30 Works

Data from: Orientation to the sun by animals and its interaction with crypsis

Olivier Penacchio, Innes C. Cuthill, P. George Lovell, Graeme D. Ruxton & Julie M. Harris
1. Orientation with respect to the sun has been observed in a wide range of species and has generally been interpreted in terms of thermoregulation and/or ultraviolet (UV) protection. For countershaded animals, orientation with respect to the sun may also result from the pressure to exploit the gradient of coloration optimally to enhance crypsis. 2. Here, we use computational modelling to predict the optimal countershading pattern for an oriented body. We assess how camouflage performance...

Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environments

Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...

Data from: Image analysis of weaverbird nests reveals signature weave textures

Ida E. Bailey, André Backes, Patrick T. Walsh, Kate V. Morgan, Simone L. Meddle & Susan D. Healy
In nature, many animals build structures that can be readily measured at the scale of their gross morphology (e.g. length, volume and weight). Capturing individuality as can be done with the structures designed and built by human architects or artists, however, is more challenging. Here, we tested whether computer-aided image texture classification approaches can be used to describe textural variation in the nests of weaverbirds (Ploceus species) in order to attribute nests to the individual...

Data from: Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers

Christian Rutz, Michael B. Morrissey, Zackory T. Burns, John Burt, Brian Otis, James J. H. St Clair & Richard James
1. Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached ‘proximity loggers’, which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle – the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance –...

Data from: Genome-wide tests for introgression between cactophilic Drosophila implicate a role of inversions during speciation

Konrad Lohse, Magnus Clarke, Michael G. Ritchie & William J. Etges
Models of speciation-with-gene-flow have shown that the reduction in recombination between alternative chromosome arrangements can facilitate the fixation of locally adaptive genes in the face of gene flow and contribute to speciation. However, it has proven frustratingly difficult to show empirically that inversions have reduced gene flow and arose during or shortly after the onset of species divergence rather than represent ancestral polymorphisms. Here we present an analysis of whole genome data from a pair...

Data from: Tracking marine mammals in 3D using electronic tag data

Christophe Laplanche, Tiago A. Marques & Len Thomas
1. Information about at-depth behaviour of marine mammals is fundamental yet very hard to obtain from direct visual observation. Animal-borne multisensor electronic tags provide a unique window of observation into such behaviours. 2. Electronic tag sensors allow the estimation of the animal's 3-dimensional (3D) orientation, depth and speed. Using tag flow noise level to provide an estimate of animal speed, we extend existing approaches of 3D track reconstruction by allowing the direction of movement to...

Data from: Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

Danuta M. Wisniewska, John M. Ratcliffe, Kristian Beedholm, Christian B. Christensen, Mark Johnson, Jens C. Koblitz, Magnus Wahlberg & Peter M. Madsen
Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats,...

Data from: Sound exposure in harbour seals during the installation of an offshore wind farm: predictions of auditory damage

Gordon D. Hastie, Deborah J. F. Russell, Bernie McConnell, Simon Moss, Dave Thompson, Vincent M. Janik & Deborah J.F. Russell
1. With ambitious renewable energy targets, pile driving associated with offshore wind farm construction will become widespread in the marine environment. Many proposed wind farms overlap with the distribution of seals, and sound from pile driving has the potential to cause auditory damage. 2. We report on a behavioural study during the construction of a wind farm using data from GPS/GSM tags on 24 harbour seals Phoca vitulina L. Pile driving data and acoustic propagation...

Data from: Sperm whales reduce foraging effort during exposure to 1-2 kHz sonar and killer whale sounds

Saana Isojunno, Charlotte Curé, Petter Helgevold Kvadsheim, Frans-Peter Alexander Lam, Peter Llyod Tyack, Paul Jacobus Wensveen, Patrick James O' Malley Miller, Peter Lloyd Tyack & Patrick James O'Malley Miller
The time and energetic costs of behavioral responses to incidental and experimental sonar exposures, as well as control stimuli, were quantified using hidden state analysis of time series of acoustic and movement data recorded by tags (DTAG) attached to 12 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using suction cups. Behavioral state transition modeling showed that tagged whales switched to a non-foraging, non-resting state during both experimental transmissions of low-frequency active sonar from an approaching vessel (LFAS; 1–2...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence I: the influence of socially flexible cuticular hydrocarbon expression in male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Christopher Mitchell, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Debates about how coevolution of sexual traits and preferences might promote evolutionary diversification have permeated speciation research for over a century. Recent work demonstrates that the expression of such traits can be sensitive to variation in the social environment. Here we examined social flexibility in a sexually selected male trait – cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles – in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus and tested whether population genetic divergence predicts the extent or direction of social...

