149 Works

Data from: Testis asymmetry in birds: the influences of sexual and natural selection

Sara Calhim & Robert Montgomerie
Gonad size and shape asymmetries are particularly common in birds. Although some obvious size and shape differences between the left and right testes in birds were first documented more than a century ago, little is known about what influences the variation across species in either the degree or the direction of these asymmetries. Here we show that a left bias in size is the most likely ancestral state in most orders and families, and that...

Data from: Genetic consequences of population expansions and contractions in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) since the Late Pleistocene

Céline Stoffel, Christophe Dufresnes, John B. A. Okello, Christian Noirard, Pierre Joly, Silvester Nyakaana, Vincent B. Muwanika, Nicolas Alcala, Séverine Vuilleumier, Hans R. Siegismund & Luca Fumagalli
Over the past two decades, an increasing amount of phylogeographic work has substantially improved our understanding of African biogeography, in particular the role played by Pleistocene pluvial–drought cycles on terrestrial vertebrates. However, still little is known on the evolutionary history of semi-aquatic animals, which faced tremendous challenges imposed by unpredictable availability of water resources. In this study, we investigate the Late Pleistocene history of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence...

Data from: Does kin selection moderate sexual conflict in Drosophila?

Adam K. Chippindale, Meredith Berggren, Joshua H. M. Alpern & Robert Montgomerie
Two recent studies provide provocative experimental findings about the potential influence of kin recognition and cooperation on the level of sexual conflict in Drosophila melanogaster. In both studies, male fruit flies apparently curbed their mate-harming behaviours in the presence of a few familiar or related males, suggesting some form of cooperation mediated by kin selection. In one study, the reduction in agonistic behaviour by brothers apparently rendered them vulnerable to dramatic loss of paternity share...

Data from: Leafing intensity and the fruit size/number trade-off in woody angiosperms

Sarah L. Dombroskie, Amanda J. Tracey & Lonnie W. Aarssen
A sample of woody angiosperm species was used to test a central prediction of the ‘leafing intensity premium’ hypothesis: higher leafing intensity (number of leaves produced per unit dry mass of shoot vegetative tissue produced in the same growing season) confers a larger bud bank (i.e. number of axillary meristems per unit shoot tissue) that can be deployed for reproduction, and thus confers generally greater fruit numbers, and hence higher potential fecundity allocation (i.e. fecundity...

Data from: Recent Warming, Rather than Industrial Emissions of Bioavailable Nutrients, is the Dominant Driver of Lake Primary Production Shifts across the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

Jamie C. Summers, Joshua Kurek, Jane L. Kirk, Derek CG. Muir, Xiaowa Wang, Johan A. Wiklund, Colin A. Cooke, Marlene S. Evans, John P. Smol & Derek C. G. Muir
Freshwaters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) are vulnerable to the atmospheric emissions and land disturbances caused by the local oil sands industry; however, they are also affected by climate change. Recent observations of increases in aquatic primary production near the main development area have prompted questions about the principal drivers of these limnological changes. Is the enhanced primary production due to deposition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from local industry or from recent...

Data from: Fitness consequences of altered feeding behavior in immune-challenged mosquitoes

Johanna R. Ohm, Janet Teeple, William A. Nelson, Matthew B. Thomas, Andrew F. Read & Lauren J. Cator
Background: Malaria-infected mosquitoes have been reported to be more likely to take a blood meal when parasites are infectious than when non-infectious. This change in feeding behavior increases the likelihood of malaria transmission, and has been considered an example of parasite manipulation of host behavior. However, immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli induces the same behavior, suggesting that altered feeding behavior may be driven by adaptive responses of hosts to cope with an immune response,...

Data from: Resource limitation prevents the emergence of drug resistance by intensifying within-host competition

Nina Wale, Derek G. Sim, Matthew J. Jones, Rahel Salathe, Troy Day & Andrew F. Read
Slowing the evolution of antimicrobial resistance is essential if we are to continue to successfully treat infectious diseases. Whether a drug-resistant mutant grows to high densities, and so sickens the patient and spreads to new hosts, is determined by the competitive interactions it has with drug-susceptible pathogens within the host. Competitive interactions thus represent a good target for resistance management strategies. Using an in vivo model of malaria infection, we show that limiting a resource...

Data from: Noise affects resource assessment in an invertebrate

Erin P. Walsh, Gareth Arnott & Hansjoerg P. Kunc
Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating...

