99 Works

Phylogeny and biogeography of some Cretaceous spatangoid echinoids with special emphasis on taxa from the Western Interior Seaway

Bruce Lieberman & Steven Byrum
Members of the echinoid order Spatangoida, a highly diverse and abundant marine invertebrate clade, were important denizens of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway (WIS), an epicontinental seaway that divided North America in two during an interval of greenhouse conditions between roughly 100 and 65 million years ago. A phylogenetic analysis of spatangoids was conducted using a character matrix of 32 characters from 21 species. Species that occur in the WIS were considered comprehensively, and species...

Habitat complexity dampens selection on prey activity level

Carl Keiser, Spencer Ingley, Benjamin Toscano, Inon Scharf & Jonathan Pruitt
Conspecific prey individuals often exhibit persistent differences in behavior (i.e., animal personality) and consequently vary in their susceptibility to predation. How this form of selection varies across environmental contexts is essential to predicting ecological and evolutionary dynamics, yet remains currently unresolved. Here, we use three separate predator–prey systems (sea star–snail, wolf spider–cricket, and jumping spider–cricket) to independently examine how habitat structural complexity influences the selection that predators impose on prey behavioral types. Prior to conducting...

Local extinction risk under climate change in a neotropical asymmetrically dispersed epiphyte

Miguel Acevedo, Lydia Beaudrot, Elvia Melendez-Ackerman & Raymond Tremblay
1. The long-term fate of populations experiencing disequilibrium conditions with their environment will ultimately depend on how local colonization and extinction dynamics respond to abiotic conditions (e.g. temperature and rainfall), dispersal limitation and biotic interactions (e.g. competition, facilitation, or interactions with natural enemies). Understanding how these factors influence distributional dynamics under climate change is a major knowledge gap, particularly for small ranged and dispersal-limited plant species, which are at higher risk of extinction. Epiphytes are...

Patch size and vegetation structure drive changes to mixed-species flock diversity and composition across a gradient of fragment sizes in the Western Andes of Colombia

Harrison Jones & Scott Robinson
This data set represents a series of 502 mixed-species bird flock compositions, and derived taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity indices, that were gathered along a gradient of forest fragment sizes (range = 10-173 ha) in the Colombian Western Andes. We sampled mixed-species flocks using transect surveys along 14 transects in 8 fragments and a continuous forest reference site in the same landscape and at the same elevation (~1900-2200 m.a.s.l.). We also used buffer analysis to...

Spatial point pattern analysis of traces (SPPAT): an approach for visualizing and quantifying site-selectivity patterns of drilling predators

Alexis Rojas, Gregory Dietl, Michal Kowalewski, Roger W. Portell, Austin Hendy & Jason Blackburn
Site-selectivity analysis in drilling predation may provide useful behavioral information of a predator interacting with its prey. However, traditional approaches exclude some spatial information (i.e., oversimplified trace position) and are dependent on the scale of analysis (e.g., arbitrary grid system used to divide the prey skeleton into sectors). Here we introduce the spatial point pattern analysis of traces (SPPAT), an approach for visualizing and quantifying the distribution of traces on shelled invertebrate prey, which includes...

Data from: The evolutionary origins of the cat attractant nepetalactone in catnip

Benjamin R. Lichman, Grant T. Godden, John P. Hamilton, Lira Palmer, Mohamed O. Kamileen, Dongyan Zhao, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joshua Wood, Miao Sun, Taliesin J. Kinser, Laura K. Henry, Carlos Rodriguez Lopez, Natalia Dudareva, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, C. Robin Buell & Sarah E. O’Connor
The evolutionary origins of the cat attractant nepetalactone in catnip

Critical PO2 as a diagnostic biomarker for the effects of low-oxygen modified and controlled atmospheres on phytosanitary irradiation treatments in the Cabbage Looper Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)

Chao Chen, Catriona Condon, Leigh Boardman, Robert Meagher, Laura Jeffers, Andrea Beam, Woodward Bailey & Daniel Hahn
BACKGROUND: Phytosanitary irradiation is a sustainable alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfesting fresh commodities from insect pests. However, irradiating insects in modified atmospheres with very low oxygen (<1 kPa O2) has repeatedly been shown to increase radioprotective response. Thus, there is a concern that modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the efficacy of phytosanitary irradiation. One hurdle slowing the widespread application of phytosanitary irradiation is a lack of knowledge about how moderate levels of hypoxia relevant...

Influences of patch-burn grazing on headwater prairie streams and subsequent recovery

Jessica Fulgoni, Matt Whiles, Walter Dodds, Danelle Larson, Karen Jackson & Bartosz Grudzinski
1. Patch-burn grazing (PBG) can promote terrestrial heterogeneity and biodiversity, but can temporarily increase stream nutrients, ecosystem metabolism, and alter macroinvertebrate assemblages. The impacts of grazing on stream channel morphology and post-PBG recovery patterns are unclear. 2. We assessed the influence of grazing in PBG managed grassland streams in Missouri, USA, and subsequent recovery when grazing ceased for two years. We hypothesized that grazing would degrade water quality, stream biotic integrity, and channel morphology, but...

