276 Works

From pup to predator; generalized hidden Markov models reveal rapid development of movement strategies in a naïve long‐lived vertebrate

Matt I. D. Carter, Brett T. McClintock, Clare B. Embling, Kimberley A. Bennett, Dave Thompson & Debbie J. F. Russell
Rapid development of a successful foraging strategy is critical for juvenile survival, especially for naïve animals that receive no parental guidance. However, this process is poorly understood for many species. Although observation of early-life movements is increasingly possible with miniaturisation of animalborne telemetry devices, analytical limitations remain. Here, we tracked 29 recently-weaned, grey seal Halichoerus grypus pups from colonies in two geographically distinct regions of the United Kingdom. We analysed at-sea movements of pups throughout...

Evidence of repertoire sharing and stability despite a high turnover rate in a duetting neotropical wren

Esmeralda Quirós-Guerrero, Maria Joao Janeiro, Will Cresswell & Christopher Templeton
In songbirds, the spatial pattern of song sharing among individuals is influenced by the song learning and dispersal strategies within each species. In birds where females and males sing and create joint acoustic displays (duets), the processes defining the patterns of song sharing become more complex as there might be different selection pressures shaping the behaviour of each sex. To provide further insight into the vocal development and the dispersal strategy of duetting tropical species,...

Deep-diving beaked whales dive together but forage apart

Jesús Alcázar Treviño, Mark Johnson, Patricia Arranz, Victoria Warren, Carlos Pérez-González, Tiago Marques, Peter Madsen & Natacha Aguilar De Soto
Echolocating animals that forage in social groups can potentially benefit from eavesdropping on other group members, cooperative foraging or social defence, but may also face problems of acoustic interference and intra-group competition for prey. Here, we investigated these potential trade-offs of sociality for extreme deep-diving Blainville´s and Cuvier’s beaked whales. These species perform highly synchronous group dives as a presumed predator-avoidance behaviour but the benefits and costs of this on foraging have not been investigated....

The value of considering demographic contributions to connectivity - a review

Joseph Drake, Xavier Lambin & Christopher Sutherland
Connectivity is a central concept in ecology, wildlife management and conservation science. Understanding the role of connectivity in determining species persistence is increasingly important in the face of escalating anthropogenic impacts on climate and habitat. These connectivity augmenting processes can severely impact species distributions and community and ecosystem functioning. One general definition of connectivity is an emergent process arising from a set of spatial interdependencies between individuals or populations, and increasingly realistic representations of connectivity...

Data from: Environmental drivers of population-level variation in the migratory and diving ontogeny of an Arctic top predator

James Grecian, Garry Stenson, Martin Biuw, Lars Boehme, Lars Folkow, Pierre Goulet, Ian Jonsen, Aleksander Malde, Erling S. Nordøy, Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid & Sophie Smout
The development of migratory strategies that enable juveniles to survive to recruitment is critical for species that exploit seasonal niches. For animals that forage via breath-hold diving this requires a combination of both physiological and foraging skill development. Here, we assess how migratory and dive behaviour develop over the first months of life for a migratory Arctic top predator, the harp seal, tracked using animal-borne satellite relay data loggers. We reveal similarities in migratory movements...

Echolocating toothed whales use ultra-fast echo-kinetic responses to track evasive prey

Heather Vance, Peter Madsen, Natacha Aguilar De Soto, Danuta Wisniewska, Michael Ladegaard, Sascha Hooker & Mark Johnson
Visual predators rely on fast-acting optokinetic responses to track and capture agile prey. Most toothed whales, however, rely on echolocation for hunting and have converged on biosonar clicking rates reaching 500/s during prey pu rsuits. If echoes are processed on a click by click basis, as assumed, neural responses 100x faster than those in vision are required to keep pace with this information flow. Using high resolution bio-logging of wild predator prey interactions we show...

All simulation results, figures and code regarding the manuscript: Calibrating models of cancer invasion: parameter estimation using Approximate Bayesian Computation and gradient matching

Yunchen Xiao, Len Thomas & Mark Chaplain
We present two different methods to estimate parameters within a partial differential equation (PDE) model of cancer invasion. The model describes the spatio-temporal evolution of three variables -- tumour cell density, extracellular matrix density and matrix degrading enzyme concentration -- in a one-dimensional tissue domain. The first method is a likelihood-free approach associated with Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC); the second is a two-stage gradient matching method based on smoothing the data with a Generalized Additive...