Data from: Environmental DNA surveys help to identify winter hibernacula of a temperate freshwater turtle

Wenxi Feng, Grégory Bulté & Stephen C. Lougheed
Background and aims Overwintering is a critical part of the annual cycle of animals living at high latitudes, and selection of overwintering sites (hibernacula) is important to population persistence. Identifying the overwintering sites of aquatic species is challenging in areas where water bodies are frozen for significant parts of the year. We tested whether environmental DNA (eDNA) approaches could help to locate them. Materials and methods We conducted environmental DNA surveys of underwater overwintering sites...

Data from: Extra-pair offspring are less heterozygous than within-pair offspring in American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla)

Adrianne Hajdasz, Ann E. McKellar, Laurene M. Ratcliffe, Peter T. Boag, Peter P. Marra & Matthew W. Reudink
The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous; however, extra-pair paternity is nearly ubiquitous and a number of theories have been proposed to explain the prevalence of this mixed mating strategy. Here, we test the genetic compatibility hypothesis—the idea that females that are genetically similar to their social partners will mate with extra-pair males that are genetically dissimilar to produce offspring that are more heterozygous. For this study, we examined eight years of paternity...

Data from: Genetic structure and diversity among historic and modern populations of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

Jessica R. Brandt, Peter J. Van Coeverden De Groot, Kelsey E. Witt, Paige K. Engelbrektsson, Kristofer M. Hegen, Ripan S. Malhi, Oliver A. Ryder, Alfred L. Roca & Kristofer M Helgen
The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), once widespread across Southeast Asia, now consists of as few as 30 individuals within Sumatra and Borneo. To aid in conservation planning, we sequenced 218 bp of control region mitochondrial (mt) DNA, identifying 17 distinct mitochondrial haplotypes across modern (N = 13) and museum (N = 26) samples. Museum specimens from Laos and Myanmar had divergent mtDNA, consistent with the placement of western mainland rhinos into the distinct subspecies D....

Data from: Asymmetric interactions and their consequences for vital rates and dynamics: the smaller tea tortrix as a model system

William A. Nelson, Barbara Joncour, Dami Pak & Ottar N. Bjørnstad
Asymmetric interactions among conspecifics can have diverse effects on population dynamics including stabilization, generation of cycles and induction of chaotic fluctuations. A difficult challenge, however, is establishing the link between the impact of asymmetric interactions on life history and the consequences for population dynamics. The smaller tea tortrix, Adoxophyes honmai, is a good example. Larval instars differ dramatically in size and have a tendency for cannibalism, which suggests the potential for strong asymmetric interactions among...

Data from: Species interactions limit the occurrence of urban-adapted birds in cities

Paul R. Martin & Frances Bonier
Urbanization represents an extreme transformation of more natural systems. Populations of most species decline or disappear with urbanization, and yet some species persist and even thrive in cities. What determines which species persist or thrive in urban habitats? Direct competitive interactions among species can influence their distributions and resource use, particularly along gradients of environmental challenge. Given the challenges of urbanization, similar interactions may be important for determining which species persist or thrive in cities;...

Data from: Resident species with larger size metrics do not recruit more offspring from the seed bank in old-field meadow vegetation

Amanda Tracey & Lonnie Aarssen
1. According to the traditional ‘Size Advantage’ (SA) hypothesis, plant species with larger body size are expected to be more successful when competition is intense, i.e. within severely crowded vegetation. Recent studies in old-field habitats, however, have shown that those species with greater numerical abundance as resident plants generally have a relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN), not a relatively large maximum potential body size (MAX). 2. In this study, we test for a...

Gene expression data of Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa initiation of symbiosis

Alessio Mengoni, George DiCenzo, Camilla Fagorzi, Rui Huang, Giovanni Bacci, Alice Checcucci, Chiara Natali, Lisa Cangioli, Margherita Fini & Elena Perrin
Rhizobia are ecologically important, facultative plant symbiotic microbes. In nature there exists large variability in the association of rhizobial strains and host plants of the same species. Here, we evaluated whether plant and rhizobial genotypes influence the initial transcriptional response of rhizobium following perception of host plant. RNA-sequencing of the model rhizobium Sinorhizobium meliloti exposed to root exudates or luteolin was performed in a combination of three S. meliloti strains and three Medicago sativa varieties....

Data from: Plasticity versus evolutionary divergence: what causes habitat partitioning in urban-adapted birds?