Data from: Increasing synergistic effects of habitat destruction and hunting on mammals over three decades in the Gran Chaco

Alfredo Romero-Muñoz, Ana Benítez-López, Damaris Zurell, Matthias Baumann, Micaela Camino, Julieta Decarre, Hugo Del Castillo, Anthony Giordano, Bibiana Gómez-Valencia, Christian Levers, Andrew Noss, Veronica Quiroga, Jeffrey Thompson, Ricardo Torres, Marianela Velilla, Andrea Weiler & Tobias Kuemmerle
Habitat destruction and overexploitation are the main threats to biodiversity and where they co-occur, their combined impact is often larger than their individual one. Yet, detailed knowledge of the spatial footprints of these threats is lacking, including where they overlap and how they change over time. These knowledge gaps are real barriers for effective conservation planning. Here, we develop a novel approach to reconstruct the individual and combined footprints of both threats over time. We...

Bat community response to intensification of biomass production for bioenergy across the southeastern United States

Holly Ober, Gavin Jones, Isabel Gottlieb, Shelly Johnson, Lora Smith, Berry Brosi & Robert Fletcher
Human demand for food, fiber, and space is accelerating the rate of change of land cover and land use. Much of the world now consists of a matrix of natural forests, managed forests, agricultural cropland, and urbanized plots. Expansion of domestic energy production efforts in the United States is one driver predicted to influence future land-use and land management practices across large spatial scales. Favorable growing conditions make the southeastern United States an ideal location...

Data from: Clonal integration enhances performance of an invasive grass

Chris Wilson, James Estrada & Stephen Flory
While many clonal plants are highly successful invaders, not all clonal plants share resources, often making the contribution of clonal integration (i.e., the translocation of resources among ramets) to invasion unclear. To determine if photosynthate translocation augments performance of emerging daughter ramets for a globally invasive grass (Imperata cylindrica), we combined a 13CO2 pulse-chase experiment with a greenhouse experiment manipulating light levels and rhizome attachment. Model simulations were also used to determine if clonal integration...

Changes in taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in the Anthropocene

Daijiang Li, Julian Olden, Julie Lockwood, Sydne Record, Michael McKinney & Benjamin Baiser
To better understand how ecosystems are changing, a multifaceted approach to measuring biodiversity that considers species richness and evolutionary history across spatial scales is needed. Here we compiled 162 datasets for fish, bird, and plant assemblages across the globe and measured how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity changed at different spatial scales (within site α diversity and between sites spatial β diversity). Biodiversity change is measured from these datasets in three ways: across land use gradients,...

Anoxia hormesis in cactus moth

Giancarlo Lopez-Martinez & Daniel Hahn
As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging germline genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males, including the formation of damaging free radicals that can reduce sterile male performance. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. We previously...

Data from: Crop production in the USA is frequently limited by a lack of pollinators

James Reilly, Derek Artz, David Biddinger, Kyle Bobiwash, Natalie Boyle, Claire Brittain, Julia Brokaw, Josh Campbell, Jaret Daniels, Elizabeth Elle, Jamie Ellis, Shelby Fleischer, Jason Gibbs, Robert Gillespie, Knute Gundersen, Larry Gut, George Hoffman, Neelendra Joshi, Ola Lundin, Keith Mason, Carley McGrady, Steve Peterson, Theresa Pitts-Singer, Sujaya Rao, Nikki Rothwell … & Rachael Winfree
Most of the world’s crops depend on pollinators, so declines in both managed and wild bees raise concerns about food security. However, the degree to which insect pollination is actually limiting current crop production is poorly understood, as is the role of wild species (as opposed to managed honey bees) in pollinating crops, particularly in intensive production areas. We established a nation-wide study to assess the extent of pollinator limitation in seven crops at 131...

Ecological niche models for American black bear, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, and timber rattlesnake

James Watling, Jennifer Costanza, Ron Sutherland, Curtis Belyea, Bistra Dilkina, Heather Cayton, David Bucklin, Stephanie Romañach & Nick Haddad
This data set contains rasters that are predictive environmental suitability maps for three wildlife species: the American black bear (Ursus americanus), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), and Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus). Rasters for each species include: individual prediction maps for each of 5 ENMs (GBM: generalized boosting model, GLM: generalized linear model, MARS: multivariate adaptive regression spline, MX: maximum entropy, and RF: random forest), as well as the ensemble prediction map from all five ecological...

Data from: A rapidly evolved shift in life history timing during ecological speciation is driven by the transition between developmental phases

Thomas Powell, Andrew Nguyen, Qinwen Xia, Jeffrey Feder, Gregory Ragland & Daniel Hahn
For insect species in temperate environments, seasonal timing is often governed by the regulation of diapause, a complex developmental program that allows insects to weather unfavorable conditions and synchronize their lifecycles with available resources. Diapause development consists of a series of distinct phases including initiation, maintenance, termination, and post-diapause development. The evolution of insect seasonal timing depends in part on how these phases of diapause development and post-diapause development interact to affect variation in phenology....

