Methods. A total of 199 endovascular thrombectomy-retrieved thrombi were analyzed by immunohistology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subjected to ex vivo thrombolysis...
Cyclic uniaxial mechanical stretching of cells using a LEGO® parts-based mechanical stretcher systemEtienne Boulter
Mechanical cues are essential to the regulation of cell and tissue physiology. Henceforth, it has become an utmost necessity for cell biologists to account for those mechanical parameters when investigating biological processes and they need devices to manipulate cells accordingly. Here, we report a simple mechanical cell stretching system that can generate uniaxial cyclic mechanical stretch on cells in tissue culture. This system is based upon a low-cost battery-powered uniaxial cyclic mechanical stretcher exclusively built...
Data from: Population persistence under high mutation rate: from evolutionary rescue to lethal mutagenesisYoann Anciaux, Amaury Lambert, Ophelie Ronce, Lionel Roques & Guillaume Martin
Populations may genetically adapt to severe stress that would otherwise cause their extirpation. Recent theoretical work, combining stochastic demography with Fisher’s Geometric Model of adaptation, has shown how evolutionary rescue becomes unlikely beyond some critical intensity of stress. Increasing mutation rates may however allow adaptation to more intense stress, raising concerns about the effectiveness of treatments against pathogens. This previous work assumes that populations are rescued by the rise of a single resistance mutation. However,...
French National Centre for Scientific Research2
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine1
Laboratoire de Biotechnologie et Chimie Marines1
Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research1
University of Strasbourg1
University of Cambridge1
University of Vermont1