Data from: Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

Alison V. Towner, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Roland Langrock, Robert S. Schick, Malcolm J. Smale, Tami Kaschke, Oliver J.D. Jewell, Yannis P. Papastamatiou & Oliver J. D. Jewell
Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat, and distribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movement strategies within a population which can be hard to quantify. Within top predators, movements are also going to be directly related to the mode of hunting; for example sit-and-wait or actively searching for prey. Although there is mounting evidence that different hunting modes can cause opposing trophic cascades, there has...

Data from: Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird

Marcel E. Visser, Phillip Gienapp, Arild Husby, Michael Morrisey, Iván De La Hera, Francisco Pulido & Christiaan Both
Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first...

Data from: First indications that northern bottlenose whales are sensitive to behavioural disturbance from anthropogenic noise

P. J. O. Miller, P. H. Kvadsheim, F. P. A. Lam, P. L. Tyack, C. Curé, S. L. DeRuiter, L. Kleivane, L. D. Sivle, S. P. Van IJsselmuide, F. Visser, P. J. Wensveen, A. M. Von Benda-Beckmann, L. M. Martín López, T. Narazaki & S. K. Hooker
Although northern bottlenose whales were the most heavily hunted beaked whale, we have little information about this species in its remote habitat of the North Atlantic Ocean. Underwater anthropogenic noise and disruption of their natural habitat may be major threats, given the sensitivity of other beaked whales to such noise disturbance. We attached dataloggers to 13 northern bottlenose whales and compared their natural sounds and movements to those of one individual exposed to escalating levels...

Data from: Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

Carl Smith, André Phillips & Martin Reichard
The ability to attract mates, acquire resources for reproduction, and successfully outcompete rivals for fertilizations may make demands on cognitive traits—the mechanisms by which an animal acquires, processes, stores and acts upon information from its environment. Consequently, cognitive traits potentially undergo sexual selection in some mating systems. We investigated the role of cognitive traits on the reproductive performance of male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a complex mating system and alternative mating...

Data from: A sex allocation cost to polyandry in a parasitoid wasp

Rebecca A. Boulton & David M. Shuker
The costs and benefits of polyandry are central to understanding the near-ubiquity of female multiple mating. Here, we present evidence of a novel cost of polyandry: disrupted sex allocation. In Nasonia vitripennis, a species that is monandrous in the wild but engages in polyandry under laboratory culture conditions, sexual harassment during oviposition results in increased production of sons under conditions that favour female-biased sex ratios. In addition, females more likely to re-mate under harassment produce...

Data from: Experimental reduction of intromittent organ length reduces male reproductive success in a bug

Liam R. Dougherty, Imran A. Rahman, Emily R. Burdfield-Steel, E. V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
It is now clear in many species that male and female genital evolution has been shaped by sexual selection. However, it has historically been difficult to confirm correlations between morphology and fitness, as genital traits are complex and manipulation tends to impair function significantly. In this study, we investigate the functional morphology of the elongate male intromittent organ (or processus) of the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, in two ways. We first use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...

Data from: Constructing more informative plant-pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community

Gavin Ballantyne, Katherine C. R. Baldock & Pat G. Willmer
Interaction networks are widely used as tools to understand plant–pollinator communities, and to examine potential threats to plant diversity and food security if the ecosystem service provided by pollinating animals declines. However, most networks to date are based on recording visits to flowers, rather than recording clearly defined effective pollination events. Here we provide the first networks that explicitly incorporate measures of pollinator effectiveness (PE) from pollen deposition on stigmas per visit, and pollinator importance...

Data from: On the variety of methods for calculating confidence intervals by bootstrapping

Marie-Therese Puth, Markus Neuhäuser & Graeme D. Ruxton
1. Researchers often want to place a confidence interval around estimated parameter values calculated from a sample. This is commonly implemented by bootstrapping. There are several different frequently used bootstrapping methods for this purpose. 2. Here we demonstrate that authors of recent papers frequently do not specify the method they have used and that different methods can produce markedly different confidence intervals for the same sample and parameter estimate. 3. We encourage authors to be...

