630 Works

Data from: Interaction among ploidy, breeding system, and lineage diversification

Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, J. Gordon Burleigh, William A. Freyman, Boris Igic, Itay Mayrose & Emma E. Goldberg
If particular traits consistently affect rates of speciation and extinction, broad macroevolutionary patterns can be interpreted as consequences of selection at high levels of the biological hierarchy. Identifying traits associated with diversification rates is difficult because of the wide variety of characters under consideration and the statistical challenges of testing for associations from comparative phylogenetic data. Ploidy (diploid vs. polyploid states) and breeding system (self-incompatible vs. self-compatible states) are both thought to be drivers of...

Data from: Preserved collagen reveals species identity in archaeological marine turtle bones from Caribbean and Florida sites

Michael Buckley, Virginia L. Harvey, Michelle J. LeFebvre, Susan D. DeFrance, Casper Toftgaard & Andrew C. Kitchener
Advancements in molecular science are continually improving our understanding of marine turtle biology and evolution. However, there are still considerable gaps in our understanding, such as past marine turtle distributions, which can benefit from advanced zooarchaeological analyses. Here we apply collagen fingerprinting to 130 archaeological marine turtle bone samples up to 2500 years old from the Caribbean and Florida’s Gulf Coast for faunal identification, finding the vast majority of samples (88%) to contain preserved collagen...

Dispersal predicts hybrid zone widths across animal diversity: Implications for species borders under incomplete reproductive isolation

Jay McEntee, J. Gordon Burleigh & Sonal Singhal
Hybrid zones occur as range boundaries for many animal taxa. One model for how hybrid zones form and stabilize is the tension zone model, a version of which predicts that hybrid zone widths are determined by a balance between random dispersal into hybrid zones and selection against hybrids. Here, we examine whether random dispersal and proxies for selection against hybrids (genetic distances between hybridizing pairs) can explain variation in hybrid zone widths across 131 hybridizing...

Changes in tree community structures in defaunated forests are not driven only by dispersal limitation

Kirstie Hazelwood, C. E. Timothy Paine, Fernando H. Cornejo-Valverde, Elizabeth G. Pringle, Harald Beck & John Terborgh
1. Bushmeat hunting has reduced population sizes of large frugivorous vertebrates throughout the tropics, thereby reducing the dispersal of seeds. This is believed to affect tree population dynamics, and therefore community composition, because the seed dispersal of large-seeded trees depends upon large-bodied vertebrates. 2. We report on a long-running study of the effect of defaunation on a tropical tree community. In three censuses over 11 years, we compared sapling recruitment between a hunted and a...

Generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly of the insect-repellant terpenoid-producing Lamiaceae species, Callicarpa americana

John P. Hamilton, Grant Godden, Emily Lanier, Wajid Waheed Bhat, Taliesin Kinser, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Haiyan Wang, Joshua Wood, Jiming Jiang, Pamela Soltis, Douglas Soltis, Bjoern Hamberger & C. Robin Buell
Background: Plants exhibit wide chemical diversity due to production of specialized metabolites which function as pollinator attractants, defensive compounds, and signaling molecules. Lamiaceae (mints) are known for their chemodiversity and have been cultivated for use as culinary herbs and as sources of insect repellents, health-promoting compounds, and fragrance. Findings: We report the chromosome-scale genome assembly of Callicarpa americana L. (American beautyberry), a species within the early diverging Callicarpoideae clade of the Lamiaceae, known for its...

Functional trait table for mixed-species flocking birds in the Western Andes of Colombia

Harrison Jones & Scott Robinson
These data represent functional traits relevant to the foraging ecology and habitat preferences of mixed-species flock joining bird species from the Western Andes of Colombia. We collected these data based on published data for the species from the Handbook of the Birds Alive online database (del Hoyo et al. 2020), supplemented with additional natural history references were available, with the objective of calculating the functional richness contained in mixed-species flock compositions sampled across a patch...

The magnitude of large-scale tree mortality caused by the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

Richard Cobb, Sarah Haas, Nicholas Kruskamp, Whalen Dillon, Tedmund Swiecki, David Rizzo, Susan Frankel & Ross Meentemeyer
Forest pathogens are important drivers of tree mortality across the globe but it is exceptionally challenging to gather and build unbiased quantitative models of their impacts, which has resulted in few estimates matching the scale of disease. Here we harness the rare dataset matching the spatial scale of pathogen invasion, host, and disease heterogeneity to estimate infection and mortality for the four most susceptible host species of Phytophthora ramorum, an invasive pathogen that drives the...

MHC variation is similar in little brown bats before and after white-nose syndrome outbreak

Xueling Yi, Emily Latch, Deahn Donner, Paula Marquardt, Jonathan Palmer, Michelle Jusino, Jacqueline Frair & Daniel Lindner
White-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), has driven alarming declines in North American hibernating bats, such as little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). During hibernation, infected little brown bats are able to initiate anti-Pd immune responses, indicating pathogen-mediated selection on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. However, such immune responses may not be protective as they interrupt torpor, elevate energy costs, and potentially lead to higher mortality rates. To assess whether...

