276 Works

Data from: Continuous-time spatially explicit capture-recapture models, with an application to a jaguar camera-trap survey.

Rebecca Foster, Bart Harmsen, Lorenzo Milazzo, Greg Distiller & David Borchers
1. Many capture-recapture surveys of wildlife populations operate in continuous time but detections are typically aggregated into occasions for analysis, even when exact detection times are available. This discards information and introduces subjectivity, in the form of decisions about occasion definition. 2. We develop a spatio-temporal Poisson process model for spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) surveys that operate continuously and record exact detection times. We show that, except in some special cases (including the case in...

Data from: Environmental complexity influences association network structure and network-based diffusion of foraging information in fish shoals

Mike M. Webster, Nicola Atton, William J. E. Hoppitt & Kevin N. Laland
Socially transmitted information can significantly affect the ways in which animals interact with their environments. We used network-based diffusion analysis, a novel and powerful tool for exploring information transmission, to model the rate at which sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) discovered prey patches, comparing shoals foraging in open and structured environments. We found that for groups in the open environment, individuals tended to recruit to both the prey patch and empty comparison patches at similar times, suggesting...

Data from: Discrimination of fast click series produced by tagged Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) for echolocation or communication

Patricia Arranz, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Alison K. Stimpert, Silvana Neves, Ari S. Friedlaender, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, Fleur Visser, John Calambokidis, Brandon L. Southall & Peter L. Tyack
Early studies that categorized odontocete pulsed sounds had few means of discriminating signals used for biosonar-based foraging from those used for communication. This capability to identify the function of sounds is important for understanding and interpreting behavior; it is also essential for monitoring and mitigating potential disturbance from human activities. Archival tags were placed on free-ranging Grampus griseus to quantify and discriminate between pulsed sounds used for echolocation-based foraging and those used for communication. Two...

Data from: Parasitoid wasps influence where aphids die via an inter-specific indirect genetic effect

Mouhammad Shadi Khudr, Johan A. Oldekop, David M. Shuker & Richard F. Preziosi
Host–parasite interactions are a key paradigm for understanding the process of coevolution. Central to coevolution is how genetic variation in interacting species allows parasites to evolve manipulative strategies. However, genetic variation in the parasite may also be associated with host phenotype changes, thereby changing the selection on both species. For instance, parasites often induce changes in the behaviour of their host to maximize their own fitness, yet the quantitative genetic basis for behavioural manipulation has...

Data from: Variations in age- and sex-specific survival rates help explain population trend in a discrete marine mammal population

Mònica Arso Civil, Barbara Cheney, Nicola J. Quick, Valentina Islas-Villanueva, Jeff A. Graves, Vincent M. Janik, Paul M. Thompson & Phillip S. Hammond
1. Understanding the drivers underlying fluctuations in the size of animal populations is central to ecology, conservation biology and wildlife management. Reliable estimates of survival probabilities are key to population viability assessments, and patterns of variation in survival can help inferring the causal factors behind detected changes in population size. 2. We investigated whether variation in age and sex-specific survival probabilities could help explain the increasing trend in population size detected in a small, discrete...

Data from: Socially flexible female choice and premating isolation in field crickets (Teleogryllus spp.)

Nathan W. Bailey & Elaine Macleod
Social influences on mate choice are predicted to influence evolutionary divergence of closely-related taxa, because of the key role mate choice plays in reproductive isolation. However, it is unclear whether females choosing between heterospecific and conspecific male signals use previously experienced social information in the same manner or to the same extent that they do when discriminating among conspecific mates only. We tested this using two field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus)...

Data from: Optimizing countershading camouflage

Innes C. Cuthill, N. Simon Sanghera, Olivier Penacchio, Paul George Lovell, Graeme D. Ruxton & Julie M. Harris
Because the sun and sky are above us, natural illumination is directional and the cues from shading reveal shape and depth. However, many animals are darker on their backs and, over 100 years ago, it was proposed that this phenomenon was camouflage: countering the cues to shape that directional illumination creates. However, does this camouflage work in practice? We predicted the optimal countershading for different lighting conditions and tested this possibility with correspondingly patterned model...

Data from: Local weather and body condition influence habitat use and movements on land of molting female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina)

Laureline L. Chaise, Iris Prinet, Camille Toscani, Susan L. Gallon, William Paterson, Dominic J. McCafferty, Marc Théry, André Ancel & Caroline Gilbert
Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) are known to move and aggregate while moulting, but little is known about their behaviour on land during this time. In this study, 60 adult females were monitored (23 with GPS tags) during four moulting seasons, between 2012 and 2016 at Kerguelen Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Population surveys were recorded each year (N = 230 daily counts) and habitat use was analysed in relation to the stage of the moult and...

Data from: Sexual signal loss: the link between behavior and rapid evolutionary dynamics in a field cricket

Marlene Zuk, Nathan W. Bailey, Brian Gray & John T. Rotenberry
1. Sexual signals may be acquired or lost over evolutionary time, and are tempered in their exaggeration by natural selection. 2. In the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, a mutation (“flatwing”) causing loss of the sexual signal, the song, spread in < 20 generations in two of three Hawaiian islands where the crickets have been introduced. Flatwing (as well as some normal-wing) males behave as satellites, moving towards and settling near calling males to intercept...