Paul Martin, Kevin Burke & Frances Bonier
Habitat partitioning can facilitate the coexistence of closely related species, and often results from competitive interference inducing plastic shifts of subordinate species in response to aggressive, dominant species (plasticity), or the evolution of ecological differences in subordinate species that reduce their ability to occupy habitats where the dominant species occurs (evolutionary divergence). Evidence consistent with both plasticity and evolutionary divergence exist, but the relative contributions of each to habitat partitioning have been difficult to discern....

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

The microevolutionary response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution in Drosophila melanogaster reflects macroevolutionary patterns

Jessica Abbott, Adam Chippindale & Ted Morrow
Due to its hemizygous inheritance and role in sex determination, the X chromosome is expected to play an important role in the evolution of sexual dimorphism, and to be enriched for sexually antagonistic genetic variation. By forcing the X chromosome to only be expressed in males over >40 generations, we changed the selection pressures on the X to become similar to those experienced by the Y. This releases the X from any constraints arising from...

Data from: Long term persistence of experimental populations beyond a species’ natural range

Regan Cross & Christopher Eckert
Ecological experiments usually infer long-term processes from short-term data, and the analysis of geographic range limits is a good example. Species’ geographic ranges may be limited by low fitness due to niche constraints, a hypothesis most directly tested by comparing the fitness of populations transplanted within and beyond the range. Such studies often fail to find beyond-range fitness declines strong enough to conclude that geographic range limits are solely imposed by niche limits. However, almost...

A Benchmark Data Set for Hydrogen Combustion

Akshaya Das, Christopher J. Stein, Farnaz Heidar-Zadeh, Luke Bertels, Meili Liu, Xingyi Guan, Mojtaba Haghighatlari, Jie Li, Oufan Zhang, Hongxia Hao, Itai Leven, Martin Head-Gordon & Teresa Head-Gordon

Data from: Partitioning resources through the seasons: abundance and phenology of carrion beetles (Silphidae) in southeastern Ontario

Jillian Wettlaufer, Kevin Burke, David Beresford & Paul Martin
The coexistence of ecologically similar species is thought to require resource partitioning to minimize competition. Phenological, seasonal differences in activity may provide an important axis for resource partitioning. Here, we test for evidence of seasonal differences in activity within a diverse guild of carrion beetles (Silphidae) in a habitat preserve on the Frontenac Arch, southeastern Ontario, Canada using a large-scale survey during their active seasons (April to October). We then used generalized additive models to...

Air temperature data recorded in a shaded area near the shore of the study site Laguna Toreadora (3,920 m asl) from August 2014 to September 2016 using a HOBO Water Temperature Pro v2 Data Logger.

Neal Michelutti
Air temperature data (°C) recorded in a shaded area near the shore of the study site Laguna Toreadora (S 02° 46.792”, W 079° 13.411”; 3,920 m asl) in Cajas National Park, Ecuador from August 2014 to September 2016 using a HOBO Water Temperature Pro v2 Data Logger. Air temperatures were recorded hourly over this period, with an interruption in data collection from May to July 2015.

Additional file 2 of A standardized nomenclature for mammalian histone genes

Ruth L. Seal, Paul Denny, Elspeth A. Bruford, Anna K. Gribkova, David Landsman, William F. Marzluff, Monica McAndrews, Anna R. Panchenko, Alexey K. Shaytan & Paul B. Talbert
Additional file 2. List of human histone proteins from the Histone Sequence Database for every histone gene, the available set of transcript and coding sequence GENCODE annotations were obtained from the Ensembl 105 database. Next, only protein-coding transcripts identical between Ensembl automated annotation and HAVANA manual curation were retained. In those cases where several transcripts of one gene correspond to the same amino acid protein sequence, only one record was retained with preference given to...

Experimental reduction of haemosporidian infection affects maternal reproductive investment, parental behaviour, and offspring condition

Ivana Schoepf, Sarena Olson, Ignacio T. Moore & Frances Bonier
When hosts have a long coevolutionary history with their parasites, fitness costs of chronic infection have often been assumed to be negligible. Yet, experimental manipulation of infections sometimes reveals effects of parasites on their hosts, particularly during reproduction. Whether these effects translate into fitness costs remains unclear. Here, we present the results of an experimental study conducted in a free-ranging population of red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) naturally experiencing a high prevalence of haemosporidian infections, with...

Additional file 1 of Health effects of Indigenous language use and revitalization: a realist review

D. H. Whalen, Melissa E. Lewis, Stefanie Gillson, Brittany McBeath, Bri Alexander & Kate Nyhan
Additional file 1.

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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • Queen's University
    149
  • University of Ottawa
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  • United States National Library of Medicine
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