85 Works

Data from: Detailed food web networks of three Greater Antillean coral reef systems: the Cayman Islands, Cuba, and Jamaica

Peter D. Roopnarine & Rachel Hertog
Food webs represent one of the most complex aspects of community biotic interactions. Complex food webs are represented as networks of interspecific interactions, where nodes represent species or groups of species, and links are predator-prey interactions. This paper presents reconstructions of coral reef food webs in three Greater Antillean regions of the Caribbean: the Cayman Islands, Cuba, and Jamaica. Though not taxonomically comprehensive, each food web nevertheless comprises producers and consumers, single-celled and multicellular organisms,...

Data from: Cryptic speciation yields remarkable mimics: A new genus of sea slugs that masquerade as toxic algae (Caulerpa spp.)

Patrick J. Krug, Nur Leena W.S. Wong, Melanie R. Medina, Terrence M. Gosliner, Angel A. Valdes & Nur Leena W. S. Wong
“Cryptic” can refer to species that match their background through camouflage or disruptive coloration, or in taxonomy to externally similar but unrecognized congeners. In adaptive resemblance, organisms resemble parts of a larger host animal or plant on which the mimic is highly cryptic. Mimetic lineages that radiate onto superficially similar hosts may contain cryptic species in both senses: taxa that are difficult to detect, and challenging for taxonomists to distinguish. Here, we describe a new...

Testing the causes of richness patterns in the paleotropics: time and diversification in cycads (Cycadaceae)

Jian Liu, Anders Lindstrom, Nathalie Nagalingum, John Wiens & Xun Gong
The paleotropics harbor many biodiversity hotspots and show many different species richness patterns. However, it remains unclear which factors are the most important in directly shaping richness patterns among regions in the paleotropics (i.e. diversification rates, colonization times, dispersal frequency). Here we used Cycadaceae as a model system to test the causes of regional richness patterns in the paleotropics. Specifically we tested the roles of dispersal frequency, colonization time, diversification rates, and their combined role...

Phylogeny of the supertribe Nebriitae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on analyses of DNA sequence data

David H. Kavanaugh, David Maddison, W. Brian Simison, Sean D. Schoville, Joachim Schmidt, Arnaud Faille, Wendy Moore, James M. Pflug, Sophie L. Archambeault, Tinya Hoang & Jei-Ying Chen
The phylogeny of the carabid beetle supertribe Nebriitae is inferred from analyses of DNA sequence data from eight gene fragments including one nuclear ribosomal gene (28S), four nuclear-protein coding genes (CAD, topoisomerase 1, PEPCK and wingless) and three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S + tRNA-Leu + ND1, COI (“barcode” region) and COI (“Pat/Jer” region)). Our taxon sample included 264 exemplars representing 241 species and subspecies (25% of the known nebriite fauna), 39 of 41 currently accepted...

Data from: Functional innovation promotes diversification of form in the evolution of an ultrafast trap-jaw mechanism

Douglas Booher, Joshua Gibson, Cong Liu, John Longino, Brian Fisher, Milan Janda, Nitish Narula, Evropi Toulkeridou, Alexander Mikheyev, Andrew Suarez & Evan Economo
Evolutionary innovations underlie the rise of diversity and complexity—the two long-term trends in the history of life. How does natural selection redesign multiple interacting parts to achieve a new emergent function? We investigated the evolution of a biomechanical innovation, the latch-spring mechanism of trap-jaw ants, to address two outstanding evolutionary problems: how form and function change in a system during the evolution of new complex traits, and whether such innovations and the diversity they beget...

Providing virtual nature experiences to incarcerated men reduces stress and increases interest in the environment

James Ruff, Nalini Nadkarni, Tierney Thys, Allison Anholt, Jeff Treviño, Sara Yeo, Nalini M. Nadkarni, Tierney M. Thys, James S. Ruff & Sara K. Yeo
Humans gain multiple health benef­­­its through contact with the green and blue parts of the world . However, many people do not have access to such places, including more than two million adults who are incarcerated. Building on studies that have shown positive emotional and mood effects when inmates in solitary confinement were exposed to nature videos featuring non-human built environments in their cellblocks, we measured physiological effects of interventions of nature visual imagery and...

Data from: Comparisons of Late Ordovician ecosystem dynamics before and after the Richmondian Invasion reveal consequences of invasive species in benthic marine paleocommunities

Hannah Kempf, Ian Castro, Ashley Dineen, Carrie Tyler & Peter Roopnarine
A thorough understanding of how communities respond to extreme changes, such as biotic invasions, is essential to manage ecosystems today. Here we constructed fossil food webs to identify changes in Late Ordovician (Katian) shallow marine paleocommunity structure and functioning before and after the Richmondian Invasion, a well-documented ancient invasion. Food webs were compared using descriptive metrics and Cascading Extinction on Graphs models. Richness at intermediate trophic levels was underrepresented when using only data from the...

Population connectivity across a highly fragmented distribution: Phylogeography of the Chalcophaps doves

Devon DeRaad, Joseph Manthey, Emily Ostrow, Lucas DeCicco, Michael Andersen, Peter Hosner, Hannah Shult, Leo Joseph, John Dumbacher & Robert Moyle
Chalcophaps is a morphologically conserved genus of ground-walking doves distributed from India to mainland China, south to Australia, and across the western Pacific to Vanuatu. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of this genus using DNA sequence data from two nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene, sampled from throughout the geographic range of Chalcophaps. We find support for three major evolutionary lineages in our phylogenetic reconstruction, each corresponding to the three currently recognized Chalcophaps species....

Endemism, invasion, and overseas dispersal: The phylogeographic history of the Lesser Antillean frog, Eleutherodactylus johnstonei

Michael Yuan, Jeffrey Frederick, Jimmy McGuire, Rayna Bell, Struan Smith, Calvin Fenton, Jourdan Cassius, Rudell Williams, Ian Wang, Robert Powell & S. Blair Hedges
Cryptogenic species, those whose native and introduced ranges are unknown, pose a challenge not only to conservation but also to studies of ecology, biogeography, and evolution. One such species is the Lesser Antillean frog, Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, which is broadly distributed through the Caribbean and mainland South America. The Lesser Antilles pose a particular challenge with regard to cryptogenic species because these islands have been anthropogenically connected since before recorded history. We combined genetic (available on...

Data from: A passerine bird's evolution corroborates the geologic history of the island of New Guinea

Kristy Deiner, Alan R Lemmon, Andrew L. Mack, Robert C. Fleischer, John P. Dumbacher & Alan R. Lemmon
New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of phylogeographic variation of a common and widespread New Guinean bird species (Colluricincla megarhyncha). Specifically, we test the mechanisms hypothesized to cause geographic and genetic variation (e.g., vicariance, isolation...

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