Data from: Cultural revolutions reduce complexity in the songs of humpback whales

Jenny A. Allen, Ellen C. Garland, Rebecca A. Dunlop & Michael J. Noad
Much evidence for non-human culture comes from vocally learned displays, such as the vocal dialects and song displays of birds and cetaceans. While many oscine birds use song complexity to assess male fitness, the role of complexity in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song is uncertain due to population-wide conformity to one song pattern. Although songs change gradually each year, the eastern Australian population also completely replaces their song every few years in cultural ‘revolutions’. Revolutions...

Data from: Long-term sound and movement recording tags to study natural behaviour and reaction to ship noise of seals

Lonnie Mikkelsen, Mark Johnson, Danuta Maria Wisniewska, Abbo Van Neer, Ursula Siebert, Peter Teglberg Madsen & Jonas Teilmann
The impact of anthropogenic noise on marine fauna is of increasing conservation concern with vessel noise being one of the major contributors. Animals that rely on shallow coastal habitats may be especially vulnerable to this form of pollution. Very limited information is available on how much noise from ship traffic individual animals experience, and how they may react to it due to a lack of suitable methods. To address this, we developed long‐duration audio and...

Data from: Genetics of incipient speciation in Drosophila mojavensis. III. Life history divergence in allopatry and reproductive isolation

William J. Etges, Cássia Cardoso De Oliveira, Mohamed A. F. Noor & Michael G. Ritchie
We carried out a three-tiered genetic analysis of egg-to-adult development time and viability in ancestral and derived populations of cactophilic D. mojavensis to test the hypothesis that evolution of these life history characters has shaped premating reproductive isolation in this species. First, a common garden experiment with 11 populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona reared on two host cacti revealed significant host plant X region and population interactions for viability and development...

Data from: Physiological, morphological, and ecological tradeoffs influence vertical habitat use of deep-diving toothed-whales in the Bahamas

Trevor W. Joyce, John W. Durban, Diane E. Claridge, Charlotte A. Dunn, Holly Fearnbach, Kim M. Parsons, Russel D. Andrews & Lisa T. Ballance
Dive capacity among toothed whales (suborder: Odontoceti) has been shown to generally increase with body mass in a relationship closely linked to the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. However, two odontocete species tagged in this study, the Blainville’s beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris and the Cuvier’s beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, confounded expectations of a simple allometric relationship, with exceptionally long (mean: 46.1 min & 65.4 min) and deep dives (mean: 1129 m & 1179 m), and...

Data from: Quantifying uncertainty due to fission-fusion dynamics as a component of social complexity

Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez, Andrew J. King, Jacinta C. Beehner, Thore J. Bergman, Margaret C. Crofoot, Anthony Di Fiore, Julia Lehmann, Colleen M. Schaffner, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Klaus Zuberbühler, Filippo Aureli & Denis Boyer
Groups of animals (including humans) may show flexible grouping patterns, in which temporary aggregations or subgroups come together and split, changing composition over short temporal scales, i.e. fission and fusion). A high degree of fission-fusion dynamics may constrain the regulation of social relationships, introducing uncertainty in interactions between group members. Here we use Shannon's entropy to quantify the predictability of subgroup composition for three species known to differ in the way their subgroups come together...

How 2 and 4 year old children coordinate joint actions with peers

Federico Rossano, Jack Terwilliger, Adrian Bangerter, Emilie Genty, Raphaela Heesen & Klaus Zuberbühler
The interaction engine hypothesis postulates a uniquely human ability and motivation for social interaction. A crucial juncture in the ontogeny of the interaction engine could be around 2-4 years of age, but observational studies of children in natural contexts are lacking. Moreover, data on the ontogenetic development of joint action coordination can provide critical human data for comparative research investigating the phylogenetic roots of the interaction engine. In this study we report on focal observations...

Global positioning system (GPS) locations and elevations of soil sampling sites across UK saltmarshes 2018 to 2021

C. Smeaton, C.J.T. Ladd, G.M. Havelock, L.C. Miller, E. Garrett, W. Hiles, L. McMahon, R.T.E. Mills, A. Radbourne, P. Ruranska, L. Rees-Hughes, S. Riegel, N.L.M. Barlow, M.W. Skov, R. Gehrels & W.E.N. Austin
The dataset details global positioning system (GPS) locations and elevations recorded for 1323 sampling sites across UK saltmarshes. Between 2018 and 2021, soil was sampled at 1323 locations as part of the Carbon Storage in Intertidal Environments (C-SIDE) project to facilitate the calculation of saltmarsh soil organic carbon stocks and burial rates. Sites were chosen to represent contrasting habitat types in the UK, in particular sediment types, vegetation and sea level history. The work was...