A multi-state occupancy modeling framework for robust estimation of disease prevalence in multi-tissue disease systems

Vratika Chaudhary, Samantha M. Wisely, Felipe A. Hernández, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols & Madan K. Oli
1. Given the public health, economic, and conservation implications of zoonotic diseases, their effective surveillance is of paramount importance. The traditional approach to estimating pathogen prevalence as the proportion of infected individuals in the population is biased because it fails to account for imperfect detection. A statistically robust way to reduce bias in prevalence estimates is to obtain repeated samples (or sample many tissues in multi-tissue disease systems) and to apply statistical methods that account...

Alternative responses by two species of jumping spiders to unpalatability and toxicity in prey

Michael Vickers, Madison Heisey & Lisa Taylor
A key challenge for generalist predators is avoiding toxins in prey. Species-specific strategies range from total avoidance of distasteful (and potentially toxic) prey to the use of physiological mechanisms to metabolize toxins after consumption. We compare two species of jumping spiders, Habronattus trimaculatus and Phidippus regius. Based on several anecdotal observations and other aspects of their biology, we hypothesized a priori that H. trimaculatus would be (1) less willing to feed on unpalatable prey and...

Vertical niche and elevation range size in tropical ants: implications for climate resilience

Lily Leahy, Brett R. Scheffers, Alan N. Andersen, Ben T. Hirsch & Stephen E. Williams
Aim: We propose that forest trees create a vertical dimension for ecological niche variation that generates different regimes of climatic exposure, which in turn drives species elevation distributions. We test this hypothesis by statistically modelling the vertical and elevation distributions and microclimate exposure of rainforest ants. Location: Wet Tropics Bioregion, Australia Methods: We conducted 60 ground-to-canopy surveys to determine the vertical (tree) and elevation distributions, and microclimate exposure of ants (101 species) at 15 sites...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

Comparative phylogenetics of Papilio butterfly wing shape and size demonstrates independent hindwing and forewing evolution

Hannah Owens, Delano Lewis, Fabien Condamine, Akito Kawahara & Robert Guralnick
The complex forces that shape butterfly wings have long been a subject of experimental and comparative research. Butterflies use their wings for flight, camouflage, mate recognition, warning and mimicry. However, general patterns and correlations among wing shape and size evolution are still poorly understood. We collected geometric morphometric measurements from over 1400 digitized museum specimens of Papilio swallowtails and combined them with phylogenetic data to test two hypotheses: 1) forewing shape and size evolve independently...

Changes in tree community structures in defaunated forests are not driven only by dispersal limitation

Kirstie Hazelwood, C. E. Timothy Paine, Fernando H. Cornejo-Valverde, Elizabeth G. Pringle, Harald Beck & John Terborgh
1. Bushmeat hunting has reduced population sizes of large frugivorous vertebrates throughout the tropics, thereby reducing the dispersal of seeds. This is believed to affect tree population dynamics, and therefore community composition, because the seed dispersal of large-seeded trees depends upon large-bodied vertebrates. 2. We report on a long-running study of the effect of defaunation on a tropical tree community. In three censuses over 11 years, we compared sapling recruitment between a hunted and a...

Dispersal predicts hybrid zone widths across animal diversity: Implications for species borders under incomplete reproductive isolation

Jay McEntee, J. Gordon Burleigh & Sonal Singhal
Hybrid zones occur as range boundaries for many animal taxa. One model for how hybrid zones form and stabilize is the tension zone model, a version of which predicts that hybrid zone widths are determined by a balance between random dispersal into hybrid zones and selection against hybrids. Here, we examine whether random dispersal and proxies for selection against hybrids (genetic distances between hybridizing pairs) can explain variation in hybrid zone widths across 131 hybridizing...

Functional trait table for mixed-species flocking birds in the Western Andes of Colombia

Harrison Jones & Scott Robinson
These data represent functional traits relevant to the foraging ecology and habitat preferences of mixed-species flock joining bird species from the Western Andes of Colombia. We collected these data based on published data for the species from the Handbook of the Birds Alive online database (del Hoyo et al. 2020), supplemented with additional natural history references were available, with the objective of calculating the functional richness contained in mixed-species flock compositions sampled across a patch...

Data from: Interaction networks of avian mixed-species flocks along elevation in the tropical Andes

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas
Ecological communities are comprised of species that interact with each other and those interactions ultimately generate community structure. Network theory provides a useful framework to study communities, by simultaneously considering species composition and the interactions among species. In this study, I use mixed-species flocks as model systems to gain insights on community and network structure. Specifically, I use co-occurrence network analyses to explore if avian mixed-species flocks change in richness and composition and/or in network...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Florida
  • United States Geological Survey
  • University of California, Davis
  • Michigan State University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • John Carroll University
  • Rice University
  • University of Georgia
  • McGill University
  • Florida Museum of Natural History