In many tropical lowland rainforests, topographic variation increases environmental heterogeneity thus contributing to the extraordinary biodiversity of tropical lowland forests. While a growing number of studies have addressed effects of topographic differences on tropical insect communities at regional scales (e.g., along extensive elevational gradients), surprisingly little is known about topographic effects at smaller spatial scales. The present study investigates moth assemblages in a topographically heterogeneous lowland rainforest landscape, at distances of less than a few...
In the recent years, a large attention has been given to pollution from plastic products as a major environmental problem. Plastics degrade into smaller particles in the environment via photodegradation, physical abrasion, hydrolysis and biodegradation. Microplastics (1 um to 5 mm size particles) have been reported to affect coral reefs, marine and terrestrial animals, as well as humans. It has been reported that about 30% of microplastics in freshwater and oceanic ecosystems are tire wear...
The evolution of natural organisms is ultimately driven by the invasion and possible fixation of mutant alleles. The invasion process is highly stochastic, however, and the probability of success is generally low, even for advantageous alleles. Additionally, all organisms live in a stochastic environment, which may have a large influence on what alleles are favorable, but also contributes to the uncertainty of the invasion process. We calculate the invasion probability of a beneficial, mutant allele...
Data from: Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central EuropeStefan Kapeller, Ulf Dieckmann & Silvio Schueler
Predicting species distribution changes in global warming requires an understanding of how climatic constraints shape the genetic variation of adaptive traits and force local adaptations. To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed variation of tree heights at the juvenile stage in common-garden experiments established from the species’ warm-dry to cold-moist distribution limits. We report the following findings: first, 47 % of the total tree-height variation at trial sites...
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for advanced estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a...
Mountain areas provide disproportionally high runoff in many parts of the world, and here we quantify for the first time their importance for water resources and food production from the viewpoint of the lowland areas downstream. The dataset maps the degree to which lowland areas potentially depend on runoff contributions from mountain areas (39% of land mass) between the 1960s and the 2040s.
Input-output estimates of nitrogen (N) on cropland are essential for improving N management and better understanding the global N cycle. Here, we compare 13 N budget datasets covering 115 countries and regions over 1961-2015. Though most datasets showed similar spatiotemporal patterns, some annual estimates varied widely among them, resulting in large ranges and uncertainty. In 2010, global medians (in Tg N yr-1) and associated min-max ranges were 73 (64-84) for global harvested crop N; 161...
Data from: Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growthFabian Zimmermann, Daniel Ricard & Mikko Heino
1. Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. 2. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance is unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and...
Data from: Tree phenology responses to winter chilling, spring warming, at north and south range limitsJames S. Clarke, Carl Salk, Jerry M. Melillo, Jacqueline Mohan & James S. Clark
Increases in primary production may occur if plants respond to climate warming with prolonged growing seasons, but not if local adaptation, cued by photoperiod, limits phenological advance. It has been hypothesized that trees with diffuse porous xylem anatomy and early successional species may respond most to warming. Within species, northern populations may respond most due to the fact that growing seasons are relatively short. Species most sensitive to spring temperature may show little overall response...
Agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of sustainable agriculture and capacities to measure it remain elusive. Independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability are needed to gauge progress, encourage accountability, and inform policy. Here, we developed a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) to quantify national performance indicators in agriculture and to investigate the tradeoffs and synergies based on historical data for most countries of the world....
Tree water uptake enhances nitrogen acquisition in a fertilized boreal forest – but not under nitrogen poor conditionsNils Henriksson, Hyungwoo Lim, John Marchall, Oskar Franklin, Ross McMurtrie, Reimo Lutter, Ruth Magh, Tomas Lundmark & Torgny Näsholm
Understanding how plant water uptake interacts with acquisition of soil nitrogen (N) and other nutrients is fundamental for predicting plant responses to a changing environment, but it is an area where models disagree. We present a novel isotopic labelling approach which reveals spatial patterns of water and N uptake, and their interaction, by trees. The stable isotopes 15N and 2H were applied to a small area of the forest floor in stands with high and...
The percentage of total agricultural area under maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production, by country, subject to water scarcity in 2050 as estimated from a multi-model ensembleN. Fitton, P. Alexander, N. Arnell, B. Bajzelj, K. Calvin, J. Doelman, J.S. Gerber, P. Havlik, T. Hasegawa, M. Herrero, T. Krisztin, H. Van Meijl, T. Powell, R. Sands, E. Stehfest, P.C. West & P. Smith
Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities availability in 2050.
Body size is recognized as a major factor in evolutionary processes mediating sympatric diversification and community structuring. Life-history types with distinct body sizes can result from two fundamental mechanisms, size-dependent competition and size-dependent mortality. While previous theoretical studies investigated these two processes in separation, the model analyzed here allows both selective forces to affect body-size evolution interactively. Here we show for the first time that in the presence of size-dependent competition, size-dependent mortality can give...
Data from: Heterogeneity in local density allows a positive evolutionary relationship between self-fertilisation and dispersalJames Rodger, Pietro Landi, Cang Hui & James G. Rodger
Despite empirical evidence for a positive relationship between dispersal and self-fertilisation (selfing), theoretical work predicts that these traits should always be negatively correlated, and the Good Coloniser Syndrome of high dispersal and selfing (Cf. Baker’s Law) should not evolve. Critically, previous work assumes that adult density is spatiotemporally homogeneous, so selfing results in identical offspring production for all patches, eliminating the benefit of dispersal for escaping from local resource competition. We investigate the joint evolution...
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis13
University of Minnesota2
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research2
University of Vienna2
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation2
University of Maryland Center For Environmental Sciences2
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research1
Institute of Hydrobiology1
New Mexico State University1