Data from: Multiple quantitative trait loci influence intra-specific variation in genital morphology between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana

Martin A Schäfer, Jarkko Routtu, Jorge Vieira, Anneli Hoikkala, Mike G Ritchie & Christian Schlötterer
The evolution of animal genitalia has gained renewed interest, because of their potential roles during sexual selection and early stages of species formation. Although central to understanding the evolutionary process, knowledge of the genetic basis of natural variation in genital morphology is limited to a very few species. Using an out-bred cross between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana, we characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the size and shape of the distiphallus, a prominent...

Data from: Geographic variation of the major histocompatibility complex in Eastern Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

Kristina Cammen, Joe I Hoffman, Leslie A Knapp, John Harwood & William Amos
Pathogen-driven balancing selection maintains high genetic diversity in many vertebrates, particularly in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immune system gene family, which is often associated with disease susceptibility. In large natural populations where subpopulations face different pathogen pressures, the MHC should show greater genetic differentiation within a species than neutral markers. We examined genetic diversity at the MHC-DQB locus and nine putatively neutral microsatellite markers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from eight United Kingdom colonies,...

Data from: Nonadditive changes to cytosine methylation as a consequence of hybridization and genome duplication in Senecio (Asteraceae)

Matthew J Hegarty, Tom Batstone, Gary L Barker, Keith J Edwards, Richard J Abbott & Simon J Hiscock
The merger of two or more divergent genomes within an allopolyploid nucleus can facilitate speciation and adaptive evolution in flowering plants. Widespread changes to gene expression have been shown to result from interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy in a number of plant species, and attention has now shifted to determining the epigenetic processes which drive these changes. We present here an analysis of cytosine methylation patterns in triploid F1 Senecio (ragwort) hybrids and their allohexaploid derivatives....

Data from: Sexual selection on male development time in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis

Anna M Moynihan & Dave M Shuker
Mating systems are shaped by a species’ ecology, which sets the stage for sexual selection. Males of the gregarious parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis compete to mate virgin females at the natal site, before females disperse. Males could increase their fitness by being larger and monopolising female emergence sites, or by emerging earlier pre-empting access to females. We consider sexual selection on male body size and development tine in Nasonia, and a potential trade-off between the...

Data from: Sexual selection on song and cuticular hydrocarbons in two distinct populations of Drosophila montana

Paris Veltsos, Claude Wicker-Thomas, Roger K. Butlin, Anneli Hoikkala & Michael G. Ritchie
Sexual selection has the potential to contribute to population divergence and speciation. Most studies of sexual selection in Drosophila have concentrated on a single signaling modality, usually either courtship song or cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which can act as contact pheromones. We have examined the relationship between both signal types and reproductive success using F1-3 offspring of wild-collected flies, raised in the lab. We used two populations of the Holarctic species Drosophila montana, that represent different...

Data from: No evidence for host specialization or host-race formation in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), a fish that parasitizes freshwater mussels

Martin Reichard, Josef Bryja, Matej Polačik & Carl Smith
Coevolutionary relationships between parasites and hosts can elevate the rate of evolutionary changes due to reciprocal adaptations between coevolving partners. Such relationships can result in the evolution of host specificity. Recent methodological advances have permitted the recognition of cryptic lineages, with important consequences for our understanding of biological diversity. We used the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), a freshwater fish that parasitizes unionid mussels, to investigate host specialization across regions of recent and ancient sympatry between...

Data from: Genetic divergence, range expansion and possible homoploid hybrid speciation among pine species in northeast China

Guangpeng Ren, Richard J. Abbott, Yongfeng Zhou, Lirui Zhang, Yanling Peng, R J Abbott, G-P Ren, Y-F Zhou, L-R Zhang, Y-L Peng & J-Q Liu
Although homoploid hybrid speciation in plants is probably more common than previously realized, there are few well-documented cases of homoploid hybrid origin in conifers. We examined genetic divergence between two currently widespread pines in northeast China, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and P. densiflora, and also whether two narrowly distributed pines in the same region, P. funebris and P. takahasii, might have originated from the two widespread species by homoploid hybrid speciation. Our results, based on...

Data from: Genetics of incipient speciation in Drosophila mojavensis. III. Life history divergence in allopatry and reproductive isolation

William J. Etges, Cássia Cardoso De Oliveira, Mohamed A. F. Noor & Michael G. Ritchie
We carried out a three-tiered genetic analysis of egg-to-adult development time and viability in ancestral and derived populations of cactophilic D. mojavensis to test the hypothesis that evolution of these life history characters has shaped premating reproductive isolation in this species. First, a common garden experiment with 11 populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona reared on two host cacti revealed significant host plant X region and population interactions for viability and development...

Data from: History and evolution of alpine plants endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae)

Liuyang Wang, Richard Abbott, Wei Zheng, Ping Chen, Yujin Wang & Jianquan Liu
How Quaternary climatic oscillations affected range distributions and intraspecific divergence of alpine plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) remains largely unknown. Here we report a survey of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear ribosomal (ITS) DNA variation aimed at exploring the phylogeographic history of the QTP alpine endemic Aconitum gymnandrum. We sequenced three cpDNA fragments (rpl20-rps12 intergenic spacer, the trnV intron and psbA-trnH spacer) and also the nuclear (ITS) region in 245 individuals from 23 populations sampled...

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