Pocket delipidation induced by membrane tension or modification leads to a structurally analogous mechanosensitive channel state

Bolin Wang, Benjamin Lane, Charalampos Kapsalis, James Ault, Frank Sobott, Hassane El Mkami, Antonio Calabrese, Antreas Kalli & Christos Pliotas
Experimental data: Raw data for 3pESEEM time-domain traces. Computational data: Raw molecular dynamic simulation trajectories.

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) greenhouse gas fluxes in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

C. Golléty, I. Davidson & D.M. Paterson
The dataset details greenhouse gas fluxes as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) across six intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area, twenty two sampling quadrats were placed on each area. Light and dark incubations...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) surface sediment chlorophyll concentrations in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

J. Maunder & D.M. Paterson
The dataset details surface sediment chlorophyll concentrations across six intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013. Chlorophyll concentrations in surface sediments (<2mm) provide a quantitative measure of the microphytobenthos (MPB) community present. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area, twenty two sampling quadrats were placed...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) meteorological data from Cartmel Sands, Morecambe

T.C. Hill & M. Chocholek
The meteorological data describes the air and soil temperatures, net radiation balance, down-welling photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed, wind direction and the vapour pressure deficit. Data collection was carried out at Cartmel Sands marsh from the 31st of May 2013 till the 26th of January 2015. The Cartmel Sands site is in Morecambe, North West England, and the meteorological tower was situated in the middle of the marsh. This data was collected as part of...

Risk of Phytophthora infection in woodland and larch fragments across Scotland

B.V. Purse, A. Schlenzig, C. Harris & K. Searle
These spatial layers contain risk factors and overall risk scores, representing relative risk of Phytophthora infection (Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae), for Core Native Woodland and known larch fragments across Scotland. Risk factors include climate suitability, proximity to road and river networks and suitability of habitat for key hosts of Phytophthora and were broadly concurrent with the period between 2007 and 2013. This research was funded by the Scottish Government under research contract CR/2008/55, 'Study...

Data Collected During Simultaneous Neutron Powder Diffraction and Microwave Characterisation at Elevated Temperatures

Michael Barter, Gemma Smith, Sihai Yang, Martin Schröder, Martin Owen Jones & Adrian Porch
This dataset contains data collected during simultaneous neutron diffraction and microwave characterisation of a metal-organic framework (MOF), MFM-170, at elevated temperatures. The experiment consisted of the desolvation of the as synthesised MOF sample by flowing nitrogen gas heated to 150 °C through the sample, followed by rehydration of the sample by flowing air through the sample, and subsequent desolvation at a higher flow rate. Temperatures throughout the experiment are given (time and temperature) along with...

Dry bulk density, loss on ignition and organic carbon content of surficial soils from English and Welsh salt marshes 2019

P. Ruranska, C.J.T. Ladd, C. Smeaton, M.W. Skov & W.E.N. Austin
The data provide a quantitative measure of the dry bulk density, soil texture, organic matter content (LOI) and organic carbon present within surface soils (up to a depth of 10 cm). A total of 212 samples from 49 sites across England and Wales were collected using modified syringe samplers as part of the citizen scientist programme CarbonQuest, part of Carbon Storage in Intertidal Environments (C-SIDE) project. Sites were chosen to represent contrasting habitats across England...

Data from: Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

Danuta M. Wisniewska, John M. Ratcliffe, Kristian Beedholm, Christian B. Christensen, Mark Johnson, Jens C. Koblitz, Magnus Wahlberg & Peter M. Madsen
Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats,...

Data from: Automated peak detection method for behavioral event identification: detecting Balaenoptera musculus and Grampus griseus feeding attempts

David A. Sweeney, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Ye Joo McNamara-Oh, Tiago A. Marques, Patricia Arranz & John Calambokidis
The desire of animal behaviorists for more flexible methods of conducting inter-study and inter-specific comparisons and meta-analysis of various animal behaviors compelled us to design an automated, animal behavior peak detection method that is potentially generalizable to a wide variety of data types, animals, and behaviors. We detected the times of feeding attempts by 12 Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) and 36 blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) using the norm-jerk (rate of change of acceleration) time series....

Data from: Tracking marine mammals in 3D using electronic tag data

Christophe Laplanche, Tiago A. Marques & Len Thomas
1. Information about at-depth behaviour of marine mammals is fundamental yet very hard to obtain from direct visual observation. Animal-borne multisensor electronic tags provide a unique window of observation into such behaviours. 2. Electronic tag sensors allow the estimation of the animal's 3-dimensional (3D) orientation, depth and speed. Using tag flow noise level to provide an estimate of animal speed, we extend existing approaches of 3D track reconstruction by allowing the direction of movement to...