Trade-offs between seed size and biotic interactions contribute to coexistence of co-occurring species that vary in fecundity

John Maron, Philip Hahn, Kayrn Hajek & Dean Pearson
Despite theoretical advances, the ecological factors and functional traits that enable species varying in seed size and fecundity to coexist remain unclear. Given inherent fecundity advantages, why don’t small-seeded species dominate communities? In perennial grasslands, we evaluated whether small-seeded species are less tolerant of competition from the community dominant bunchgrass than large-seeded species but also less vulnerable to seed predation by mice. We also explored whether trade-offs involving competitive tolerance include two other functional traits,...

Seasonal variation in community composition and distributional ranges of birds along a subtropical elevation gradient in China

Dan Liang, Xinyuan Pan, Xu Luo, Cheng Wenda, Yanyan Zhao, Yiming Hu, Scott Robinson & Yang Liu
Aim Seasonal variation in community composition and species distributional ranges along elevational gradients remain poorly known but are essential to inform conservation. In this study, we aim to understand how species richness, community composition, and elevational ranges of montane birds change between the breeding and the non-breeding season. Location The east slope of the southern Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan, southwestern China, elevational range: 700 - 3400 m a.s.l.; latitudinal range: 24°56´- 26°09´ N. Methods We compared...

Dataset for Body size impacts critical thermal maximum measurements in lizards

Natalie Claunch & Emily Taylor
Understanding the mechanisms behind critical thermal maxima (CTmax, the high body temperature at which neuromuscular coordination is lost) of organisms is central to understanding ectotherm thermal tolerance. Body size is an often overlooked variable that may affect interpretation of CTmax, and consequently, how CTmax is used to evaluate mechanistic hypotheses of thermal tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that body size affects CTmax and its interpretation in two experimental contexts. First, in four Sceloporus species, we...

Optimizing Coastal Restoration with the Stress Gradient Hypothesis

Hallie S Fischman, Sinead M Crotty & Christine Angelini
Restoration efforts have been escalating worldwide in response to widespread habitat degradation. However, coastal restoration attempts notoriously vary in their ability to establish resilient, high-functioning ecosystems. Conventional restoration attempts disperse transplants in competition-minimizing arrays, yet recent studies suggest that clumping transplants to maximize facilitative interactions may improve restoration success. Here, we modify the Stress Gradient Hypothesis to generate predictions about where each restoration design will perform best across environmental stress gradients. We then test this...

Colony-age-dependent variation in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in subterranean termite colonies

Johnalyn Gordon, Jan Šobotník & Thomas Chouvenc
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have, in insects, important physiological and ecological functions, such as protection against desiccation and as semiochemicals in eusocial taxa, including termites. CHCs are, in termites, known to vary qualitatively and/or quantitatively among species, populations, or seasons. Changes to hydrocarbon profile composition have been linked to varying degrees of aggression between termite colonies, although the variability of results among studies suggests that additional factors might have been involved. One source of variability may...

Data from: Leaf-footed bugs possess multiple hidden contrasting color signals, but only one is associated with increased body size

Zachary Emberts, Christine Miller, Chelsea Skojec, Rachel Shepherd & Colette St. Mary
Anti-predatory displays that incorporate hidden contrasting coloration are found in a variety of different animals. These displays are seen in organisms that have drab coloration at rest, but when disturbed reveal conspicuous coloration. Examples include the bright abdomens of mountain katydids and the colorful underwings of hawk moths. Such hidden displays can function as secondary defenses, enabling evasion of a pursuant predator. To begin to understand why some species have these displays while others do...

Supporting data for: Gene-rich UV sex chromosomes harbor conserved regulators of sexual development (Carey et al., 2021)

Sarah Carey, Shenqiang Shu, John Lovell, Avinash Shenqiang, Florian Maumus, George Tiley, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Kerrie Barry, Cindy Chen, Mei Wang, Anna Lipzen, Chris Daum, Christopher Saski, Adam Payton, Jordan McBreen, Roth Conrad, Leslie Kollar, Sanna Olsson, Sanna Huttunen, Jacob Landis, Norman Wickett, Matthew Johnson, Stefan Rensing, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz … & Adam Healey
Non-recombining sex chromosomes, like the mammalian Y, often lose genes and accumulate transposable elements, a process termed degeneration. The correlation between suppressed recombination and degeneration is clear in animal XY systems, but the absence of recombination is confounded with other asymmetries between the X and Y. In contrast, UV sex chromosomes, like those found in bryophytes, experience symmetrical population genetic conditions. Here we generate and use nearly gapless female and male chromosome-scale reference genomes of...

