68 Works

Data from: Phylogenetic comparative analysis supports aposematic colouration–body size association in millipede assassins (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae)

Michael Forthman & Christiane Weirauch
The diversity of colour patterns and its importance in interactions with the environment make colouration in animals an intriguing research focus. Aposematic colouration is positively correlated with body size in certain groups of animals, suggesting that warning colours are more effective or that crypsis is harder to achieve in larger animals. Surprisingly, this relationship has not been recovered in studies investigating insects, which may have been confounded by a focus on aposematic taxa that are...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Stream flow alone does not predict population structure of diving beetles across complex tropical landscapes

Athena Lam, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Carolin Kindler, Matthew H. Van Dam, Rawati Panjaitan, George K. Roderick & Michael Balke
Recent theoretical advances have hypothesized a central role of habitat persistence on population genetic structure and resulting biodiversity patterns of freshwater organisms. Here, we address the hypothesis that lotic species, or lineages adapted to comparably geologically stable running water habitats (streams and their marginal habitats), have high levels of endemicity and phylogeographic structure due to the persistent nature of their habitat. We use a nextRAD sequencing approach to investigate the population structure and phylogeography of...

Data from: Competition alters seasonal resource selection and promotes use of invasive shrubs by an imperiled native cottontail

Amanda E. Cheeseman, Sadie J. Ryan, Christopher M. Whipps & Jonathan B. Cohen
1. Many ecosystems face multiple invaders, and interactions among invasive and native species may complicate conservation efforts for imperiled species. Examination of fine-scale resource selection can be used to detect patterns in habitat selection resulting from species interactions and assess the value of specific resources, including invasive plants, to wildlife. 2. We used animal location data with mixed-effects resource selection models to examine seasonal competitive interactions and species-specific selection for forage and cover resources by...

Data from: Phylotocol: promoting transparency and overcoming bias in phylogenetics

Melissa B. DeBiasse & Joseph F. Ryan
The integrity of science requires that the process be based on sound experimental design and objective methodology. Strategies that increase reproducibility and transparency in science protect this integrity by reducing conscious and unconscious biases. Given the large number of analysis options and the constant development of new methodologies in phylogenetics, this field is one that would particularly benefit from more transparent research design. Here, we introduce phylotocol (fī·lō·´tə·kôl), an a priori protocol-driven approach in which...

Data from: Phylogenomics clarifies repeated evolutionary origins of inbreeding and fungus farming in bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

Andrew Johnson, McKenna, Bjarte H. Jordal, Anthony I. Cognato, Sarah M. Smith, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily L. Moriarty Lemmon & Jiri Hulcr
Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) display a conspicuous diversity of unusual genetic and ecological attributes and behaviors. Reconstructing the evolution of Scolytinae, particularly the large and ecologically significant tribe Cryphalini (pygmy borers), has long been problematic. These challenges have not adequately been addressed using morphological characters, and previous research has used only DNA sequence data from small numbers of genes. Through a combination of anchored hybrid enrichment, low-coverage draft genomes, and transcriptomes, we addressed...

Data from: Character evolution and missing (morphological) data across Asteridae

Gregory W. Stull, Melanie Schori, Douglas E. Soltis & Pamela S. Soltis
Premise of the study: Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological datasets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. Methods: We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit,...

Data from: Multiple stages of tree seedling recruitment are altered in tropical forests degraded by selective logging

Rajeev Pillay, Fangyuan Hua, Bette A. Loiselle, Henry Bernard & Robert J. Fletcher
Tropical forest degradation is a global environmental issue. In degraded forests, seedling recruitment of canopy trees is vital for forest regeneration and recovery. We investigated how selective logging, a pervasive driver of tropical forest degradation, impacts canopy tree seedling recruitment, focusing on an endemic dipterocarp Dryobalanops lanceolata in Sabah, Borneo. During a mast-fruiting event in intensively logged and nearby unlogged forest, we examined four stages of the seedling recruitment process: seed production, seed predation, and...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: Origin and macroevolution of micro-moths on sunken Hawaiian islands

Chris A. Johns, Emmanuel F.A. Toussaint, Jesse W. Breinholt, Akito Y. Kawahara & Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint
The origins and evolution of Hawaiian biodiversity are a matter of controversy, and the mechanisms of lineage diversification for many organisms on this remote archipelago remain unclear. Here we focus on the poorly-known endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), whose species feed on a diversity of Hawaiian plant lineages, many of which are critically endangered. We use anchored hybrid enrichment to assemble the first phylogenomic dataset (507 loci) for any Hawaiian animal taxon. To...

Data from: Application of CRISPR/Cas9 to Tragopogon (Asteraceae), an evolutionary model for the study of polyploidy

Shengchen Shan, Evgeny V. Mavrodiev, Riqing Li, Zhengzhi Zhang, Bernard A. Hauser, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis & Bing Yang
Tragopogon (Asteraceae) is an excellent natural system for studies of recent polyploidy. Development of an efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing platform in Tragopogon will facilitate novel studies of the genetic consequences of polyploidy. Here, we report our initial results of developing CRISPR/Cas9 in Tragopogon. We have established a feasible tissue culture and transformation protocol for Tragopogon. Through protoplast transient assays, use of the TragCRISPR system (i.e. the CRISPR/Cas9 system adapted for Tragopogon) was capable of introducing...

