281 Works

Data from: Discrimination of fast click series produced by tagged Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) for echolocation or communication

Patricia Arranz, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Alison K. Stimpert, Silvana Neves, Ari S. Friedlaender, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, Fleur Visser, John Calambokidis, Brandon L. Southall & Peter L. Tyack
Early studies that categorized odontocete pulsed sounds had few means of discriminating signals used for biosonar-based foraging from those used for communication. This capability to identify the function of sounds is important for understanding and interpreting behavior; it is also essential for monitoring and mitigating potential disturbance from human activities. Archival tags were placed on free-ranging Grampus griseus to quantify and discriminate between pulsed sounds used for echolocation-based foraging and those used for communication. Two...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) eddy covariance flux data for Abbotts Hall, Essex

T. Hill & M. Chocholek
The eddy covariance data describes the fluxes of CO2, latent energy, and sensible heat. It also includes ancillary data: air and soil temperatures, net radiation balance, down-welling photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed, wind direction, vapour pressure deficit, friction velocity, Monin-Obukhov stability and modelled respiration. Data collection was carried out at Abbotts Hall marsh from the 15 December 2012 till the 27 January 2015. The Abbotts Hall site is in Essex, South East England, and the...

Data from: The influence of organic material and temperature on the burial tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis: considerations for the management of marine aggregate dredging

Richard S. Cottrell, Kenny D. Black, Zoë L. Hutchison & Kim S. Last
Rationale and Experimental Approach: Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables. Results and Discussion:...

Data from: Information use and resource competition: an integrative framework

Alexander E. G. Lee, James P. Ounsley, Timothy Coulson, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Guy Cowlishaw & Tim Coulson
Organisms may reduce uncertainty regarding how best to exploit their environment by collecting information about resource distribution. We develop a model to demonstrate how competition can facilitate or constrain an individual’s ability to use information when acquiring resources. Since resource distribution underpins both selection on information use and the strength and nature of competition between individuals, we demonstrate interdependencies between the two that should be common in nature. Individuals in our model can search for...

Data from: Optimizing countershading camouflage

Innes C. Cuthill, N. Simon Sanghera, Olivier Penacchio, Paul George Lovell, Graeme D. Ruxton & Julie M. Harris
Because the sun and sky are above us, natural illumination is directional and the cues from shading reveal shape and depth. However, many animals are darker on their backs and, over 100 years ago, it was proposed that this phenomenon was camouflage: countering the cues to shape that directional illumination creates. However, does this camouflage work in practice? We predicted the optimal countershading for different lighting conditions and tested this possibility with correspondingly patterned model...

Data from: Maternal source of variability in the embryo development of an annual killifish

Matej Polačik, Carl Smith & Martin Reichard
Organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments often evolve diversified reproductive bet-hedging strategies, expressed as production of multiple offspring phenotypes, thereby avoiding complete reproductive failure. To cope with unpredictable rainfall, African annual killifish from temporary savannah pools lay drought-resistant eggs that vary widely in the duration of embryo development. We examined the sources of variability in the duration of individual embryo development, egg production and fertilization rate in Nothobranchius furzeri. Using a quantitative genetics approach (North Carolina Type...

Data from: Structural reorganization of the chromatin remodeling enzyme Chd1 upon engagement with nucleosomes

Ramasubramanian Sundaramoorthy, Amanda L. Hughes, Vijender Singh, Nicola Wiechens, Daniel P. Ryan, Hassane El-Mkami, Maxim Petoukhov, Dmitri I. Svergun, Barbara Treutlein, Salina Quack, Monika Fischer, Jens Michaelis, Bettina Böttcher, David G. Norman & Tom Owen-Hughes
The yeast Chd1 protein acts to position nucleosomes across genomes. Here, we model the structure of the Chd1 protein in solution and when bound to nucleosomes. In the apo state, the DNA-binding domain contacts the edge of the nucleosome while in the presence of the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, ADP-beryllium fluoride, we observe additional interactions between the ATPase domain and the adjacent DNA gyre 1.5 helical turns from the dyad axis of symmetry. Binding in this...

Data from: Techniques for estimating the size of low density gopher tortoise populations

Jonathan M. Stober, Rocio Prieto-Gonzalez, Lora L. Smith, Tiago A. Marques & Len Thomas
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) is a candidate species for range-wide listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act; hence reliable population estimates are required to aid management and guide policy needed to recover the species. Line transect distance sampling has been adopted as the preferred technique to estimate population size. However, when tortoise density is low, it can be challenging to obtain enough tortoise observations to reliably estimate the probability of detection, a vital component...