Tempo Data from Broadcast Performances of Giacomo Puccini’s Turandot at the Metropolitan Opera, 1961 – 2009

Joshua Neumann
The works of well-known composers active as recording technology developed and as the recording industry emerged thus make ideal case studies. Giacomo Puccini is uniquely suited to a study of tradition through technological means: he has perhaps the best-documented relationship to advances in technology and the resulting shift in entertainment aesthetics of any composer of this era. Of his twelve operas, Turandot is the only major work whose premiere post-dates the advent of electronically captured...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

Data from: Interaction networks of avian mixed-species flocks along elevation in the tropical Andes

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas
Ecological communities are comprised of species that interact with each other and those interactions ultimately generate community structure. Network theory provides a useful framework to study communities, by simultaneously considering species composition and the interactions among species. In this study, I use mixed-species flocks as model systems to gain insights on community and network structure. Specifically, I use co-occurrence network analyses to explore if avian mixed-species flocks change in richness and composition and/or in network...

Data from: Chemical defenses shift with the seasonal vertical migration of a Panamanian poison frog

Edmund W Basham, Ralph A Saporito, Macario González-Pinzón, Angel Romero-Marcucci & Brett R Scheffers
Dendrobatid poison frogs sequester lipophilic alkaloids from their arthropod prey to use as a form of chemical defense. Some dendrobatid frogs seasonally migrate between the leaf litter of the forest floor in the dry season to the canopy in the wet season, which may yield differences in prey (arthropods) and therefore alkaloid availability over space and time. Here, we document a seasonal vertical migration of Andinobates fulguritus (the yellow-bellied poison frog) from ground to canopy...

Forest biomass in subtropical Andes: Plots data

Cecilia Blundo, Agustina Malizia, Lucio R. Malizia & Jeremy W. Lichstein
Forest biomass plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the factors that control forest biomass stocks and dynamics is a key challenge in the context of global change. We analyzed data from 60 forest plots in the subtropical Andes (22-27.5° S and 300-2300 m asl) to describe patterns and identify drivers of aboveground biomass (AGB) stocks and dynamics. We found that AGB stocks remained roughly constant with elevation due to compensating...

Altered Gut Microbiome Profile in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Seungbum Kim
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is considered a disease of the pulmonary vasculature. Limited progress has been made in preventing or arresting progression of PAH despite extensive efforts. Our previous studies indicated that PAH could be considered a systemic disease since its pathology involves interplay of multiple organs. This, coupled with increasing implication of the gut and its microbiome in chronic diseases, led us to hypothesize that PAH patients exhibit a distinct gut microbiome that contributes...

Comparative phylogenetics of Papilio butterfly wing shape and size demonstrates independent hindwing and forewing evolution

Hannah Owens, Delano Lewis, Fabien Condamine, Akito Kawahara & Robert Guralnick
The complex forces that shape butterfly wings have long been a subject of experimental and comparative research. Butterflies use their wings for flight, camouflage, mate recognition, warning and mimicry. However, general patterns and correlations among wing shape and size evolution are still poorly understood. We collected geometric morphometric measurements from over 1400 digitized museum specimens of Papilio swallowtails and combined them with phylogenetic data to test two hypotheses: 1) forewing shape and size evolve independently...

Optimal allocation of law enforcement patrol effort to mitigate poaching activities

Bradley Udell, Jennifer Moore, Julien Martin, Ezechiel Turikunkiko & Michel Masozera
Poaching is a global problem causing the decline of species worldwide. Optimizing the efficiency of ranger patrols to deter poaching activity at the lowest possible cost is crucial for protecting species with limited resources. We applied decision analysis and spatial optimization algorithms to allocate efforts of ranger patrols throughout a national park. Our objective was to mitigate poaching activity at or below management risk targets for the lowest monetary cost. We examined this tradeoff by...

The role of phylogenetic scale in Darwin’s naturalization conundrum in the critically imperiled pine rockland ecosystem

Lauren Trotta, Zachary Siders, Emily Sessa & Benjamin Baiser
Aim: We expand on community phylogenetic approaches to Darwin’s Naturalization Conundrum by considering phylogenetic scale, comprised of phylogenetic grain and extent. We assess relatedness between invasive, non-native, and native plant species at multiple depths in the phylogeny (i.e., phylogenetic grain) and across multiple clades (i.e., phylogenetic extents) at regional and local spatial scales in the highly-fragmented, critically imperiled pine rockland ecosystem. Location: Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA Methods: We used two metrics differing in phylogenetic grain...

Hemipteran defensive odors trigger predictable color biases in jumping spider predators

Michael Vickers & Lisa Taylor
Multimodal warning displays often pair one signal modality (odor) with a second modality (color) to avoid predation. Experiments with bird predators suggest these signal components interact synergistically, with aversive odors triggering otherwise hidden aversions to particular prey colors. In a recent study, this phenomenon was found in a jumping spider (Habronattus trimaculatus), with the defensive odor from a coreid bug (Acanthocephala femorata) triggering an aversion to red. Here, we explore how generalizable this phenomenon is...

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