Data from: The costs and benefits of multiple mating in a mostly monandrous wasp

Rebecca A. Boulton & David M. Shuker
The taxonomically widespread nature of polyandry remains a puzzle. Much of the empirical work regarding the costs and benefits of multiple mating to females has, for obvious reasons, relied on species that are already highly polyandrous. However, this makes it difficult to separate the processes that maintain the current level of polyandry from the processes that facilitate its expression and initiated its evolution. Here we consider the costs and benefits of polyandry in Nasonia vitripennis,...

Data from: The genetic architecture of sexually selected traits in two natural populations of Drosophila montana

Paris Veltsos, Emma Gregson, Barbara Morrissey, Jon Slate, Anneli Hoikkala, Roger K. Butlin & Michael G. Ritchie
We investigated the genetic architecture of courtship song and cuticular hydrocarbon traits in two phygenetically distinct populations of Drosophila montana. In order to study natural variation in these two important traits, we analysed within-population crosses among individuals sampled from the wild. Hence, the genetic variation analysed should represent that available for natural and sexual selection to act upon. In contrast to previous between-population crosses in this species, no major QTLs were detected, perhaps because the...

Data from: Transcriptomes of parents identify parenting strategies and sexual conflict in a subsocial beetle

Darren J. Parker, Christopher B. Cunningham, Craig A. Walling, Clare E. Stamper, Megan L. Head, Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Michael G. Ritchie & Allen J. Moore
Parenting in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides is complex and, unusually, the sex and number of parents that can be present is flexible. Such flexibility is expected to involve specialized behaviour by the two sexes under biparental conditions. Here, we show that offspring fare equally well regardless of the sex or number of parents present. Comparing transcriptomes, we find a largely overlapping set of differentially expressed genes in both uniparental and biparental females and in...

Data from: An experimental evaluation of the effects of geolocator design and attachment method on between-year survival on whinchats Saxicola rubetra

Emma Blackburn, Malcolm Burgess, Benedictus Freeman, Alice Riseley, Arin Izang, Sam Ivande, Chris Hewson, Will Cresswell & Alice Risely
Data from location logging tags have revolutionised our understanding of migration ecology, but methods of tagging that do not compromise survival need to be identified. We compared resighting rates for 156 geolocator-tagged and 316 colour ringed-only whinchats on their African wintering grounds after migration to and from eastern Europe in two separate years. We experimentally varied both light stalk length (0, 5 and 10 mm) and harness material (elastic or non-elastic nylon braid tied on,...

Data from: Individual, unit, and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas

Shane Gero, Hal Whitehead & Luke Rendell
The ‘social complexity hypothesis’ suggests that complex social structure is a driver of diversity in animal communication systems. Sperm whales have a hierarchically structured society in which the largest affiliative structures, the vocal clans, are marked on ocean-basin scales by culturally transmitted dialects of acoustic signals known as ‘codas’. We examined variation in coda repertoires among both individual whales and social units—the basic element of sperm whale society—using data from nine Caribbean social units across...

Data from: A metagenetics approach to determine the diversity and distribution of cyst nematodes at the level of the country, the field and the individual

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Catherine Lilley, Alex Reid, Jon Pickup, Eric Anderson, Peter Cock, Mark Blaxter, Peter Urwin, John Jones, Vivian Blok, John T. Jones, Catherine J. Lilley, Peter E. Urwin, Vivian C. Blok & Peter J.A. Cock
Distinct populations of the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera pallida exist in the UK that differ in their ability to overcome various sources of resistance. An efficient method for distinguishing between populations would enable pathogen-informed cultivar choice in the field. Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA) annually undertake national DNA diagnostic tests to determine the presence of PCN in potato seed and ware land by extracting DNA from soil floats. These DNA samples provide...

Data from: Cultural traditions across a migratory network shape the genetic structure of southern right whales around Australia and New Zealand

E. L. Carroll, C. S. Baker, M. Watson, R. Alderman, J. Bannister, O. E. Gaggiotti, D. R. Gröcke, N. Patenaude & R. Harcourt
Fidelity to migratory destinations is an important driver of connectivity in marine and avian species. Here we assess the role of maternally directed learning of migratory habitats, or migratory culture, on the population structure of the endangered Australian and New Zealand southern right whale. Using DNA profiles, comprising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes (500 bp), microsatellite genotypes (17 loci) and sex from 128 individually-identified whales, we find significant differentiation among winter calving grounds based on both...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Jyväskylä
  • Aarhus University
  • Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Bristol
  • Institute of Vertebrate Biology
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of the Basque Country