Data from: Concussion Biomarkers Assessed in Collegiate Student-Athletes (BASICS) I: normative study

Breton Michael Asken, Russell M. Bauer, Steven Trent DeKosky, Zachary Morgan Houck, Charles C. Moreno, Michael S. Jaffee, Arthur G. Weber & James R. Clugston
Objective: To describe variability in concussion biomarker concentrations collected from serum in a sample of healthy collegiate athletes, as well as report reliability metrics in a subsample of female athletes. Methods: Observational cohort study - Aβ42, total tau, S100B, UCH-L1, GFAP, MAP2, and CNPase serum concentrations were measured in 415 (61% male, 40% white, age 19.0±1.2 years) non-concussed collegiate athletes without recent exposure to head impacts. Standardized normative distributions are reported for each biomarker. We...

Data from: Stratigraphic signatures of mass extinctions: ecological and sedimentary determinants

Rafał Nawrot, Daniele Scarponi, Michele Azzarone, Troy A. Dexter, Kristopher M. Kusnerik, Jacalyn M. Wittmer, Alessandro Amorosi & Michal Kowalewski
Stratigraphic patterns of last occurrences of fossil taxa (LOs) potentially fingerprint mass extinctions and delineate rates and geometries of those events. Although empirical studies of mass extinctions recognize that random sampling causes LOs to occur earlier than the time of extinction (Signor–Lipps effect), sequence-stratigraphic controls on the position of LOs are rarely considered. By tracing stratigraphic ranges of extant mollusc species preserved in the Holocene succession of the Po coastal plain (Italy), we demonstrated that,...

Data from: A universal probe set for targeted sequencing of 353 nuclear genes from any flowering plant designed using k-medoids clustering

Matthew G. Johnson, Lisa Pokorny, Steven Dodsworth, Laura R. Botigue, Robyn S. Cowan, Alison Devault, Wolf L. Eiserhardt, Niroshini Epitawalage, Félix Forest, Jan T. Kim, James Leebens-Mack, Ilia J. Leitch, Olivier Maurin, Doug Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, William J. Baker & Norman Wickett
Sequencing of target-enriched libraries is an efficient and cost-effective method for obtaining DNA sequence data from hundreds of nuclear loci for phylogeny reconstruction. Much of the cost of developing targeted sequencing approaches is associated with the generation of preliminary data needed for the identification of orthologous loci for probe design. In plants, identifying orthologous loci has proven difficult due to a large number of whole-genome duplication events, especially in the angiosperms (flowering plants). We used...

Data from: Tropical bird species have less variable body sizes

Quentin D. Read, Benjamin Baiser, John M. Grady, Phoebe L. Zarnetske, Sydne Record & Jonathan Belmaker
Ecologists have often predicted that species’ niche breadths should decline toward the equator. Dan Janzen arrived at this prediction based on climatic constraints, while Robert MacArthur argued that a latitudinal gradient in resource specialization drives the pattern. This idea has some support when it comes to thermal niches, but has rarely been explored for other niche dimensions. Body size is linked to niche dimensions related to diet, competition, and environmental tolerance in vertebrates. We identified...

Data from: Grazing enhances belowground carbon allocation, microbial biomass, and soil carbon in a subtropical grassland

Chris H. Wilson, Michael S. Strickland, Jack A. Hutchings, Thomas S. Bianchi & S. Luke Flory
Despite the large contribution of rangeland and pasture to global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, there is considerable uncertainty about the impact of large herbivore grazing on SOC, especially for understudied subtropical grazing lands. It is well known that root system inputs are the source of most grassland SOC, but the impact of grazing on partitioning of carbon allocation to root tissue production compared to fine root exudation is unclear. Given that different forms of...

Data from: A comprehensive and dated phylogenomic analysis of butterflies

Marianne Espeland, Jesse W. Breinholt, Keith R. Willmott, Andrew D. Warren, Roger Vila, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Sarah C. Maunsell, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Gerard Talavera, Rodney Eastwood, Marta A. Jarzyna, Robert Guralnick, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce, Akito Y. Kawahara, Jesse Breinholt & Emmanuel F.A. Toussaint
Butterflies (Papilionoidea), with over 18,000 described species [1], have captivated naturalists and scientists for centuries. They play a central role in the study of speciation, community ecology, biogeography, climate change, and plant-insect interactions and include many model organisms and pest species [2, 3]. However, a robust higher-level phylogenetic framework is lacking. To fill this gap, we inferred a dated phylogeny by analyzing the first phylogenomic dataset, including 352 loci (> 150,000 bp) from 207 species...