Data from: A non-parametric maximum test for the Behrens–Fisher problem

Anke Welz, Graeme D. Ruxton & Markus Neuhäuser
Non-normality and heteroscedasticity are common in applications. For the comparison of two samples in the non-parametric Behrens–Fisher problem, different tests have been proposed, but no single test can be recommended for all situations. Here, we propose combining two tests, the Welch t test based on ranks and the Brunner–Munzel test, within a maximum test. Simulation studies indicate that this maximum test, performed as a permutation test, controls the type I error rate and stabilizes the...

Data from: Sexual signal loss: the link between behavior and rapid evolutionary dynamics in a field cricket

Marlene Zuk, Nathan W. Bailey, Brian Gray & John T. Rotenberry
1. Sexual signals may be acquired or lost over evolutionary time, and are tempered in their exaggeration by natural selection. 2. In the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, a mutation (“flatwing”) causing loss of the sexual signal, the song, spread in < 20 generations in two of three Hawaiian islands where the crickets have been introduced. Flatwing (as well as some normal-wing) males behave as satellites, moving towards and settling near calling males to intercept...

Data from: Isolation rearing does not constrain social plasticity in a family-living lizard

Julia L. Riley, Côme Guidou, Caroline Fryns, Johann Mourier, Stephan T. Leu, Daniel W.A. Noble, Richard W. Byrne, Martin J. Whiting & Daniel W A Noble
An animal’s social environment can be both dynamic and complex. Thus, social species often garner fitness benefits through being plastic in their social behavior. Yet, social plasticity can be constrained by an individual’s experience. We examined the influence of early social environment on social behavior in the tree skink (Egernia striolata), a family-living lizard. In the first phase of this study, we reared juveniles in two different social environments for 1.5 years: either in isolation...

Data from: Function and flexibility of object exploration in kea and New Caledonian crows

Megan L. Lambert, Martina Schiestl, Raoul Schwing, Alex H. Taylor, Gyula K. Gajdon, Katie E. Slocombe & Amanda M. Seed
A range of nonhuman animals frequently manipulate and explore objects in their environment, which may enable them to learn about physical properties and potentially form more abstract concepts of properties such as weight and rigidity. Whether animals can apply the information learned during their exploration to solve novel problems, however, and whether they actually change their exploratory behaviour to seek functional information about objects have not been fully explored. We allowed kea (Nestor notabilis) and...

Data from: Physiological, morphological, and ecological tradeoffs influence vertical habitat use of deep-diving toothed-whales in the Bahamas

Trevor W. Joyce, John W. Durban, Diane E. Claridge, Charlotte A. Dunn, Holly Fearnbach, Kim M. Parsons, Russel D. Andrews & Lisa T. Ballance
Dive capacity among toothed whales (suborder: Odontoceti) has been shown to generally increase with body mass in a relationship closely linked to the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. However, two odontocete species tagged in this study, the Blainville’s beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris and the Cuvier’s beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, confounded expectations of a simple allometric relationship, with exceptionally long (mean: 46.1 min & 65.4 min) and deep dives (mean: 1129 m & 1179 m), and...

Data from: Higher songs of city birds may not be an individual response to noise

Sue Anne Zollinger, Peter J. B. Slater, Erwin Nemeth & Henrik Brumm
It has been observed in many songbird species that populations in noisy urban areas sing with a higher minimum frequency than do matched populations in quieter, less developed areas. However, why and how this divergence occurs is not yet understood. We experimentally tested whether chronic noise exposure during vocal learning results in songs with higher minimum frequencies in great tits (Parus major), the first species for which a correlation between anthropogenic noise and song frequency...

Data from: Individual variation in male reproductive behaviour is linked to temporal heterogeneity in predation risk

Miguel Barbosa, Amy E. Deacon, Maria Joao Janeiro, Indar Ramnarine, Michael Blair Morrissey & Anne E. Magurran
Variation in predation risk is a major driver of ecological and evolutionary change, and, in turn, of geographical variation in behaviour. While predation risk is rarely constant in natural populations, the extent to which variation in predation risk shapes individual behaviour in wild populations remains unclear. Here, we investigated individual differences in reproductive behavior in 16 Trinidadian guppy populations and related it to the observed variation in predator biomass each population experienced. Our results show...

Data from: Cultural revolutions reduce complexity in the songs of humpback whales

Jenny A. Allen, Ellen C. Garland, Rebecca A. Dunlop & Michael J. Noad
Much evidence for non-human culture comes from vocally learned displays, such as the vocal dialects and song displays of birds and cetaceans. While many oscine birds use song complexity to assess male fitness, the role of complexity in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song is uncertain due to population-wide conformity to one song pattern. Although songs change gradually each year, the eastern Australian population also completely replaces their song every few years in cultural ‘revolutions’. Revolutions...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity data from a grassland microcosm experiment [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, P.J. Vandenkoornhuyse, J.R. Leake, L. Gilbert, , J.P Grime, J.P.W. Young & D.J. Read
These arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi diversity data were collected in 2000 as part of an investigation in an unfertilized limestone grassland soil supporting different synthesized vascular plant assemblages that had developed for three years. The experimental treatments comprised: bare soil; monocultures of the non mycotrophic sedge Carex flacca; monocultures of the mycotrophic grass Festuca ovina; and a species-rich mixture of four forbs, four grasses and four sedges. The experiment was undertaken in microcosms, set up...