Data from: Sound exposure in harbour seals during the installation of an offshore wind farm: predictions of auditory damage

Gordon D. Hastie, Deborah J. F. Russell, Bernie McConnell, Simon Moss, Dave Thompson, Vincent M. Janik & Deborah J.F. Russell
1. With ambitious renewable energy targets, pile driving associated with offshore wind farm construction will become widespread in the marine environment. Many proposed wind farms overlap with the distribution of seals, and sound from pile driving has the potential to cause auditory damage. 2. We report on a behavioural study during the construction of a wind farm using data from GPS/GSM tags on 24 harbour seals Phoca vitulina L. Pile driving data and acoustic propagation...

Data from: Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species

Johanna L. Baily, Guillaume Méric, Sion Bayliss, Geoffrey Foster, Simon E. Moss, Eleanor Watson, Ben Pascoe, Jane Mikhail, Robert J. Goldstone, Romain Pizzi, David G. E. Smith, Kim Willoughby, Alisa J. Hall, Mark P. Dagleish, Samuel K. Sheppard & Ailsa J. Hall
Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to...

Data from: Cyprus wheatears Oenanthe cypriaca likely reach sub-Saharan African wintering grounds in a single migratory flight

Marina Xenophontos, Emma Blackburn & Will Cresswell
Long-distance migratory flights with multiple stop-overs, multiple wintering sites, and small-scale connectivity in Afro-Palearctic migrants are likely to increase their vulnerability to environmental change and lead to declining populations. Here we present the migration tracks and wintering locations of the first six Cyprus wheatears to be tracked with geolocators: a species with high survival and a stable population. We therefore predicted a non-stop flight from Cyprus to sub-Saharan wintering grounds, a single wintering area for...

Data from: Multiple quantitative trait loci influence intra-specific variation in genital morphology between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana

Martin A Schäfer, Jarkko Routtu, Jorge Vieira, Anneli Hoikkala, Mike G Ritchie & Christian Schlötterer
The evolution of animal genitalia has gained renewed interest, because of their potential roles during sexual selection and early stages of species formation. Although central to understanding the evolutionary process, knowledge of the genetic basis of natural variation in genital morphology is limited to a very few species. Using an out-bred cross between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana, we characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the size and shape of the distiphallus, a prominent...

Data from: Multivariate selection and intersexual genetic constraints in a wild bird population

Jocelyn Poissant, Micheal B. Morrissey, Andrew G. Gosler, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
When traits are genetically correlated between the sexes, the response to selection in one sex can be altered by indirect selection in the other sex, a type of genetic constraint commonly referred to as intralocus sexual conflict (ISC). While potentially common, ISC has rarely been studied in wild populations. In this study, we applied a multivariate framework to quantify the microevolutionary impacts of ISC over a set of morphological traits (wing length, tarsus length, bill...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence I: the influence of socially flexible cuticular hydrocarbon expression in male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Christopher Mitchell, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Debates about how coevolution of sexual traits and preferences might promote evolutionary diversification have permeated speciation research for over a century. Recent work demonstrates that the expression of such traits can be sensitive to variation in the social environment. Here we examined social flexibility in a sexually selected male trait – cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles – in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus and tested whether population genetic divergence predicts the extent or direction of social...

Data from: Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

Alison V. Towner, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Roland Langrock, Robert S. Schick, Malcolm J. Smale, Tami Kaschke, Oliver J.D. Jewell, Yannis P. Papastamatiou & Oliver J. D. Jewell
Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat, and distribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movement strategies within a population which can be hard to quantify. Within top predators, movements are also going to be directly related to the mode of hunting; for example sit-and-wait or actively searching for prey. Although there is mounting evidence that different hunting modes can cause opposing trophic cascades, there has...

Data from: Sperm blocking is not a male adaptation to sperm competition in a parasitoid wasp

Rebecca A. Boulton, Nicola Cook, Jade Green, Elisabeth V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
The extent to which sperm or ejaculate-derived products from different males interact during sperm competition – from kamikaze sperm to sperm incapacitation – remains controversial. Repeated matings in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis lead to a short-term reduction of efficient sperm use by females, which is crucial for a haplodiploid organism when needing to allocate sex adaptively (i.e. by fertilizing eggs to produce daughters). Repeated matings by females in this species therefore constrain sex allocation...

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