Data from: Temperature explains broad patterns of Ross River virus transmission

Marta Shocket, Sadie Ryan, Erin Mordecai, Marta Strecker Shocket, Erin A Mordecai & Sadie J Ryan
Thermal biology predicts that vector-borne disease transmission peaks at intermediate temperatures and declines at high and low temperatures. However, thermal optima and limits remain unknown for most vector-borne pathogens. We built a mechanistic model for the thermal response of Ross River virus, an important mosquito-borne pathogen in Australia, Pacific Islands, and potentially at risk of emerging worldwide. Transmission peaks at moderate temperatures (26.4{degree sign}C) and declines to zero at thermal limits (17.0{degree sign}C and 31.5{degree...

Data from: Population genomics and morphometric assignment of western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Republic of South Africa

Amin Eimanifar, Samantha A. Brooks, Tomas Bustamante & James D. Ellis
Backgrounds: Apis mellifera scutellata and A.m. capensis (the Cape honey bee) are western honey bee subspecies indigenous to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Both bees are important for biological and economic reasons. First, A.m. scutellata is the invasive "African honey bee" of the Americas and exhibits a number of traits that beekeepers consider undesirable. They swarm excessively, are prone to absconding (vacating the nest entirely), usurp other honey bee colonies, and exhibit heightened defensiveness....

Data from: Divergent melanism strategies in Andean butterfly communities structure diversity patterns and climate responses

Pauline C. Dufour, Keith R. Willmott, Pablo S. Padrón, Shuang Xing, Timothy C. Bonebrake & Brett R. Scheffers
Aim: Geographic distributions are driven by a combination of species sensitivity and exposure to climate. We quantified colour lightness, a trait that mediates the interaction between sensitivity and exposure, of diverse butterfly communities to test whether colour lightness is associated with community assembly across climate-elevation gradients. Location: Ecuadorian Andes Methods: We used a long-term dataset of museum specimens for two of the most speciose genera of Pieridae butterflies in Ecuador, Catasticta and Leptophobia. Within a...

Data from: Frequency-dependence shapes the adaptive landscape of imperfect Batesian mimicry

Susan D. Finkbeiner, Patricio A. Salazar, Sofia Nogales, Cassidi E. Rush, Adriana D. Briscoe, Ryan I. Hill, Marcus R. Kronforst, Keith R. Willmott & Sean P. Mullen
Despite more than a century of biological research on the evolution and maintenance of mimetic signals, the relative frequencies of models and mimics necessary to establish and maintain Batesian mimicry in natural populations remains understudied. Here we investigate the frequency-dependent dynamics of imperfect Batesian mimicry, using predation experiments involving artificial butterfly models. We use two geographically distinct populations of Adelpha butterflies that vary in their relative frequencies of a putatively defended model (Adelpha iphiclus) and...

Data from: Distance-decay differs among vertical strata in a tropical rainforest

Edmund W. Basham, Christa M. Seidl, Lydou R. Andriamahohatra, Brunno F. Oliveira & Brett R. Scheffers
1. Assemblage similarity decays with geographic distance—a pattern known as the distance-decay relationship. While this pattern has been investigated for a wide range of organisms, ecosystems, and geographical gradients, whether these changes vary more cryptically across different forest strata (from ground to canopy) remains elusive. 2. Here, we investigated the influence of ground vs arboreal assemblages to the general distance-decay relationship observed in forests. We seek to explain differences in distance-decay relationships between strata in...

Data from: Community phylogeny of the globally critically imperiled pine rockland ecosystem

Lauren B. Trotta, Benjamin Baiser, Jennifer Possley, Daijiang Li, James Lange, Sarah Martin & Emily B. Sessa
Premise of the study: Community phylogenetic methods incorporate information on evolutionary relationships into studies of organismal assemblages. We used a community phylogenetic framework to investigate relationships and biogeographic affinities and calculate phylogenetic signal of endemism and invasiveness for the flora of the pine rocklands, a globally critically imperiled ecosystem with a significant portion of its distribution in South Florida, United States. Methods: We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of 538 vascular plant taxa, which represents 92.28% of...

Data from: Genetic variation in the shape of cold survival curves in a single fly population suggests potential for selection from climate variability

Nicholas M. Teets & Daniel A. Hahn
Temperature variation is one of the primary challenges facing ectotherms, and the ability to tolerate a range of thermal environments is critical for setting current and future species distributions. Low temperature is particularly challenging for ectotherms because winter conditions have strong latitudinal and temporal variation. Lower lethal temperature (LLT) is a common metric of cold tolerance used in studies of local adaptation and plasticity. Comparisons of LLT across groups typically assume parallel S-shaped survival curves,...

Data from: Simulated hatching failure predicts female plasticity in extra-pair behavior over successive broods

Teru Yuta, Daisuke Nomi, Malika Ihle & Itsuro Koizumi
While many studies have investigated the occurrence of extra-pair paternity (EPP) and its adaptive significance in wild population of birds, we still know surprising little about the plasticity in mating behavior of females at the individual level and how it affects the patterns of paternity. To address this question, we focused on the direct fertility benefit hypothesis for the function of EPP and studied if female birds react in extra-pair mating behavior after reproductive failures...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Florida
  • University of Georgia
  • Michigan State University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Florida Museum of Natural History
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Montana
  • University of Adelaide
  • Rice University
  • Stanford University