Data from: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Iceland show weak genetic structure among diverse isotopic signatures and observed movement patterns

Sara B. Tavares, Filipa I.P. Samarra, Sonia Pascoal, Jeff A. Graves, Patrick J.O. Miller, Filipa I. P. Samarra & Patrick J. O. Miller
Local adaption through ecological niche specialization can lead to genetic structure between and within populations. In the Northeast Pacific, killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the same population have uniform specialized diets that are non-overlapping with other sympatric, genetically divergent and socially isolated killer whale ecotypes. However, killer whales in Iceland show intra-population variation of isotopic niches and observed movement patterns: some individuals appear to specialise on herring and follow it year-round while others feed upon...

Data from: Local weather and body condition influence habitat use and movements on land of molting female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina)

Laureline L. Chaise, Iris Prinet, Camille Toscani, Susan L. Gallon, William Paterson, Dominic J. McCafferty, Marc Théry, André Ancel & Caroline Gilbert
Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) are known to move and aggregate while moulting, but little is known about their behaviour on land during this time. In this study, 60 adult females were monitored (23 with GPS tags) during four moulting seasons, between 2012 and 2016 at Kerguelen Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Population surveys were recorded each year (N = 230 daily counts) and habitat use was analysed in relation to the stage of the moult and...

Data from: Quantifying uncertainty due to fission-fusion dynamics as a component of social complexity

Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez, Andrew J. King, Jacinta C. Beehner, Thore J. Bergman, Margaret C. Crofoot, Anthony Di Fiore, Julia Lehmann, Colleen M. Schaffner, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Klaus Zuberbühler, Filippo Aureli & Denis Boyer
Groups of animals (including humans) may show flexible grouping patterns, in which temporary aggregations or subgroups come together and split, changing composition over short temporal scales, i.e. fission and fusion). A high degree of fission-fusion dynamics may constrain the regulation of social relationships, introducing uncertainty in interactions between group members. Here we use Shannon's entropy to quantify the predictability of subgroup composition for three species known to differ in the way their subgroups come together...

Data from: Long-term sound and movement recording tags to study natural behaviour and reaction to ship noise of seals

Lonnie Mikkelsen, Mark Johnson, Danuta Maria Wisniewska, Abbo Van Neer, Ursula Siebert, Peter Teglberg Madsen & Jonas Teilmann
The impact of anthropogenic noise on marine fauna is of increasing conservation concern with vessel noise being one of the major contributors. Animals that rely on shallow coastal habitats may be especially vulnerable to this form of pollution. Very limited information is available on how much noise from ship traffic individual animals experience, and how they may react to it due to a lack of suitable methods. To address this, we developed long‐duration audio and...

Data from: Variations in age- and sex-specific survival rates help explain population trend in a discrete marine mammal population

Mònica Arso Civil, Barbara Cheney, Nicola J. Quick, Valentina Islas-Villanueva, Jeff A. Graves, Vincent M. Janik, Paul M. Thompson & Phillip S. Hammond
1. Understanding the drivers underlying fluctuations in the size of animal populations is central to ecology, conservation biology and wildlife management. Reliable estimates of survival probabilities are key to population viability assessments, and patterns of variation in survival can help inferring the causal factors behind detected changes in population size. 2. We investigated whether variation in age and sex-specific survival probabilities could help explain the increasing trend in population size detected in a small, discrete...

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

Toolbox for: Teaching lab for large cohorts of undergraduates: private and social information in fish

Jost Borcherding, Mike M Webster & Katja Heubel
A challenge in the Bachelor's studies in Biology, is to strive for a balance between reducing the teaching of practical scientific experiments to what is feasible in a short time, and teaching "real" science in undergraduate labs for high numbers of participants. We describe a lab in behavioural biology, with the primary focus on the student learning. However, also the underlying scientific question and the results of the experiment, namely the behaviour of the three-spined...

Listening and watching: do camera traps or acoustic sensors more efficiently detect wild chimpanzees in an open habitat?

Anne-Sophie Crunchant, David Borchers, Hjalmar Kuehl & Alex K. Piel
1. With one million animal species at risk of extinction, there is an urgent need to regularly monitor threatened species. However, in practice this is challenging, especially with wide-ranging, elusive and cryptic species or those that occur at low density. 2. Here we compare two non-invasive methods, passive acoustic monitoring (n=12) and camera trapping (n=53), to detect chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a savanna-woodland mosaic habitat at the Issa Valley, Tanzania. With occupancy modelling we evaluate...

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